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CLASSIFICATION OF SCHOOLS.
Institutions for industrial education, including those where manual work is taught, in Switzerland may be divided into the following classes:
Classes in manual training, comprehending needlework for girls, and pasteboard and wood work for boys (sloid system); trade schools for male apprentices, which include watchmaking schools, carpenter workshops, shoemaking workshops, schools for metal workers, schools for wood carving, and schools for weaving; industrial schools for women, which include schools for needlework and ladies' tailoring, housekeeping schools, and schools for servants; industrial art schools (either sex), which are schools having classes in pattern designing for the textiles, modelling, ceramics, engraving, sculpture, etc.
Institutions for the further development of working people of both sexes, under which name are included schools for professional improvement, workingmen's schools, and industrial drawing schools.
Higher technical schools-Cantonal Technical School at Winterthur, canton Zurich, comprising schools for builders, mechanical and electrical engineers, and surveyors of industrial arts and of commerce; Federal Polytechnic School at Zurich, comprising schools for architects and builders, civil engineers, foresters, chemists, engineers of construction and of agriculture, a mechanical technical school, a school for special teachers of mathematics and natural philosophy, and in addition special courses of lectures on art, history, political science, military science, literature, languages, mathematics, natural sciences, and technical branches.
Industrial and art museums.
Kindergartens in Switzerland, exist mostly as private institutions, supported by tuitions, societies, donated funds, and contributions from the states or communities. In canton Geneva, where kindergartens are state institutions, no tuitions are required, aud the instruction forms part of the educational system of the public schools. There is a gradual advance from kindergarten work to manual training. In other cantons the kindergartens are generally independent of each other and of the public schools, and differ greatly in their systems of instruction and in the manner of their support. In nearly all the Swiss kindergartens the Froebel materials are used together with other subjects, such as elementary studies, object lessons, games, etc. The age for admission varies greatly in the different kindergartens, ranging generally from 2, 3, and 4 to 5, 6, and 7 years, the average being about from 3 to 6 years. The latest statistics collected regarding kindergartens in Switzerland are for the year 1889 by M. Grob, secretary of public instruetion at Zurich. They are as follows:
Manual training schools like those of the better class in the high school grade in the United States do not exist in Switzerland. What is called manual training for boys is more like advanced kindergarten work, than training which tends to make pupils more proficient in the trades. It consists of the execution of cardboard and simple wood work, somewhat on the plan of the sloid system. Sheets of cardboard are prepared and cut into the necessary forms, and then by means of paste and colored paper they are transformed into little useful articles, commencing with simple cubes, plain boxes, lids, etc., and advancing gradually to more complicated pieces, such as paper shelves, match boxes, picture frames, card baskets, pen boxes, etc. The wood work consists of simple work with the knife, the chisel, the saw, the plane, and the hammer. They begin generally with simple work with the knife, such as making penholders, salad spoons, etc., later, rules, shelves, boxes, dovetailing work, receivers for inkstands, etc. No attempt seems to be made to prepare the pupils for any profession, the idea being simply to give the boys an idea of and a taste for such work as may be useful for them to understand in their own homes, and in general to make them more proficient in the use of their hands. Manual training is also looked upon as a profitable and pleasant recreation and a means of keeping the boys from the streets. The classes in manual training are generally held after school hours and are outside and independent of the school programmes.
Manual training classes for boys exist at the present time in the cantons Grisons, Saint Gall, Appenzell, Thurgau, Schaffhausen, Zurich, Aargau, Basel, Soleure, Bern, Neuchâtel, Freyburg, Vaud, Glarus, and Geneva, over one-half of the cantons. In the cantons Vaud and Neuchâtel the state contributes 200 francs ($38.60) per year and furnishes the materials whenever a school or class for manual training is organized. In Bern the state pays 100 francs ($19.30) per year toward the expense of each class. In Geneva all expenses are paid out of the public funds, and manual training is compulsory for all male pupils at all public schools. The latest statistics collected on the subject of manual training are the following for 1889:
Vaud, Neuchâtel, Appenzell, Freyburg, and Glarus each have several classes, but the statistics are not available.
Boys attending manual training classes are generally from 9 to 13 years of age.
Manual training for boys in Switzerland is yet in its infancy, having been introduced but a few years ago. It has not existed long enough, nor has it developed sufficiently, to have shown any appreciable effect upon the proficiency of pupils as workingmen. This opinion is expressed by the leading teachers of manual training, as well as by those who employ skilled labor. The teachers of manual training are everywhere working zealously for the development of the work. Every year, during vacation time, a class for manual training teachers is held at one of the cities of Switzerland, and these classes are well attended. The first class of this kind at Basel in 1884 was attended by 40 persons, while at the last meeting at Chaux-de-Fonds in 1891 there were over 100 participants, including several foreigners. Tho meetings or classes are under the direction of M. Rudin, the gentleman who introduced the system of manual training into Switzerland.
Manual training for girls, such as needlework, knitting, darning, mending, etc., bas existed in Switzerland for many years, and in most cantons it is considered as one of the most important branches of study for girls. In nearly all cantons this instruction is compulsory.
The following table gives a fair idea of the nature and extent of this work in Switzerland:
3 3 to 6 Yes... Knitting, sewing, mending, and cut
ting 3 3 to 6 Yes... Knitting, sewing, niending, cutting,
and tinishing garments. 43
Yos... Knitting, sowing, mending, cutting,
and finisbing garments.
