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carpenters' benches in two voluntary schools at Westminster and in a few other schools scattered over London. Some of the ex-7th standard boys are under instruction in carpentry in Raine's Foundation Schools, Saint George-in-the-East. The instructions would be extended to children in the standards if attendance at the workshop were counted as attendance at school. No doubt manual classes are also held in several other schools which have not come under our notice.
There is encouragement and much of truth in the committee's remark, however, that
The requirements of the people are not to be measured by the actual existing demand. It is an invariable law of educational progress that the demand has to be created along with the supply, and it is most satisfactory to find that this has actually been effected so far as regaris certain districts where technical schools have grown up through voluntary effort. It is as much the object of the promoters of technical education to stimulate the demand as to increase the supply.
SECONDARY AND HIGHER INSTITUTIONS.
The report is much more satisfactory in that portion of it which deals withi secondary and higher institutions. Among these the institution bearing the name of the City and Guilds of London Institute holds a prominent place.
The present operations of the institute include the Central Institute
Exhibition road, South Kensington, the Finsbury Technical College in Leonard street, and the South London School of Technical Art.
Central Institute, Exhibition road, London, S. W., was opened in 1881. It is designed to give advanced instrnction in that kind of knowledge which bears upon the different branches of industries, whether manufacture or arts. The management is by a committee and board of studies. It is understood that the building cost £75,000 ($361,987.50), and the furniture, fitting, and appliances, £25,000 ($121, 662.50). The courses of instruction are arranged to suit the requirements of persons who are training to become technical teachers, preparing to enter engi. neering or architects' offices, or desirous to acquaint themselves with the scientific principles underlying the particular branch of industry in which they are engaged. The complete (three years) course involves instruction in four departments, and there are lecture courses embracing mathematics and mechanics, engineering, mechanism, and the application of dynamics to practical problems, strength of materials, etc.; hydraulics, practical physics, surveying, electrical technology, and chemistry. The elementary teachers' courses are carpentry and join. ery (elementary and advanced) and experimental physics.
The summer course for teachers and others includes lectures and laboratory work as follows: Mechanics of construction; chemistry, with special reference to the requirements of architects, builders, and engineers; testing of dynamos and motors; graphical statics; methods of determining the fundamental standards of electrical measurements; gas manufacture; paper manufacture; lighting, warming, and ventilating; building.
Candidates who desire to qualify for the diploma are required to pass an entrance or matriculation examination in mathematics and mechanics, mechanical drawing, physics, chemistry, and French or German. On the results of this examination the scholarships are awarded. The entrance examination fee is £1 ($1.87); the fee for matriculated students (complete course), £25 (8121.66) a year.
The lecture courses vary from £1 to £6 ($4.87 to $29.20) per term or session, according to the subject taken. Elementary teachers, 108. or 155. (82.43 or $3.65) for the course of twelve lessons. There are special terms for laboratory work. The scholarships comprise: One, value £60 ($291.99) a year for two years and free education the third year; three, value of students' fees for three years; two, of £30 ($146) a year for two years-one with and one without free education; one, of £50 (8243.33) for three years. The building is replete with scientific apparatus and appliances, laboratories, and workshops.
The following table shows the number of students attending the Central Institute in 1887-88:
"It must be acknowledged,” the committee remarks, “that the supply of students has hitherto been hardly equal to the expectations formed at the outset. Too much stress, however, must not be laid on this fact. The institution has been open for but five years, and it has certainly been at least as fortunate as the normal school in its earlier years. The fact is that the demand for very high class technical instruction has to be created as well as the supply, and until technical classes are more widely diffused throughout the country than at present, there is little demand for the training of technical teachers. Both these defects will cure themselves in time."
FINSBURY TECHNICAL COLLEGE.
Finsbury Technical College is situated in Leonard street, City road, London, E.C. The management, vested in the council of the City and Guilds of London Institute, is by committee. There are day and evening departments. Day students must be not less than 14 years of age and pass an entrance examination. They are expected to take a course of two or three years. The courses of instruction are arranged under five departments. Those for day students being-mechanical engineering and applied mathematics; electrical engineering and applied physics; industrial and technical chemistry; applied art; and the building trades. The evening classes are arranged in groups of trades: Mechanical engineering; electrical engineering and instrument making; manufacturing chemistry, and industries involving the application of chemistry; the art industries, including cabinet making and decoration in color and in relief; and the building trades. All these departments are admirably divided into groups of two, three, or four divisions, each with subdivisions of detail occupying many pages in the calendar. This wide range of subjects of most useful instruction places the college in the very front rank of technical institutions; and a large number of students avail themselves of the exceptional advantages to be derived from attending the evening classes. The fee for day students complete course) is £15 (873) per session (a year); for evening classes (according to subjects), 6s. to 158. ($1.46 to $3.65) for the session of about eight months; for art classes, 178. to 258. ($4.14 to $6.08). There are four studentships (two annually open to public elementary boys) of £30 ($146) a year for two years; one of £20 ($97.33) and free education at the college; there are also open scholarships. The total attendance in day and evening classes in 1888-789 was 1,181 students.
In the applied art section of the college drawing, design, and painting are taught in relation to their application to various industries, besides art metal work, modelling, carving, etching, etc. The college course is regarded as a real preparation for entering the factory or workshop, where, to quote the language of the principal, they "complete a modified form of apprenticeship."
