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and in these classes the fee varies from 3 to 6 marks (71 cents to $1.43) per month.
INDUSTRIAL TRADE SCHOOLS AND CONTINUATION
SCHOOLS IN WÜRTEMBERG.
In no other portion of the German empire are schools of manual training and of industrial and technical art so numerous as in the little kingdom of Würtemberg. The report from which we quote (Jahresberichte der Handels und Gewerbekammern in Württemberg für. 1889) gives a brief account of the continuation (Fortbildung) schools and schools for working women in the district. It is mentioned as an especially significant event that a farm school exhibition was held in the industrial hall at Stuttgart during the celebration of the twentyfifth year of the reign of his majesty the king, from July 25 to August 25, 1989. The special significance of this event seems to have been that the exhibit represented the artistic skill or industrial work of more than 100,000 pupils from 539 different schools.
The continuation and other special schools of Germany undertake, as their name implies, to carry forward the work of the lower grades (Volksschulen), with the addition of instruction in some branch of manual labor. Yet there is an unexpected obstacle in the way of the greatest success in this movement.
In the Year Book it is said that experience shows that a continuance of the studies of the primary school, even in the elementary branches of reading, writing, etc., is indispensably necessary for many of the pupils in the industrial schools. Many of the pupils who in special studies show much proficiency have but a superficial knowledge of these elementary things. An earnest protest is made against the defective practical education.
The number attending the schools for working women in Würtemberg shows no falling off. The number of young women of the working class, between the ages of 14 and 20, who attended the school at Reutlingen during the year 1889, is reported to have been as follows: First quarter, 163; second quarter, 185; third quarter, 150; fourth quarter, 181. These pupils are taught hand and machine sewing, dressmaking, etc.
In a similar school at Ulm there were in all 292 pupils during the year 1890. At Heilbronn the total number, for the same year was 703. Many of the pupils receive instruction in bookkeeping, accounts, etc., as well as in the various branches of domestic economy.
To show how universal is the demand for trade schools in Germany, and to indicate the extent to which they are supported by the people, it may be stated that according to the Würtemberg Year Book for 1888, 167 towns in this district reported the enrolment of students in their trade schools. The total number of pupils accredited to the towns in this list as belonging to special schools amounted in the
aggregate to 13,649. The population of these 167 towns was given as 740,987.
Throughout the entire empire great pains are taken to afford to the working people of both sexes opportunities for improvement in general knowledge as well as in techvical skill. The existence of continuation schools for women in all the larger towns is a sufficient proof of this fact. In the Year Book for 1888 is given a list of fourteen cities in the district, in each of which a continuation school (of a general educational character) for women is maintained. Only 676 women were enrolled in the fourteen schools, however, during the year; a fact which is somewhat disappointing, especially when it is taken into account that these 676 women represented a population of nearly 200,000. But the record of sixteen cities, in which an equal number of schools for working women were attended by a total of 1,594 pupils during the year, is more satisfactory; although this number was gathered from a population of 328,000.
" The origin of women's work schools is to be sought in the city of Reutlingen”, says the annalist of Würtemberg. "The Reutlingen women and girls have long been noted for their industry and activity. Knitting, crochet work, embroidery, and the making of many kinds of garments and articles of luxury from wool, cotton, and silk furnishes employment in that city for the innumerable hands of an industrious and contented people. Their products are everywhere known and valued under the name of "Reutlingen goods' and are given the preference by a large number of business houses."
Hence it was that, in November 1863, under the direction of the teacher of drawing in the weaving school at Reutlingen, Herr Lachenmayer, embroidery came to be introduced into the school over which he presided. Thus did Lachenmayer incorporate with the old Reutlingen manufacture a new, vital element."
The number of female teachers for industrial schools and schools for women's work, graduated from the Reutlingen school from 1870 to the end of March 1889, is 269.