No.... Plain needlework. 54
Yes... All kinds of plain needlework, and
All kinds of plain needlework.
ing. 621 to 6 Yes... Plain needlework. 3° to 45 Yes... Knitting, sewing, mending, cutting,
and preparing garments. 7 4 to 6 Yes... Knitting, sewing, mending, drawing,
cutting, and housekeeping duties. 8 4 to 6 Yes... Knitting, sewing, mending, cutting,
and finishing. 54 to 6 Yes... Knitting, sewing, mending, cutting,
and finishing 64 to 8 Yes... Knitting, sewing, mending, and cut
ting. 6 3
Yes... Knitting, sewing, mending, cutting,
crocheting, and lectures on house
keeping. 3 No.... Knitting, sewing, mending, cutting,
and lectures on housekeeping and
Yes... Knitting, sewing, mending, technical
drawing, and lectures on house.
No.... Knitting, sewing, mending, drawing,
and cutting. 6 3 to 6 Yes... Knitting, sewing, mending, finishing
garments, and lectures on house
keeping. 6 6
Yes... Knitting, sewing, mending, cutting,
technical drawing, and lectures on
Yes... Plain needlework, and lectures on
housekeeping. 9 3 to 6 Yes... Plain needlework, and lectures on
No... Plain sewing, etc. 9 2 to 4 Yes... Plain needlework, and lectures on
housekeeping. 6 6
Yes... Plain needlework, and lectures on
- In canton Zurich manual training for girls at the age of 9, and from 13 to 15 years, is optional; in Basel Land it is optional from 14 to 16 years of age; and in canton Lucerne it is optional during the thirteenth and fourteenth years.
The maximum number of pupils in a class in any canton is 30. The materials for work are generally furnished by the school authorities or communities. Where this is not done the pupils contribute the money for the purchases. Instruction everywhere is gratuitous.
KINDERGARTENS AND MANUAL TRAINING, GENEVA. As Geneva is the only canton in which the kindergartens and instruction in manual training for both sexes are considered as parts of the regular system of public instruction, the following translation of parts of the official programme is given to show the connection between them:
PROGRAMME OF KINDERGARTENS.
Inferior division (ages 3 to 5 years).-Intuitive instruction by means of the Froebel materials. Ethical talks: simple conversations with the children, with a view to developing them morally and intellectually, and correcting bad habits. Object lessons: conversations for the purpose of acquainting the children with the names of objects, plants, and animals familiar to them. The first year the object lessons are given in conjunction with the ethical talks. Native language: exercises in language, in which children are taught the meaning of the terms “words” and “phrases," to find them and to use them. These exercises always follow the object lessons. Penmanship: preparatory exercises in making letters. Arithmetic: counting by means of the Froebel materials; calculating up to 6; dividing the whole into halves and quarters. Geometry: elementary geometrical ideas by means of the Froebel materials. Drawing: first year, children are prepared for drawing by means of the Froebel materials; second year, first attempts in drawing-cubes, little surface figures, etc., are arranged by dots on the slate, which the children complete by connecting the dots with lines. Singing: simple melodies with easy words. Intuitive instruction in measure. Gymnastics: movements and games; marches, rounds, and ball playing.
Superior division (ages 5 to 7 years).-Intuitive instruction by means of the Froebel materials. Ethical talks: conversations, of which the essential object will be to develop in the children sentiments of affection, conscience, a love of work and of duty. Object lessons: narratives, conversations, and explanations, giving the pupils ideas of the scientific elements of objects, plants, or animals of the country. The teachers will aim to develop in the children a spirit of observation, reflection, and judgment. Native language: lessons preparatory to reading; exercises of analysis, by which pupils are taught to recognize and find the words, syllables, and sounds. Study of vowel and consonant sounds. Reading simple syllables, words, and short easy phrases. Reproduction, orally and in writing, of words and phrases. Little oral exercises of composition. Penmanship: elementary exercises with the pencil, advancing gradually from letters to syllables and short words, to be written from clictation. Proparatory exercises with pen and ink. Arithmetic: exercises of calculation by means of the Froebel materials. The four fundamental rules of arithmetic up to 10; calc ulations, oral and written; division of the whole into halves, fourths, and eighths; little oral problems; writing numbers up to 20. Geometry: notions of geometry by means of the Froebel materials; points, lines, surfaces, solids. Drawing: third year, continuation of the previous exercises by means of dotted cubes, squares, etc., ornamental designs obtained by combining straight lines (made by means of rules or by tracing), designs containing curved lines, composition, drawing from memory; fourth year, dividing lines into 2, 4, 8, 3, and 6 equal parts, application of these divisions to ornamental designs, combining straight and curved lines, geometrical figures, triangles, squares, rectangles, drawing common objects, drawing letters and printed characters, first attempts at drawing foliage. Singing: exercises of intonation; the scale of C; harmony; songs of one and two parts; melodies and easy songs. Gymnastics: movements and games; marches, rounds, and ball playing. Needlework: preparatory exercises in sewing.
In the primary schools which follow these the same studies are continued and others gradually added, as will be seen in the following table of subjects and the distribution of the hours of instruction per week: