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Russia has no national system of elementary instruction-such school organization as exists in Finland, Poland, and the Baltic dependencies being of local and provincial origin. The government is understood, however, to have under consideration a scheme for promoting primary education. Meanwhile many of the manufacturers have established schools in connection with their works, and most railway companies maintain similar schools for the benefit of the children of their employés. The government also takes the utmost pains to promote the interests of manufactures and mechanical pursuits generally, by found. ing and subsidizing technical schools of a high order.

The imperial technical schools at Moscow and Saint Petersburg are richly endowed, and are reputed to be among the best equipped · of European schools of their class. But these are properly classed as professional schools.

Of the schools below the university rank in Moscow, which give manual instruction and yet make no attempt to teach a handicraft, the Komisarof Technical School is among the oldest and best. It was opened in 1866; two railroad contractors having originated the scheme for its establishment. The institution is aided by the govern. ment, and is attended by about 400 students. Boys are admitted at 11 years of age, if qualified, and remain five years.

The course of instruction by years is as follows:

First year.-Reading, writing, arithmetic to common fractions, grammar, German, geography, and drawing.

Second year.-Same subjects continued, Latin, Russian history, mathematical and mechanical drawing, and map drawing; workshop practice three hours daily.

Third year.–Some of the above subjects, algebra, physical geography, free-hand drawing, geometry, and conic sections.

Fourth year.—Mechanics, dynamics, history, elementary physics, mineralogy, and metallurgy.

Fifth year.—Trigonometry, magnetism and electricity, physics, properties of metals and woods, composition of stones, lime, mortar, machine construction, hydraulics, and bookkeeping.

The elements of botany and zoölogy are taught in all the classes.

Carpentry constitutes the workshop practice of the second and third years. Subsequently metal work takes the place of it. The equipment

of the workshops comprises 41 vises, 60 carpenters' benches, 30 foot lathes, 4 forges, etc.

Of the same kind, though on a smaller scale, is the Mechanical Handi. craft School of Moscow, founded by the Society for the Promotion of Technical Education. The instruction is much like that of the school just described. The government contributes about $1,000 annually to the support of this school. The course of study requires five years for its completion. Boys enter the school at 12 years of age.

The Strogonoff School of Technical Design and Museum of Art and Industry was founded in 1860 by Count Strogonoff in conjunction with the Emperor Nicholas. Drawing, modelling in clay, and designing of fabrics are the principal subjects of instruction. The Museum of Art and Industry, established in connection with this school, is characterized by Mr. Mather as “a sort of South Kensington in embryo."

ike Moscow, Saint Petersburg has its technological institute and other institutions of collegiate rank for the education of civil engineers, mining engineers, etc. But the city is also abundantly provided with secondary schools which do not train pupils for professions or specialties. Foremost among these is the Saint Petersburg Handicraft and Indus. trial School. This school is the outcome of an undertaking begun many years ago by the town authorities, with the aid of private indi. viduals, and under the patronage of the imperial family, having for its object the education of poor boys and orphans in the mechanic arts. Boys enter this school at the age of 12 years, and pursue a five years' course.

The studies comprise reading, writing, arithmetic, the Russian language, history, geography, natural history, elementary chemistry, mechanics and physics, technology of metals and woods, free-hand drawing, mechanical projection, singing, and gymnastics. Joinery, bootmaking, engraving, paper hanging, smiths' work, turning, planing, and shaping of metals constitute the various branches of workshop practice.

The teaching staff numbers 24 persons, 2 of whom are drawing teachers, and 3 teach the handicrafts.

In the first two years pupils spend two hours in the workshop and five hours in the classes daily; in the third and fourth years the time is about equally divided between the classes and the workshop; while, in the fifth year, the whole of each day is passed in the shop.

In connection with this school is a girls' department conducted on the same general plan. There are 19 teachers, of whom 9 are teachers of handicrafts. Girls are admitted at 10 to 12 years of age, and remain until 17. In addition to elementary book learning they are taught the cutting out of clothing, needlework, dressmaking and millinery, lace making, cooking and housekeeping.

At the Munich congress (1888) Saint Hilaire, director of the seminary at Saint Petersburg, said in reference to the state of the work school movement in Russia, that great interest had been taken in manual training in Russia ever since the efforts of Clauson-Kaas in Germany had become known. He further declared that the Technical Society of Saint Petersburg had for ten years sought to promote manual training; but that the greatest impulse had been given to this form of instruction by the present minister of finance, Mr. Wischnegradski. In 1884 he made a journey to Sweden, and visited the seminary of Salomon at Nääs. During the same summer the minister of education sent two teachers to Nääs, in order that they might go through the six weeks' course there; and, later, the director of the teachers' institute at Saint Petersburg was dispatched to Sweden and Germany to ascertain what were the most approved equipments of manual training shops.

In the same year (1884) a workshop for boys' hand labor was established in connection with the teachers' institute at Saint Petersburg by the minister of education, and one of the teachers, Mr. Zizuhe, who had worked in the Nääs seminary, was appointed and had since served) as superintendent of this establishment. In the year 1885 the council voted an annual sum of 3,000 rubles ($1,659) for the workshop.

The method of wood working pursued by Director Salomon at Nääs had been adopted with but slight and unimportant modifications, and also within the past year (1887) a beginning in metal work had been made. Each year about 45 pupils of the teachers' institute, who are preparing for positions in the city schools, take the course, and about 20 pupils of the practice school-boys from 12 to 15 years of age-also attend. They are divided into four groups and each group has to perform six hours' shop work per week.

Many of the pupils who have completed the manual training course (Handfertigkeits-Cursus) are already introducing hand labor for boys into other educational establishments in Saint Petersburg, in the provinces, and throughout Russia. Very many teachers and young people, including women, apply for admission to the school workshop, and it is impossible to accommodate all of them. The teachers also give many private lessons in manual training in well to do families and in families of the highest station. During the present summer (1888) three courses in manual training have been held in Russia, viz., in Novaia Ladoga, for city and country school teachers, led by School Inspector Kotikof, a pupil of the Nääs seminary; a course at Riga under the direction of Mr. Zizuhe; and a course for country school teachers at Kiev. All of these courses have received subventions from the state.

Manual training has made good progress in Russia of late. The first institution which adopted this special instruction into its curriculum was the teachers' institute at Saint Petersburg, and it is still at the head of the movement.

Not only do the future teachers there learn to practise their profession, but many teachers already in office are sent thither from various provinces of the kingdom to graduate in its courses of instruction. For carrying out this course of teaching 3,000 rubles ($1,659) are andually appropriated for the benefit of the Saint Petersburg teachers' institute. Similar provision is made for instructing teachers in manual labor at the institutes in Glookhov, Vilna, and Orenboorg.

Besides, there are now eleven teachers' courses held in various local. ities in Russia during the vacation season, and by this means 250 teachers are prepared for the work of imparting manual instruction every year. Furthermore, the Russian minister of war bas decided to introduce manual training into all cadet schools; and, accordingly, in the summer of 1891, he instituted at Saint Petersburg a course of instruction for officers from all cadet corps.

Altogether, manual training has, up to the present time, been introduced into 116 establishments, viz., 4 teachers' institutes, 14 teachers' seminaries, 4 intermediate schools, 16 cadet corps, 44 higher public schools, and 34 elementary and common schools.

In the Russian congress of manual training in 1890 it was resolved: (1) That manual training should be recognized as a general educational subject; (2) that the most effectual means of educating teachers of manual training are the vacation courses of instruction; (3) that in order to insure the adoption of manual training in all teachers' institutes and seminaries the government should make it an obligatory subject.


The data are not at hand from which to sketch an outline of the industrial educational system of Finland. The following extracts from the Statistisk Årsbok för Finland, 1889–90, show, however, that such a system exists in that country.

Seven commercial schools are reported, with 46 male and 11 female teachers, and with 297 pupils—162 boys and 135 girls. These schools all receive state subsidies.

Thirty-one schools for apprentices, with a total of 2,111 pupils, are also mentioned, all receiving subventions from the town and state.

There are 12 agricultural schools, with 44 instructors and 279 students. The course of study in these schools occupies two years in some cases and three years in other. Then there are 16 dairy schools, with 25 male and 10 female teachers, and 148 pupils, all but one of whom are females.

Of industrial schools there were 6 in Finland, with 37 teachers and 255 pupils, at the end of the school year 1888–989. In certain of these schools the Finnish language is used, in others the Swedish. The schools derive their support from tuition fees.

Finally, there were 12 towns in which 16 trade schools were maintained. The teachers in these schools numbered 68, the pupils 965, varying in age from 11 years to 40. The state and commune contribute to their support. The report gives no clue as to what trades are taught, or what is the nature and scope of the instruction in any of the Finnish schools.

Helsingfors, the capital of Finland, is the site of a polytechnic school which bears an excellent reputation. It has five sections, viz., engineering, machine construction, architecture, chemistry, and surveying. The total number of pupils in attendance during the school year 1890-'91 was 128.

There are also several schools in Finland where navigation is taught. Seven such are named in the list of the Årsbok. The total number of pupils in the seven schools in the school year 1890–91 was 156.

Nine commercial schools are given in the list of industrial institutions of Finland. These have, altogether, 62 teachers and 443 pupils—247 males and 196 females.

The number of agricultural schools in Finland has increased from 12 (as enumerated in the Årsbok, 1889–90) to 14, the present number. In the aggregate there are now 51 instructors in these schools and 362 students. The dairy schools have apparently grown in favor with the people also. Of these there are now 19 in Finland, with 20 male and 26 female teachers, and 177 pupils, all females.

There are trade schools of the primary grade in existence in 13 towns of Finland, with 58 teachers, 632 Finnish speaking pupils, 73 whose mother tongue is Swedish, and 9 whose native language is neither Swedish nor Finnish. As to age the youngest is 11, the eldest 33. Total state subvention, 4,774 marks ($1,136.21); communal, 8,099 marks (81,927.56).

There are also trade schools of the superior grade in 6 towns, with 37 teachers, 251 Finnish speaking pupils, and 27 Swedish speaking pupils. As to age the minimum is 11 years, the maximum, 39 years. The state subvention is 10,755 marks ($2,559,69); communal, 17,006 marks ($4,047,43).

In this report (Årsbok, 1892) there are no statistics concerning the industrial schools of Finland that come down to a later date than those contained in former annuals. Indeed the figures from the report of 1889–90 are here reproduced without change.

Except in the case of the Polytechnic School at Helsingfors statis. tics are not given respecting individual institutions, and the information as to the polytechnic is very meagre. Following is a census of the Finnish technical and industrial schools:

S. Ex. 65-430

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