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PRESENT STATUS OF INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION IN SWITZERLAND.
The constitution of the Swiss confederation permits the federal congress to establish and to support, in addition to a university and a polytechnic school, other higher technical institutions. It leaves to the cantons the primary education of the children, giving them the exclusive direction of the primary schools. It directs, however, that such education must be obligatory, and, in the public schools, gratuitous, and that all pupils must be permitted to attend the public schools without prejudice to their liberty of belief and conscience. The constitution also authorizes the confederation to make uniform regulations regarding the employment of children in factories.
On June 27, 1884, a resolution was adopted by the federal congress granting subsidies, under certain conditions, to all institutions for professional and industrial education that desired to accept such aid. It resulted in the establishment of new, and the development of existing, institutions, and has given a great impetus to industrial education throughout the country. Since the adoption of the resolution the number of trade schools has been nearly doubled, and other industrial institutions, such as drawing schools, workingmen's evening schools, industrial art schools, etc., have greatly increased in number and efficiency. The following is a translation of the text of the resolution and of the regulations for enforcing the same:
ARTICLE 1. For the purpose of advancing professional and industrial education the confederation will grant subsidies out of its treasury to any institutions that are or will be established for such objects. When any of these institutions have other objects aside from professional and industrial education, as, for instance, general education, the federal contribution will be made only for the former branch.
ART. 2. The following are regarded as institutions for industrial and professional education:
The workingmen's schools, the schools for professional improvement, and industrial drawing schools, even if these are in connection with the public schools, the higher industrial and professional schools, the art schools, the trade schools, collections of patterns, models, and other materials for technical instruction, and professional and industrial museums.
ART. 3. The confederation can also contribute toward paying for lectures and prizes in connection with professional and industrial edu. cation.
ART. 4. The federal subsidies may, according to the judgment of the federal council, amount to one-balf of the suin provided by the cantons, communities, corporations, and private individuals.
ART. 5. The federal council (Bundesrath) will call upon the cantonal governments for detailed information regarding the uses made of the sums mentioned in article 4; it will take cognizance of the progress of the institutions, and will require the receipt of programmes of instruction, reports, and results of examinations. In determining the federal subsidy special consideration must be made for institutions which educate teachers for professional and industrial instruction, and particularly institutions where drawing teachers for the workingmen's schools and the schools for professional improvement are educated.
The confederation shares, in the same measure, the expenses for educating candidates for teachers at the institutions named in article 2.
ART. 6. The federal council will negotiate with the cantons regard. ing the conditions on which the confederation will participate in the professional and industrial education, and it will make the final arrangements with thein, by contract, if necessary.
ART. 7. The contributions of the confederation must not result in a diminution of the amounts contributed by the eantons, communities, corporations, or private individuals; they should result, on the contrary, in stimulating an increase of energy in the domain of professional and industrial education.
ART. 8. The confederation will set aside in its budget a credit of 150,000 francs ($28,950) for aiding professional and industrial education. This eredit may be increased when the need becomes apparent, and when the financial condition of the confederation permits it.
For the year 1884 a supplementary credit of 100,000 francs ($19,300) will be placed at the disposal of the federal council for this purpose.
ART. 9. The federal council is instructed to publish this resolution, and to fix the time when the same will go into effect, in conformity to the federal law of June 17, 1874, concerning popular voting on federal laws and resolutions.
The following are the regulations, adopted January 27, 1885, concerning the execution of the resolution relating to industrial and professional education:
The federal council of Switzerland, in executing the federal resolution of June 27, 1884, relating to professional and industrial education, resolves, at the suggestion of the Swiss department of commerce and agriculture, as follows:
ARTICLE 1. Requests for subsidies from the federal government for professional and industrial education must be made to the Swiss department of commerce and agriculture, and must be forwarded by the cantonal governments after the latter have examined the applications and found them worthy of consideration.
ART. 2. The first application made by any institution must contain: A. In reference to organization:
(1) The full name and location of the institution.
(4) A full description of the institution—statement relating to organization, arrangement of classes, object, management, attendance, and conditions of admission of pupils.
(5) All publications up to date of documents giving any informa
tion regarding the institution, such as laws, decrees, ordinances, regulations, programmes, statutes, annual reports, accounts, catalogues, etc. B. In reference to finances:
(1) A detailed account of income and expenditures during the last
(2) A detailed account of expense budget for the fiscal year for which
the subsidy is desired. These documents must contain accurate information of the contributions and other support from the cantons, communities, societies and corporations, and private sources, and the special uses made of these contribu
tions. (3) Statement relating to the dues, tuitions, admission fees, etc.,
required of persons attending the institution. (4) The proposed uses to be made of the federal subsidy; a detailed
account relating to the same. Expenditures which are contemplated for the first time during the coming fiscal year
must be distinctly specified. (5) Amount and value of property possessed by the institution. ART. 3. For schools and special classes the following will be required in addition: (1) Statement of the divisions of the scholastic year, the classes,
courses, etc., and the duration of each.
the distribution of the same in months,
weekly hours of session, arrangement of hours, etc. (4) Statement of number, sex, and required age of pupils. (5) Statement of the attendance of each branch of instruction, and
whether the same is obligatory or optional. (6) Information as to whether the institution trains teachers for
technical schools and how, especially drawing teachers for the workingmen's schools and the schools for professional im
provement. ART. 4. Applications for federal subsidies for collections named in article 2 of the federal resolution must be accompanied by the statutes, regulatious, and reports relating to the object of the collection, the right of access to the same, the patronage up to date, etc.
The statutes must designate clearly the disposition made of the ar. ticles provided by means of the federal subsidies, so as to make it possible to identify the saine in case of a discontinuance of the institution.
ART. 5. Applications for federal subsidies for lectures and prizes relating to professional and industrial education, and for distributing stipends to candidates for teachers of the institutions named in article 3 of the federal resolution, must be treated in the manner specified in article 1 above.
Stipends to candidates for teachers will be granted only on condition that the cantonal government grants like stipends. The federal stipend, in any case, can not exceed that of the canton. The recipient of a federal stipend obligates himself to report at least once every six months to the department of commerce and agriculture regardivg his progress and studies, and to connect himself at the end of his sturlies with one of the institutions mentioned in article 2 of the federal resolution.
ART. 6. Applications of existing institutions which already receive federal subsidies must contain: (1) A complete report of the progress, resources, and attendance
during the past fiscal year, and, in addition to the provisions of article 3 of these regulations, a brief characterization of
the results of examinations must be added. (2) A complete programme for the coming scholastic year. (3) The statements required in article 2, section B, of these regula
tions, and also a detailed account of the dispositions made
of the federal subsidies. (4) Printed annual reports, accounts, etc. ART. 7. Estimates for subsidies requested must not as a rule include: (1) Expenditures for general administration, office expenses, rent,
maintaining rooms or buildings, lighting, and fuel. (2) Expenses for school furnishings, furniture, cases, etc., for col
lections, and supplies (paper, etc.) for the use of pupils. The following may be included and subsidized: (1) Expenditures for raw materials, tools, apparatus for instruction
(in workshops, etc.), and collections. (2) Expenditures for certain Installationen for the special use of
the named institutions. The Swiss department of commerce and agriculture will examine each application and decide according to its merits.
ART. 8. Institutions receiving federal subsidies must furnish any further information to the department of commerce and agriculture that the latter may require.
ART. 9. The Swiss department of commerce and agriculture is empowered, subject to the approval of the federal council, to act upon the applications mentioned in article 1, remaining within the limits of the budget, and it will decide as to the amount of the subsidy to be given in each case.
ART. 10. The subsidies may, according to circumstances, amount to one-half of the total sums contributed annually by the cantons, communities, corporations, and private sources. The subsidies hitherto granted by the cantons and communities must not be diminished. In reference to the contributions of corporations and private sources the department of commerce and agriculture may, if it deems necessary, require a guaranty for a specified time.
ART. 11. An inventory of property purchased with the federal subsidies must be made each year and forwarded to the department of commerce and agriculture for examination and approval. The same must be made through the cantonal government, which will guarantee that the property will be used for public purposes should the institution to which the same belongs be discontinued. The cantonal governments will be held responsible for the correctness of the inventories.
ART. 12. The subsidized collections must be made accessible as much as possible, by loaning the articles to temporary exhibitions and private individuals, always on security, and by permitting the multiplication of the same by means of photography, copying, etc.
ART. 13. A federal subsidy may be granted for an entire course, extending over several years, with the reservation that the subsidy may be withdrawn in case the institution or course is discontinued before the end of the time, or when the course may not prove satisfactory.
ART. 14. The department of commerce and agriculture has the privilege of making at any time an inspection of the work of any institution subsidized by the confederation, either directly or by sending a delegate, and it may also be represented at the examinations.
For this purpose timely notice must be given of all examinations to be held.
The department of commerce and agriculture will prepare the instructions for its inspectors, in which their duties and compensations will be specified.
ART. 15. The present regulations take effect at once.
Institutions entitled to federal subsidies are divided into three classes by the department of commerce and agriculture: Trade schools (including schools for watchmaking and weaving, workshops for apprentices, pattern and model collections, etc.); industrial art institutions (schools and collections); workingmen's schools, drawing schools, and schools for professional improvement.
The department of commerce and agriculture appoints for each class from four to six inspectors (or experts) who represent the department at examinations, investigations, etc. At least once each year these inspectors have a conference for the discussion of special questions relating to their work (methods and plans of instruction, programmes, etc.), and for stimulating the advancement of the institutions placed under their supervision.
Following are the amounts of the federal subsidies paid during the year 1890 to the various kinds of industrial institutions: