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ance to be noted, all of which are orphan asylums, and either self-supporting or supported by some religious order.

The Istituto Professionale Maschile dell Ospizio di San Michele a Ripa, at Rome, is a very old school (over one hundred years old), and is connected with an orphan asylum and a home for the aged. It is supported entirely by public charity. It has about 140 scholars, who, once entering, must stay till they are 19 years old. Before being admitted to any of the shops the pupils must have acquired an elementary education reaching as high as perhaps the fourth grade with us. Therefore the scholars are admitted at 10 to 14 years of age, but not over 14. Here, as well as in the majority of these schools, great attention is devoted to art, and to those trades which may be termed artistic. The artistic shops are—wood carving, copper plate engraving, stucco work, decorative painting, architectural draughting, and tapestry. The trade shops are for stone and marble cutting, joinery and cabinetmaking, blacksmiths and locksmiths, machinists, printing, and metal casting. The great majority of the pupils adopt here as everywhere else in meridional Italy the line of the arts. The school authorities, however, have no record of the career of the pupils after they leave school.

The Istituto Pio 1X degli Artigianelli di San Giuseppe, Rome, is the exact counterpart of the preceding one, with the only exception that this school is in charge of the Christian Brothers, while the former is in charge of the laity. There are about 100 pupils, who may enter at 10 years of age and upward. This school admits also pay scholars at the rate of 35 lire ($6.7C) per month, for which sum they are fed, clad, housed, and instructed. The branches of instruction are the same as above, with the exception that decorative painting and architectural draughting drop out, and that shoemaking and tailoring are added. This school also exists entirely from the sale of its products and the contributions of the order.

Ospizio di Tata Giovanni, Rome, is in charge of the priesthood. It is an orphans' asylum, rather small, with about 60 pupils who receive a religious and theoretical education in the house, where they are also fed and clad; but the practical trade education is not imparted in the house. The priests, however, procure apprenticeships outside for the boys.

The system seems to work well, for it has been adopted by the Scuola Professionale del Rione San Angeloa school established by Israelites who pick up little erring and wandering Jews, apprentice them somewhere, and instruct them in the Hebrew faith.

Ospizio degli Artigianelli Bonanni is an orphans' asylum similar to the Istituto Professionale Maschile dell'Ospizio di San Michele a Ripa and the Istituto Pio IX degli Artigianelli di San Giuseppe, but very much smaller and supported entirely by the working classes.

The Victoria Home, Rome, is a school that rests upon a charitable foundation. A memorial tablet upon the building bears the following inscription: "In memory of Margueretta Leslie Edwardes, who for sixteen years labored with untiring love and zeal for the good of the children of Italy. Died July 12, 1891." The school is now conducted by the daughter of the deceased. There are about 40 pupils (both male and female). Pupils are admitted at a very tender age, in fact when they can walk, and stay till they are 14 years of age, when situations are procured for them. The girls are taught household work, including sewing, knitting, crocheting, etc. The boys are educated to become printers and bookbinders, or shoemakers. The printing done, consid. ering the very old and very poor material, is good. The children are fed, clad, and housed, as a rule, without charge, but there are Italian families who desire to send their children there and are willing to pay. The charge is then 400 lire ($77.20) per annum.

The Scuola Femminile Torlonia in Rome is supported entirely by the munificence of Prince Torlonia, and is conducted on the convent school plan. The instruction is of a high grade, and in ornamental rather than industrial branches. Pupils are admitted after a very rigid examination, not only as to their personal conduct, but also as to the antecedents of their parents. Among the inhabitants of Rome the school stands high in esteem.

CHAPTER VIII.

PRESENT STATUS OF INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION IN

RUSSIA.

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