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The manual training work in the primary schools is as follows:
First year (ages 7 to 8 years).-Girls: Sewing, preparatory exercises, employment of the needle and thimble; practice on coarse goods in the different kinds of stitches-the running stitch, side-stitch, seam-stitch, whip-stitch, backstitch, cross-stitch; seams and hems, making a small sheet with a hem, drawing through on canvas. Boys: Exercises in platting, folding, and interweaving; cutting up pieces of colored paper and forming them into geometrical designs.
Second year (ages 8 to 9 years).-Girls: Knitting, executing a strip of thirty meshes, right and left meshes; sewing, repetition of first year's work, sewing bias, sewing with the running stitch, stitching on canvas, making an infant's chemise. Boys: Cutting paper and cardboard in the form of geometrical solids; combination work by means of colored worsted on canvas or paper.
Third year (ages 9 to 10 years).-Girls: Knitting an average size stocking, repairing stockings, right meshes, darning; sewing, repetition of previous year's work, work by means of the backstitch, stitching on cloth, making a chemise for a child of 2 or 3 years of age. Boys: Constructing cardboard objects lined or covered with colored paper; wire work, trellises, geometrical solids.
Fourth year (ages 10 to 11 years).-Girls: Knitting stockings, repetition of previous year's work, continuation of repairs on stockings; back. stitch work on the bias, hemming linen pieces, making a child's apron, princess shape, for a child of 3 years. Boys: Construction of simple objects of cardboard; wire work.
Fifth year (ages 11 to 12 years).-Girls: Knitting, executing different patterns, continuation of stocking mending, darning holes, etc.; sewing, repetition of previous work, buttonholes, gathering, folding regular plaits by means of a pin or needle, darning cloth, making pillow slips with buttons and buttonholes, elementary exercises in cutting. Boys: Sketching objects and making them from the sketches; notions of the most useful tools, study of the principal tools used in wood work, planing and sawing wood, simple joining, nailed boxes and other joined work, objects made of wood and cardboard, constructing objects from side sketches.
Sixth year (ages 12 to 13 years).—Girls: Knitting, theory of stocking knitting; crocheting, theory and study of the various meshes; sewing, repetition of previous work, hemming, wristbands and cuffs, open worked hems, ornamental stitches, chain-stitches, etc.; application of the various stitches in embroidery; making an apron with a waistband, wristbands, and adorned by means of the different fancy stitches; small plaits, repairing and mending useful objects; exersises in cutting and finishing. Boys: Further development of fifth year's work.
After finishing their studies at the primary schools boys who desire to follow an artistic, industrial, or a commercial profession, or to enter an industrial school later on, attend the two years' course at the manual training school. The work in this school closely resembles that in American schools. Here the manual training is continued from the primary schools, together with some of the other studies, as shown in the following table of subjects and the distribution of the hours of instruction per week:
The manual training in this school is as follows:
First year.–Properties of raw materials used in the work; the tools, their names, uses, and care; wood work—the various kinds of wood used in the industries, their classification, native and foreign wood, resinous woods, fine wood, hard and soft wood, their qualities and their defects, their uses; exercises in sawing in straight and parallel lines according to given directions (for instance, constructing a pine wood frame); joining-tenons, mortises, dovetailing, joining by means of slit and tongue; employment of these systems of joining in the execution of work; all work must be done from drawings.
Second year.–Continuation and further development of last year's work; lathe work, nature and care of tools, cutting of bodies in rotation; executing objects having cylindrical, conical, and spherical surfaces; iron and brass work, nature and care of tools, exercises in
the use of the flat and square files; pupils must construct all their work from drawings.
Pupils who graduate from this school are eligible for admission to the industrial art school, the watchmaking school, the school of mechanics, the school of fine arts, the school of commerce, and the technical and pedagogic sections of the gymnasium of Geneva.
These institutions being the most important for the training of workingmen and women and for fitting them for their vocations, much more attention has been given to them than to the other classes of industrial schools. As they differ greatly one from another in their organizations, programmes, aims, etc., they can best be described separately.
A striking feature of Swiss schools is the well considered specialization of the instruction which they impart. Science, art, literature, and language are studied, not as an end but a means, with an ulterior object in view—a utilitarian object, it is true, but clearly defined and openly avowed. Every branch of knowledge is prized and gauged according to its direct value in its applicability to some trade or gainful occupation. This explains the generosity with which these special schools are supported. The object is kept coustantly in view to build up new industries or to extend those already established. The expenditures are made in accordance with strict business principles-it being believed that such expenditures have been the direct means of bringing into the country millions of capital.