From the statistical report on the educational system of the kingdom of Würtemberg for the school year 1889–90, published under authority of the royal ministry of the church and school system, we take the following figures:
The number of agricultural continuation schools is 75, and the number of pupils, 1,710; the number of winter evening schools of agriculture is 679, and the number of pupils, 14,474; the number of Sunday schools of agriculture is 89, and the number of pupils, 1,994; the number of evening agricultural classes, 21, and the number of attendants, 688; the number of reading societies, so, and the number of readers, 3,731. Connected with these schools of agriculture are 1,213 · libraries containing 261,113 volumes.
In the Technical High School at Stuttgart there were in the school
year, 1889-'90, 26 head teachers, 17 special teachers and assistants, S private docents, etc.; in all, 60 teachers in the six Fach schools of this institution.
In these special courses the students were classified as follows: Architecture, 69; building engineering, 32; machine engineering, 85; teclınical chemistry, 88; mathematics, etc., 17; common educational specialties, 37; a total of 328. Of this number 203 were residents of Würtemberg, and 125 belonged elsewhere. Sixty-four of the 125 non-resideut pupils came from other German states; 52 from other European countries; and 9 from extra-European lands-6 from the United States, and 1 each from the Argentine Republic, Brazil, and Peru.
The social position of the students is indicated by the occupations of the parents: 61 are sons of state officers; 32 are sons of other public servants; 179 are sons of tradesmen, etc.; 20 are sons of agricul. turists; 36 are sons of physicians, artists, advocates, etc. The average age of the pupils October 1, 1889, was 22 years and 1 month.
The previous education (Vorbildung) of the 328 students is a matter of some significance. It is stated as follows: From Würtemberg realschools, 65; from real-gymnasia, Stuttgart and Ulm, 40; from Wiirtemberg gymnasia, 28; from Swiss cantonal schools, higher burgher schools, etc., 36; from other technical high schools and universities, 53; from lower technical schools, 34; from other preparatory and private schools, 13; from practical occupations (architects, mechanics, pharmacists, teachers, officers, etc.), 53. Besides these 328 students the Technical High School of Stuttgart lad in the winter half-year 206, and in the summer half-year 39 guests (persons who, though not belonging to the school, attended some of the lectures).
The Royal School of the Building Trades at Stuttgart has a faculty composed of 22 head teachers and 13 special and assistant teachers. In the winter course of 1889–90 there were 503 pupils in attendance, of whom 370 were Wiirtembergers, and 133 from other parts of Germany and various foreign countries.
Classed according to occupations-17 were master workmen, 225 were masons, 109 were carpenters, 23 were land surveyors, 64 were metal workers, 17 were glaziers, tinmen, moulders, etc., and 48 were such as lad learned no trade.
Grouped as to their preparatory education—164 were from the common schools (Volksschulen); from the intermediate, burgher, and lower real-schools, 139; from the Latin schools and the lower divisions of real-gymnasia and gymnasia, 91; from the higher burgher and upper real-schools, 101; from the higher industrial schools and special trade schools, 8. The youngest was 144 years of age; the eldest, 364 years; the average age, 19.55 years.
In the summer course of 1890 the whole number of pupils was 183. Of these 117 were from Würtemberg and 66 from other states—48 from other German states and 18 from foreign countries of whom 4 were from America.
Classified by occupations, the pupils were numerically distinguished as—master workmen, 4; masons, 36; carpenters, 18; those of no trade, 19; surveyors, etc., 17; mechanics, etc., 78; other trades and occupations, 11.
Thirty-six of these came from the common schools;57 from the middle, burgher, and lower real-schools; 42 from the Latin schools and the lower grades of real-gymnasia and gymnasia; 43 from the higher burgher schools and upper real-schools; and 5 from the higher industrial and special trade schools and from technical high schools. The lowest age reported was 14; the highest, 37; average age, 21.02 years.
During the school year 1889–90 there were industrial continuation schools in existence in 173 places in the kingdom of Wiirtemberg, representing a population of 755,531 souls.
