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ber of 15 questions) submitted to the class on that occasion. Question No. 8 reads:
Give the time that it would take to weave a piece of cloth 60 yards long, with 14 shots on glass, with a drum on line shaft 14 inches in diameter, revolving at 120 revolutions per minute; loom pully 9 inches in diameter, allowing 20 per cent for stoppages?
At Glasgow evening classes in science and technology have been opened for the benefit of workmen in various trades. Machine construction and drawing, mechanical engineering, and naval architecture, together with mathematics and other related branches, are taught for moderate fees to those engaged in the practical work of engineering, ship building, etc.
UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, NOTTINGHAM.
At University College there are several technical courses, including the chemistry of dyeing and bleaching. This specialty embraces elementary and advanced courses of lectures (together with experimental work) on the dyeing properties of drugs with wool, cotton, silk, etc. The syllabus relates to the properties and uses of acids, alkalies, soaps, ete., tie properties of fibres, the mordants of tin, antimony, copper, iron, etc., and their uses and preparation.
The methods of dyeing with various classes of wood and aniline dyes, of obtaining colors fast to light and soap, and, in short, the whole art of dyeing may here be learned by means of lectures and laboratory practice.
Courses have been instituted in mechanical and electrical engineering, in joinery and pattern making, plumbing, lace and hosiery manufacture, and in printing. Most of these courses require two years' tuition.
BELFAST TECHNICAL SCHOOL.
Since the year 1883 the technical school at Belfast, Ireland, has, as Mr. Duffin, president of the ehamber of commerce, well puts it, been carry. ing on very admirable work with very inadequate resources. Under the provisions of the technical instruction act of 1889, however, greater efficiency will be secured in the near future, since the Belfast corporation strongly favors an increase of appropriations for technical education. The trade specialties taught in this school, with the enrolment in each class during the year 1889–90, were: Spinning and weaying, 86 pupils; dyeing and bleaching, 19 pupils; drawing and pattern designing, 34 pupils; plumbing-a most important factor in the progress of sanitation-26 pupils; a total of 105.
COVENTRY TECHNICAL INSTITUTE.
Coventry Technical Institute, established in 1887, bas for its main object the promotion of the kind of instruction which will improve the capacity, in a broad sense, of all those upon whom the industries depend.
The horological and textile departments of this institution naturally occupy the foremost place. This is the only school in Great Britain where the entire theoretical and practical instruction in watchmaking is given, though a school in London and another in Edinburgh give instruction for the purpose of educating repairers and jobbers. The watchmaking classes have had an average attendance of froin 18 to 25. The workshops are fitted up with the latest and most improved machines. The institute is the nearest approach to a regular trade school of any visited. Coventry is the centre of the watchmaking trade in Great Britain. In the shops of one of the oldest and largest manufacturers of watches in the kingdom the results have been such that the firm now makes it obligatory upon all apprentices to attend the school, allows them time to do so, and pays their expenses. It has also sent a number of its adult workmen to the classes for instruction in special branches. Five other firms have followed its example. Any man applying for employment who has had a technical training is immediately accepted.
All branches of watch and clock making and repairing are systematically taught as well as the theory and practice of the art of weaving. In the textile school the entire course of manufacturing, from the paper design to a completed fabric, is followed under the eyes of the pupils.
LANCASHIRE AND YORKSHIRE RAILWAY COMPANY'S SCHOOL.
The Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway Company maintain a mechanics' technical institute at Horwich in which workmen receive instruction in mechanics, machine construction and drawing, metallurgy, sound, light, heat, etc. During the winter session of 1891–92 classes in cooking and dressmaking were also organized. These classes were open to the general public, and at fees which are the same to all persons, whether employed by the railway company or not, or whether members or non-members of the institute.
TECHNICAL INSTRUCTION IN COUNTRY DISTRICTS. Much is left to the discretion of local authorities in England as regards the administration of their trust under the technical instruction act. Accordingly we find that county councils exercise considerable liberty in organizing their various schemes of instruction under the law which lays down the conditions for obtaining government grants.
In the urban districts of Staffordshire, for example, classes have been started for teaching modelling, cookery, chemistry, shorthand, bookkeeping, electricity, mechanics, etc. In the rural districts of the same county have been instituted lectureships on agriculture, mining, etc., together with demonstrations in butter making, cooking, etc., in classes conducted at many convenient centres.
In Cambridgeshire for the purposes of technical education the county was divided into nine districts. It was determined to provide three of them with university extension lectures on scientific subjects bearing upon agriculture. Three others were to be visited by women lecturers from the National Health Society to give information upon the subjects of health and cookery. Two of the remaining three were to receive courses of dairy instruction from the Eastern Counties Dairy Institute; and one was to have the services of a competent teacher of fruit culture.
The committee determined that each group of three districts shall receive in turn the university extension lectures with the accompany. ing class work, paper work, and examinations, so that, in three years, the whole county will have participated in the advantages to be derived therefrom.
Lecturers on these subjects were supplied by the University of Cambridge. The courses for the year 1891-'92 are on the following subjects: Injurious Insects, Mr. Cecil Warburton, M. A.; Agricultural Botany, Mr. W. G. P. Ellis, M. A.; Agricultural Chemistry, Mr. A. P. Laurie, M. A. and Mr. R. M. Lewis, M. A.; Healthy Bodies and Healthy Homes, Miss A. Kenealy.