SCHOOL OF WATCHMAKING AND MECHANICS, LOCLE.
This school was founded in 1868, and is a municipal institution. Its object is 6 to offer to young men who wish to devote themselves to the watchmaking industry, and also to workingmen who wish to complete their education, the means of making an apprenticeship thorough, and of acquiring such knowledge as they may have to utilize.”
The course of study of the division for watchmaking comprises the manufacture of the various kinds of watches and all other work relating to the profession, also theoretical instruction; it covers three years. The practical work includes, successively, the manufacture of tools used in watchmaking, the rough work without the barrel or spring box, the rough work with the barrel, the mechanisms for winding, the wheel work, cylinder escapements, anchor escapements, adjusting and regulating. The work done includes key and stem-winders of various kinds, repeaters, watches indicating dates and phases of the moon, chronometers, and other complicated pieces. The theoretical work comprises: First year-algebra, elementary geometry, descriptive geometry, metallurgy, technical drawing, and theory of watchmaking; second yearalgebra, geometry, trigonometry, industrial mechanics, technical drawing, and theory of watchmaking; third year-algebra, general mechanics, physics, electrotechnics, technical drawing, and theory of watchmaking
8. Ex. 65- 33
The course of study of the division for mechanics comprises the manufacture of the various tools and machinery used in the watchmaking industry, and also other fine apparatus. The theoretical instruction is the same as in the division for watchmaking. This course comprises also three years. The practical work done includes, among other things, all kinds of smaller tools, steel rules and squares, compasses, tools for cutting and boring, screw gauges, various tools used in turning, measuring instruments, anvils for watchmakers, piercing and grooving machines, lathes, machines for cutting wheels, for stamping, and for polishing, etc.; also repairing all kinds of watchmaking tools and machinery.
The school is in session every day except on Sundays and holidays. There is no vacation. The work continues from 7 a. m. in summer and 8 a. m. in winter until 7 p. m., with an intermission of one and one-half hours at noon for dinner. About nine hours per week are devoted to theoretical instruction. All the other time is spent in the performance of practical work.
The teaching personnel consists of a director of the watchmaking school, who is also instructor of adjusting and regulating, theoretical work, and drawing; a director of the division for mechanics, who is also instructor of theoretical work and drawing; a teacher for the class in finishing; a teacher for the class in escapements; a teacher for the class in mounting the wheel work; a teacher for the class in rough work; a foreman for the division for mechanics, making a total of 7 persons.
At the close of the session of 1890–91 there were 40 pupils in the watchmaking division, and 11 pupils in the division for mechanics. Of the former 32 were Swiss, and 8 were foreigners. At the close of the year they were occupied as follows: Two, tool making; 2, rough work without the spring box; 3, rough work with the spring box; 11, the mechanisms for winding; 8, wheel work; 1, cylinder escapements; 10, anchor escapements; and 3, finishing.
The total number of persons who have graduated from the watchmaking division since the founding of the school is 388. The number who have graduated from the division for mechanics is 3.
The latest statistics obtainable relating to the present occupation of former pupils are for the twenty years ending 1888. Up to this time 275 pupils had graduated.
OCCUPATIONS OF EX-STUDENTS OF THE WATCHMAKING SCHOOL, LOCLE.
They were located as follows: At Locie, 79; in the same canton (Neuchâtel), 30; other parts of Switzerland, 32; other European countries, 76; outside of Europe, 40; deceased, 18.
The administration of the school is intrusted to a board appointed by the general municipal council. Each year this committee or board makes a detailed report to the council of the progress of the school. Inspectors of the cantonal and federal governments can take part in conducting the examinations, and can examine the expenditures of the institution.
The expenses of the school are defrayed as follows: By tuitions; by interest on the capital; and when needed by subsidies from the canton, the federal government, and from appropriations out of the city treasury. A special permanent fund is provided by donations, the interest of which is utilized for scholarships to persons of small means.
During the year 1890 the income and expenditures were as follows:
250.90 1, 636.87 672.35
61.33 1, 191, 19 1,487.91
The tuition for regular pupils is 15 francs ($2.90) per month for natives of Switzerland and 30 francs (85.79) per month for foreigners. Pupils who take a course in adjusting and regulating only pay a