These 173 continuation schools may be classified, according to tiieir special equipment and purpose, as follows:
(1) Continuation schools in which Sunday and evening instruction is given in industrial (especially mercantile) specialties, and which have public drawing class rooms. Of this class of schools there are 26.
(2) Continuation schools with industrial Sunday and evening instruction, but without public drawing class rooms. These exist in 72 cities and 25 villages; in all, 97.
(3) Continuation schools with industrial instruction, but without Sunday teaching. Of these 1 is in a city and 2 are in villages; in all there are 3.
(4) Industrial drawing schools without other instruction. Of these there are 47.
The number of pupils in these 173 continuation schools (together with those in 14 women's schools and 19 women's work-schools) aggregated, in 1889–90, 20,219, namely, 14,988 males, and 720 females in the women's continuation schools and 4,511 in the women's work-schools. Of this number 16,435 were under, and 3,784 over, 17 years. The number of teachers was 978.
The whole amount received from the state for the support of these schools was 166,407.76 marks ($39,605.05).
The numbers attending the several specialties of instruction were as follows:
Industrial arithmetic, mental
5,499 6, 772 7,947 2, 758 2, 370 6, 089 1, 627
857 3, 410
126 4,531 2,309
S. Ex. 65—24
The continuation schools of Stuttgart include the following: Evening school, with 42 teachers and 586 male pupils; elementary school, with 22 teachers and 442 male pupils; Sunday school, with 27 teachers and 334 male pupils; women's continuation school, with 17 teachers and 209 female pupils; mercantile continuation school, with 28 teachers and 418 male pupils; a total of 136 teachers and 2,019 pupils.
The Industrial Art School of Stuttgart has 9 teachers. In the win. ter half-year 1889–90 the pupils in the several classes of this school numbered-in the preparatory class, 32; modelling and wood carving, 9; furniture, 13; decorative painting and textiles, 30; carving, 9; in the course for drawing teachers, 11; a total of 104. Of these 10+ pupils there were 93 from the kingdom of Würtemberg, and 11 from other states. As to age—there were under 10 years, 1; between 16 and 17 years, 7; 17 and 19 years, 38; 19 and 21 years, 32; over 21 years, 26.
With regard to the previous education of the pupils—37 were from the common schools (Volksschulen); 61 were from burgher, real and Latin schools, lyceums, and gymnasia; 2 were from technical institutions; 4 from industrial art schools.
In the summer half-year of 1890 there were in this school—in the preparatory class, 15; in the class of furniture, 7; in the class of model. ling and wood carving, 7; in the class of decorative painting, 4; in the class of pattern drawing, 3; in the class of carving, 9; in the class for drawing teachers, 8; a total of 53. Of these 53 pupils 47 were from Würtemberg, and 6 from other states. Their ages were as follows: Between 17 and 19 years, 18; 19 and 21 years, 15; over 21 years, 20.
They were received from the following schools: From the common schools, 16; from burghier, real and Latin schools, lyceums, and gym. nasia, 36; from technical institutions, 1.
The Women's Work School at Stuttgart, which is patterned after the original institution of the class at Reutlingen, is under royal patronage and is managed by a ladies' committee. Its object is by systematic instruction to give to girls a sound education in practical and artistic needlework, with the purpose of not only serving the needs of the family, but also of qualifying them to earn their living.
Especial attention is given to the training of technical and industrial teachers. The course of study is arranged in six divisions, each of which lasts three months, as follows: Hand sewing and patternmaking; drawing for embroidery and patchwork; machine sewing; dress sewing and cutting out; embroidery of all kinds; framework kuitting, crochet work, and netting.
The systematic study of drawing is compulsory on all pupils. Other subjects are also taught, such as millinery, flower making, etching in metal and leather work. There is likewise a course of commercial training for women. Cookery instruction is about to be added. There are 160 pupils and 14 free scholars.