Arrangements are in progress for the opening of courses in dairying, in cookery, and in fruit culture. A misapprehension to the effect that the lecutres are paid for out of money derived from taxation is corrected by the reporter for this county. He says:
The technical education fund is handed over by the treasury to county councils, and is obtained by the government of the country from the spirit duties. The county council can not levy nor remit these duties. What it can do is to spend its share of the grant received from them in the provision of technical instruction for the people of the county. No one pays a penny more in rates because this instruction is sent into his neighborhood. If a village declines to receive the teachers its inhabitants will pay just the same taxes as they paid before, and will go without a return in the shape of valuable education.
Substantially the same method of utilizing the grant from the government obtains in the other counties. In Kent the fund is used to pay for university extension lectures, for scholarships at the Horticultural College, Swanley, for instructing elementary school teachers in agriculture, for teaching cookery, for providing dairy instruction by means of a migratory dairy school, for the conduct of wood carving and bee keeping classes, etc.
The county schemes of instruction present a marked diversity of features. Each is planned to meet the requirements of local conditions as to trade or production. The new machinery of technical education in Great Britain is not yet in perfect running order, but it is made of the best materials, and only needs skilful management to insure satisfactory results. In east Suffolk county classes are organized for the study of agri
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cultural chemistry, ambulance work, bookkeeping, cookery, dairying, drawing, farriery, fish curing, horticulture, laundry work, electricity, mathematics, mechanics, mensuration, modern languages, navigation, shorthand, wood carving, etc.
In Berkshire county it is proposed to extend the benefits of the technical instruction act to girls as well as boys in the rural districts. The committee recommend, therefore, the establishment of a laundry school, in which girls may be practically trained to become efficient laundresses. The committee ask for a grant of £400 ($1,946,60) for such a school.
In the same county, during the year 1892, there were held 27 courses of instruction in cookery, with 2,403 pupils, and 27 courses in cottage sick nursery and domestic economy, with 4,491 pupils.
RESULTS OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION.
The existence of technical education to any extent in Great Britain is of so recent a date that in the cases of the great majority of schools a definite knowledge of results from the work of ex-students was almost unobtainable. Though nearly every technical school in the country was visited, less than five had had an active existence of five years. In no case did a school keep a record of its students, showing where they were employed.
With one or two exceptions the schools are not trade schools properly so called. They are, however, more of the nature of trade schools than of manual training schools, inasmuch as their courses prepare specially for particular trades. In the majority of cases the schools maintain both day and evening courses. The attendance on the latter is vastly greater than that on the former, and consists almost entirely of young men then engaged in the shops in trades to which their courses of instruction relate. The day scholars are few in number, and consist largely of the sons of employés who desire a knowledge of the business preparatory to going into the office or becoming salesmen.
OPINIONS OF ENGLISH EMPLOYERS.
In England the utility of trade school training is generally conceded to be considerable, though many employers hold the opinion that the superiority of a technically educated apprentice in any mechanical occupation is manifest, not in greater manual dexterity, but in the ability to comprehend general principles and in the power of reducing theoretical knowledge to tangible results.
For example, Mr. L. A. Edwards, mechanical engineer, London agent of the Electrical Construction Company (limited), of London, himself an engineer of 23 years' experience and educated at King's College, says:
Technical schools, although fulfilling a useful purpose, do not como
up to the practical requirements of the apprentice who has decided to adopt the engineering profession.
Technical schools are mostly useful in imparting a theoretical knowledge, a subject often entirely neglected in the training of an engineer.
In another connection Mr. Edwards observes that the education of an engineer should be as general as possible to start with, and the specializing should be postponed to a later period.
Of like tenor is the letter received from a member of the firm of Burt, Boulton, and Haywood, manufacturing chemists, of 64 Cannon street, London. While not disparaging thorough scientific chemical training, but insisting upon its possession as a condition precedent to employ. ment in the business of the firm, the writer states that then it is possible to teach men, so prepared for instruction, the technical part of their business in the laboratories and manufactories. He adds :
A school professor can only teach that which he knows, and the technical training in a particular manufacture, whose processes are constantly changing and developing, can only be adequately taught in the manufacture itself.
As to the direct effect of technical instruction upon the artisan Mr. H. W. Morley, secretary of the firm of Cole, Marchant, and Morley, machinists, Bradford, writes as follows concerning an employé who had completed the full course of study at the Bradford Technical College:
He was able to work out designs and drawings of machines which he had never seen by mathematical calculations and the principles learned at college.
Mr. George N. Hooper, senior member of the firm of Hooper and Co., carriage manufacturers, London, writes:
As a proof of the value attached to training in technical classes it may be inentioned that attendance at these classes is an essential con. dition to the employment of all lads engaged by this firm. The school fees are invariably paid by the firm, the prize fund is subsidized by it, and special encouragement is given to lads for regular attendance, application, and good progress.
In reference to the general subject of technical education in England Mr. J. C. Peachy, manager of the Ferry works, Thames Ditton, Surrey, speaking as a mechanical engineer, says:
We have in England no such institution as we understand you to refer to by “trade school.” Our nearest approach to this is the mechanics institution, where instruction on technical subjects is given to apprentices and others after their usual hours of work, and technical colleges which young men attend for a course of two or three years, either before or after apprenticeship to some branch of engineering, and preparatory to searching for employment in some capacity other than that of a workman.
The watchmakers of Coventry are unavimous and emphatic in their expression of approval of trade school training and in their apprecia