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Agricultural implement maker, baker, brass finisher, glass mould maker, glass
silverer, medical student, millwright, painter, photographer, tallow chandler, each.......
1 These classes are conducted in connection with the South Kensington science and art department. Instruction is given in geometry, machine construction, mechanics, naval architecture, the principles of sound, light, heat, magnetism, electricity, chemistry, steam, draw. ing, painting, design, and modelling. Typewriting and shorthand are also taught, and at a small tuition fee.
A department is open to boys going to sea, in which navigation, nautical astronomy, applied mechanics, machine construction, etc., are taught.
LEEDS MECHANICS' INSTITUTION.
This institution has under its supervision and control two schools one of art and the other of science and technology—both of which are in connection with the science and art department of South Kensington.
The school of science and technology had enrolled, in November 1889, 692 students, as against 573 in May of the same year. In this department there are various courses of instruction, including acoustics, light and heat, physiology, botany, building construction, carpentry and joinery, chemistry (organic and inorganic), engineering, gas manufacture, geology, iron and steel manufacture, machine construction and drawing, magnetism and electricity, mathematies, mechanics, physics, metallurgy, plumbing, practical, plane, and solid geometry, and steam.
The subjects of plumbing and of gas manufacture were added to the syllabus of this school during the year 1889--'90; and the report of the committee indicates that they are awake to the demands of the times and the requirements of local business. In this report they say:
A knowledge of the sciences which underlie the trades of the district is now essential to every skilled workman, and the committee have endeavored to establish classes tending to this result.
Women are admitted to all the classes, and the teaching staff consists of thirteen specially qualified instructors.
In addition to the classes above enumerated there were also classes in French and German, in shorthand, and in dressmaking, under the same general superintendence, duriag the year.
HERIOT-WATT COLLEGE, EDINBURGH.
This is one of the best equipped technical schools in the United Kingdom. In the teaching staff or faculty of the technical departments of this college there are 35 professors and instructors, many of whom are distinguished for scientific attainments.
The history of this institution is full of interest and instruction,
Mr. Leonard Horner, F. R. S., a native of Edinburgh, was the founder of the School of Arts, as the institution was originally called. In March 1821 this gentleman happened to inquire of a watchmaker with whom he was conversing whether young men brought up to the trade of watchmaking received any mathematical education. The reply was to the effect that this was seldom the case, because of the expense of such instruction, and on account of the fact that the usual hours of teaching mathematical classes made attendance impossible. Mr. Horner immediately suggested a plan by which such branches as would be useful to mechanics might be taught at convenient hours and at small expense; and, with the coöperation of Dr. Brewster, afterwards Sir David Brewster, and others, the scheme was carried out.
The result was the opening of the school in October 1821. In 1824, when a movement was started to erect a suitable memorial of James Watt at Edinburgh, it was proposed to amalgamate the funds raised for this purpose with those of the School of Arts. It was not until 1851, however, that the joint committee of the school and the subscribers to the Watt fund purchased the building long occupied by the school. The name of the school then became the Watt Institution and School of Arts, under which designation it continued until 1885, when its endowment was united with that of George Heriot's hospital, and placed under the management of a new governing body. Since then the institution has borne its present title of Heriot-Watt College.
It is claimed that the original School of Arts at Edinburgh was the first institution in Great Britain founded for the express purpose of giving education in the principles of science to the industrial classes.
The summary of attendance of students in the various classes of the technical department of the Heriot-Watt College for the session of 1889–90 shows that the whole number of class tickets issued was 2,754. In the literary and commercial department for the same year 1,735 tickets were held. The total number of individual students in both departments, however, was only 2,861, of whom 420 were females and 2,441 males. Young women were first admitted to the college classes in 1869.
There are both day and evening classes in each department of the college. The college possesses in its lectures, theaters, laboratories, and workshops every facility for preparing young meu for work as mer. chants, manufacturers, or engineers, and for supplying in the evening such instruction as is required by those already employed in such occupations.
The college has physical, electrical, mechanical, and chemical laboratories, with all necessary apparatus for experimental work in engineering science, chemical manipulation, and analysis, as well as for practice with wood and metal working tools and in the use of electrical instruments, dynamo, motor, storage cells, etc.
The Industrial Museum of Science and Art is immediately opposite the Heriot-Watt College. It contains splendid collections of raw products and manufactured articles, with models illustrating machinery and manufacturing processes. The study of these is of great value in supplementing the instruction given at the college.
In the technical department the courses of study comprise physics and electrical engineering, theoretical mechanics, mathematics, chemistry, machine coustruction and drawing, civil engineering, building construction, carpentry and joinery, masonry and brickwork, plumbing, carriage building, photography, watch and clock making, typography, metal work, and wood work.
In the art department of the college, modelling, perspective, ornament, and decoration are taught.
Even in the commercial and literary department the principal attention is given to practical subjects. The full course includes history and English literature, English language and composition, French, German, Spanish, Latin and Greek, economics, commercial geography, practice of commerce, office work, bookkeeping and writing, shorthand, vocal physiology and elocution, theory of music and harmonium.
In the department of science the studies pursued are natural history, physiology, hygiene, botany, geology, physiography, and agriculture.
To illustrate the direct bearing which these various subjects have upon business and commerce we may instance the teaching of industrial geography in this institution. Lectures are given, illustrated by maps and diagrams, on the natural conditions of the earth, mineral, vegetable, and animal commodities (with specimens) and their geographical distribution. Then the means of transportation are considered-roads, railroads, canals, and ocean steamers. Trade routes and lines of telegraph of the world come in for a share of attention. The geography of the four chief trading nations-Great Britain, the United States, France, and Germany—is thoroughly taught. The regions of production, the manufacturing districts, and the trade centres of the leading commodities in the British market receive careful consideration.
For example, during the session of 1890-91, three specific commodities were selected upon which lectures were given, viz., cotton, on the manufacture and trade in which the value of British iron and coal deposits mainly depend; tea, the changes in the producing regions of which are some of the most striking in modern commercial geography; and meat, a commodity of recent introduction from abroad which has greatly changed the position of British farming.
Attendance in the technical department increased to 3,031 during the session of 1890-'91.
In the heart of a populous city it is impossible, of course, to give instruction in practical farming; but at the Heriot-Watt College the principles of agriculture appear to be set forth with great amplification and with considerable minuteness. The lectures are supplemented, also, byexcursions on Saturdays to the very best farms in the Lothians--another custom prevailing in this institution which might be imitated with profit in similarly situated colleges at home.
The fee for tuition in most of the classes is 5 8. ($1.22) per session.
TECHNICAL INSTITUTE, DUNDEE.
The Technical Institute at Dundee was established in 1887 under the terms of Sir David Baxter's bequest, setting apart £20,000 ($97,330) for the foundation and endowment of an institution for the education of boys or young men in those branches of learning necessary or useful for working mechanics and other craftsmen.
The teaching staff includes fifteen instructors. The subjects taught in the different classes comprise mathematics, theoretical mechanics, sound, light, heat, magnetism and electricity, chemistry, applied mechanics, steam, mechanical engineering, electric lighting, plumbers' work, wood carving, modelling, plane and solid geometry, machine construction and drawing, carpentry and joinery, decorative art, and textile arts.
The institute has not been in operation long enough to be perfect in all its appointments; but in due time it will undoubtedly take a good rank among technical schools. The newness of the enterprise is apparent in statements like the following under the head of jute and linen manufacture:
The weaving shed is being fitted up with a complete system of spinning and weaving machinery, and it is expected that the equipment will be in order for the session of 1890–91.
The work of the institute, however, is already well organized in most of the departments.
There are day and evening classes in nearly all of the subjects taught in the school; and most of the classes are conducted so as to conform with the requirements of the science and art department and of the City and Guilds of London Institute. That is, the students are required to pass the annual examination instituted by the science and art departinent in order to earn the government grants which are bestowed only on compliance with this condition.
As the Heriot-Watt College derives great advantages from its proximity to the University of Edinburgh, so does the Technical Institute at Dundee, from its close association with Dundee University College, afford to its students unusual facilities for a liberal education; since they may avail themselves of the privilege of attending many of the college classes without charge.
In University College the technical courses comprise classes in engi. neering and in the chemistry of textile fabrics. The equipment of the dyeing laboratory is ample and each student is required to avail himself of the facilities it affords for practical work in the dye house. tendance for two years is requisite for the completion of the course.
Students have free access to the technical museum of the college in which there is a collection of over 8,000 specimens. The object of this museum is to exhibit such characteristic and typical specimens as will illustrate the various stages and processes in bleaching, dyeing, and other operations connected with the textile manufactures, as well as those of other local industries, and which will at the same time be of real practical interest to those engaged in the trade of the district.
This museum, it is hoped, may in time become the nucleus of a large technical museum of the local industries, similar to the museums which, at Crefeld and other places on the continent, have rendered such signal service to the trade and manufactures of those districts in which they are situated.
The engineering course requires three years' study and practice, and leads to the degree of bachelor of science in the department of engineering. It is the ordinary technical course.
GLASGOW WEAVING SCHOOL.
Connected with the Technical College at Glasgow there is a weaving branch, whose fourteenth annual report (1889–90) shows the school to be in a prosperous condition. The weaving department is under the management of a board of trustees. Mr. Thomas Brown is the instructor.
Classes are held day and evening. During the year 1889–90 fifty students attended the evening classes. The number of day pupils is not given. The work of the classes commences with practical working on the various looms, numbering in all 43, of which 26 are hand and 17 are power looms. On the hand looms a great variety of cloths are woven, froin plain goods to the most complicated Jacquard designs. Draughting, cording, and the rearrangement and combination of twills, forming different patterns from the same cording, have been gone into thoroughly at the looms. Many of the students have made collections of the designs and patterns they have worked out at the looms, preserving these collections in their design books. Most of the students also have taken their turn at weaving on each of the looms before changing any original pattern, making full particulars of the make and plans for the reproduction of the cloth.
On the power looms a great variety of cloths have also been made, viz., tweeds, tapestry, leno, skirtings, shirtings, silk handkerchiefs, etc.
At the annual examination in April 1890, 26 students presented them. selves; and of this number 17 succeeded in reaching the standard requisite for a diploma. The scope of the examinations in this department may be estimated from a single question (out of the whole unm