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studies of five classes of real (non-classic) gymnasia, or of any other middle educational institution, the course of which will be regarded equal by the minister of public instruction.

(14) Persons not satisfying the above conditions are allowed to enter such schools if they have stayed at least two years in industrial works, and by their examination can prove that they can follow the course of the school in which they wish to enter. Before accepting such persons the directors must get information of them from the places where they worked.

(15) The full programme regarding the entrance into such schools, as well as the regulations regarding the passing from class to class, and graduating, is published by the ministry of public instruction.

(16) The industrial schools must have-a library, a cabinet of manuals for tracing and drawing (where possible), a special room for modelling, and the necessary books conformable to the specialty of the school. Besides this the schools must have the necessary facilities for practical studies, or the possibility for such guaranteed by private industrial firms.

(17) By permission of the minister boarding schools may be allowed at such industrial schools, provided they be superintended by the managers of the latter schools.

(18) The boarding schools are supported either by the government or by payments received from boarders, or by donations from communes, private people, etc.

(19) The formation of the control and management of boarding schools is appointed by special ministerial instructions.

(20) In industrial schools, supported by the government, the fees for studies are defined—for technical schools, by the ministry; for trade schools, by the curator of the educational district; for those established by private means the fees for studies are determined by those who support the schools.

(21) The composition (personal) and the order of managing industrial schools are defined by statutes published for such purposes, conformable to the necessities and to the statutes existing for general educational institutions of an equal grade.

(22) The teachers of religion are chosen by the school managers after being recommended by the local diocese; their appointment is confirmed by the curator of the educational district.

(23) The teachers of practical work are taken from among those who by their education have the right to occupy the place of teachers in real gymnasia. For trade schools the teachers of general educational studies are taken from among those who have received a technical or artistic education; the teachers of technical studies, technical tracing, and teachers of practical work, from among those who bave, at least, graduated from middle technical institutions.

(24) The teachers of religion, of mixed studies, of tracing and drawing, in the laboratory, and the masters having the title of mechanics are cousidered to be in active government service. The masters not hav. ing such titles, and also teachers of modelling, gymnastics, music, and dancing, in schools where these subjects are taught, are simply hired.

On the recommendation of the superintendent, approved by the curator of the educational district, all the teachers may be private; i. e., hired.)

(25) For increasing general educational knowledge and for the purpose of forming experienced technical school teachers, such schools may have supernumerary teachers.

S. Ex. 65-31

(26) Teachers of technical schools are appointed for service by the rules existing for non-classic gymnasia, and the trade teachers by those existing for town schools.

(27) The supernumerary teachers and master teachers in technical schools supported by the government are divided into four categories with the following salaries: 960, 1,200, 1,440, and 1,800 rubles ($530.88, $663.60, $796.32, and $995.40) in middle technical schools; 750, 900, 1,250, and 1,500 rubles ($414.75, $497.70, $691.25, and $529,50) in lower technical schools; each of these salaries is given for twelve lessons a week, for fifteen hours in directing the graphical studies, for twenty hours in laboratory work, and for twenty-five hours in practical work in the sliops, with a deduction for the hours which were not occupied conformable to the salary.

(28) Those re-entering the service as teachers in technical schools receive at the beginning the lowest salary, and only after five years' service in the same school can it be increased. The next salaries are given to those who have served more time in the school, and have displayed a useful service.

(299) For additional lessons or hours in technical schools the teachers receive an additional pay, which in middle technical schools is calculated at 75 rubles ($11.48) a year for each general educational study, at 60 rubles (833.18) for each graphical study, etc.

(330) Teachers of trade schools supported by the government receive a remuneration for teaching according to the number of hours occupied by them during the week; the lessons of religion and of special sciences are paid at 50 rubles ($27.65) for a yearly hour, and the general educational lessons at 40 rubles ($22.12), the payment for practical work being 25 rubles ($13.83) for the yearly hour.

(31) In each lower and middle technical school with one or two specialties there is appointed one supervisor, the middle school with three specialties has two supervisors, and the general technical school has four of them who are chosen from among the teachers. Such supervisors must assist the school authorities in controlling the conduct and success of scholars, and must also replace absent teachers.

(32) On combining several middle technical schools, in each of its sections is appointed a special person for controlling and teaching the specialty appertaining to such section.

(33) In industrial schools, in case of need, doetors may be appointed by the curator of the educational district, while in trade schools they may be chosen by the inspector and appointed by the director of public schools.

(34) At iudustrial schools, conformable to the grade and the number of their teachers, there may be formed pedagogical councils and household committees on regulations, which exist for other schools of the same standing.

(35) At industrial schools there may be appointed positions of honorary curators, and in trade schools honorary inspectors.

(36) These schools have the right to have a seal engraved with the government armories and the name of the school, to procure realties and accept all sorts of gifts, and to get from abroad articles of art, etc., exempted from duties.

(37) Arrests, etc.

(38) Persons teaching in government industrial schools are pensioned according to their grades.

(39) Graduates of middle fourth-class technical schools receive the name of techno-mechanic, conformable to the specialty. Graduates of such of these schools as have a course of studies of two or three years get the above name only after having served two or three years in industrial works.

(40) Those receiving the name of techno-mechanic, if they have no other higher rights, receive the title of honorable citizen, and also the right to enter higher technical schools of a corresponding nature.

(41) The graduates of middle technical schools, if they did not possess higher rights before entering these schools, have in regard to title and conscription the same rights as those graduating from middle general educational institutions. The graduates of lower technical and also of trade schools receive the rights given to persons of a corre. sponding education.

CHAPTER IX.

PRESENT STATUS OF INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION IN

SCANDINAVIAN COUNTRIES.

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