The course, except in the case of the chemistry department, lasts for two years. The results of this scheme of instruction are briefly this: That the students who have followed out their course enter industrial life under much more favorable conditions than otherwise they could have done. They pick up in the shops in two or three years more than they would have done in five or six years under the old apprenticeship system.
The college is well supplied with teaching appliances, laboratories, and workshops. Perhaps this college may be said to be the best exponent in Great Britain today of advanced technical training. It is not, however, equal in either its methods, morale, or facilities to the first-class institutions of its character in the United States, though, doubtless, in some respects, better adapted to the present require. ments and status of technical teaching in that country.
SOUTH LONDON SCHOOL OF TECHNICAL ART.
The third school of the City and Guilds of 'London Institute is the South London School of Technical Art, situated in the Kennington Park road. It is now attended by about 150 students. Most of the classes, which include modelling, design, house decoration, china painting, wood engraving, etc., are held in the evening, but there are also a few day classes. In the school art is studied especially in its bearings on industries, and the school is said to have had considerable influence on the decorative trades of the neighborhood, and its prosperity varies with their prosperity. It is clear that a great deal of good work las been done in the school with very limited resources, and the list of past students who have made a mark in artistic handicraft is one of which any school might be proud.
LOWER MOSELEY STREET SCHOOLS, MANCHESTER.
The Lower Moseley Street Schools of Manchester, from the date of their institution in 1836, seem to have prospered in an unusual degree, and to bave won their way to popular favor. Connected with these schools are societies whose various names imply a great diversity of objects to be attained, though all of them have the same ultimate tendency. Among these are a singing class; a mutual improvement society; a girls' club; cricket, football, swimming, and chess clubs; a natural history society; and a maternal association. Instruction in secular subjects is given to evening classes.
The object in establishing these classes is to stimulate the desire for knowledge amongst young men and women, to afford pleasant and profitable occupation for their leisure time, and to give, as far as possible, sound instruction in the various subjects taught. Many of the classes are, moreover, of real practical value to the working man, and are aided by the government, with a view of increasing his skill as an artisan by the diffusion of scientific and artistic knowledge.
The courses of study take a wide range, including, in the elementary classes, reading, writing, arithmetic, geography, history, and shorthand. The commercial classes take bookkeeping, typewriting, and shorthand, together with French, German, Italian, Spanish, and Latin, grammar, and commercial arithmetic. The science classes receive instruction in physiology, botany, chemistry, mechanics, magnetism and electricity, mathematics, etc.; while in the art classes free-hand, model, perspective, and geometrical drawing and designing are taught.
MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOL, MANCHESTER.
The Boys' Commercial and Manual Training School, in connection with the Manchester Technical School, is designed to develop harmoni ously all the faculties by means of a systematic and progressive course of intellectual and manual training, which has for its express object the cultivation of the power of observation and the forming of the judgment. It is not intended to teach a trade, but simply to provide for each boy a complete education for both head and hand, etc.
The first year's course embraces language and literature, geography and history, four hours per week; the higher rules of arithmetic and mathematics, five hours per week; writing (including bookkeeping and phonography), free-hand, model, geometrical, and perspective drawing, eleven hours per week; elementary science, five hours per week; tool instruction in carpentry and wood turning, six hours per week.
The second year's course includes advanced studies in all the fore. going subjects. The course of instruction forms an excellent introduction to the mechanical, electrical, and sanitary engineering, chemical, dyeing, and textile departments of thie school.
According to the seventh annual report of this school (1890) the total number of pupils enrolled in this department was 75.
This report contains the following interesting comments:
Now that manual training is receiving that public appreciation and attention which it so much deserves, and for which it has hitherto so vainly struggled, it is of some importance to recognize the fact that this is the first school in the kingdom to embrace it as an organic part of a boy's education, to be carried on side by side and in close coördination with other more purely literary studies. Its success is not to be measured by the comparatively small number of boys who have been enrolled, but by the stimulus and example it has afforded and the conclusive proof it has given that not only can manual training be readily arranged so as to form part of a boy's instruction, but that it is absolutely essential to a full development of his faculties.
* * The results have fully justified its maintenance and continuance. It has, in numerous instances, helped to determine the pupils' aptitudes and fix their careers. Many who, under ordinary circumstances, would have simply swelled the overstocked ranks of clerks and warehousemen, have, under the stimulus and training they have received, entered upon some business where manual skill and dexterity are essential conditions of success.
It is a matter worthy of note that had these boys, during their previous school career, had some such band and eye training as is implied by a carefully graduated kindergarten course, they would have been in a much better position to protit by the subsequent training of this department.
Such commendations and strictures deserve attention, since they are not the words of mere theorists, but of men that have liad practical experience of the value of manual training as an intellectual discipline. They serve, also, to emphasize the importance of organizing the primary, secondary, and intermediate grades of instruction in such a manner as to make each successive step in the process of education a distinct and well timed preparation for advancement to the next higher grade.
SHEFFIELD TECHNICAL SCHOOL.
In connection with the technical school at Sheffield there is a junior day department whose object is to provide a course of instruction in science for boys, which shall have reference to their future require