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In the winter half-year, 1890-'91, 106 pupils attended this building school, and 182 the school for laborers. During the summer half-year of 1891, 216 pupils attended the laborers' school.
Instruction in the building school is given for fifty hours a week, during four half-years or semesters, each consisting of froin nineteen to twenty weeks. In the building school, however, instruction is given only during the winter half-year ; in the laborers' school it continues during both the winter and the summer half-years.
Tuition for the winter half-year costs pupils from Saxe-Coburg-Gotha 75 marks ($17.85); others, 90 marks ($21.42). In the laborers' school the tuition fee per half-year is 10 marks ($2.38).
Pupils may be admitted to the lowest class in the building school on proof of possessing a good common school education, and of having had at least six months' experience in a workshop or at the building trade. They must also be at least 16 years old.
The plan of study in both departments of this school is well grounded in mathematics, physics, the principles of building construction, strength of materials, etc.
The Trade School System of Hamburg is the title of a work by Carl Melchior of Bonn (prepared for the benefit of the state seminary in the latter city), published in 1891, in which the author gives a comprehensive history of the origin and development of trade education in Hamburg.
The year 1765, he says, was the birth year of trade instruction in Hamburg. It was in that year that Sonnin, Büsch, Sieveking, and others founded the Patriotic Society which afterwards assumed the name of, Hamburg Association for the Promotion of the Arts and Trades. Classes were opened, and the new enterprise slowly but surely won public confidence and appreciation.
The ontcome of the movement then begun may be seen today in the General Trade School of Hamburg, and its several offshoots, all of them springing from the germ planted in the eighteenth century. There are three divisions of this school. The common trade school is preparatory in its scope, with classes in free-hand drawing, continuation, and special studies. The day school course embraces instruction in drawing (mainly technical), decorative painting, machine designing, etc., and is designed to fit master workmen for their special duties. The day school consists of two classes—an under and an upper class; the monthly tuition costing 6 marks ($1.43) in the first class, and 12 marks ($2.86) in the last. The school for artisans, which is a department of this institution, was opened in 1865.
The statistical summary of attendance in the three divisions of this school since 1865 indicates a steady, if not a rapid, growth. During the winter half-year in 1865–66 the total number of pupils in all departments was 428. Ten years later it was 1,655. At the close of the next decade it was 2,849. In the winter of 1890–91 the number had increased to 4,400. For this number of pupils a strong teaching staff is requisite, and there are nine ordinary teachers connected with the school, and more than a hundred additional instructors are employed in the special departments.
The German, French, and English languages, writing, bookkeeping, arithmetic and higher mathematics, optics, mechanics, electricity and magnetism, chemistry, free-hand drawing, etc., are the general studies of the evening school; while special courses in drawing are given, adapted to the needs of artisans, carpenters, tailors, locksmiths, carriage builders, ship builders, opticians, watchmakers, gardeners, lithographers, modellers in clay and wax, etc.
In 1881–82 provision was made for a girls' trade school under the same general management. In 1889 the attendance was 481 pupils.
At the Industrial Museum special instruction is given in industrial art, both by means of lectures and by practical exercises in drawing, sketching, painting, modelling in wax and clay, etc. The fee for in. struction, payable in advance, is 30 marks ($7.14) for each half-year.
Except on Sundays and holidays the museum is open to students all the year round in the daytime.
Here is a permanent exhibition of collections of art and industrial products, at all times accessible to the student, consisting of works of plastic art, ornaments, models, etc., sketches, paintings, wall, window, and door decorations, all kinds of artistic wood work, metal work, paper, leather, and textile goods, stone, glass, and ceramics, together with numerous specimens of other sorts, all duly arranged and classi. fied.
INDUSTRIAL TRADE SCHOOLS AND CONTINUATION
SCHOOLS IN BAVARIA.
The Royal Technical School (Königlichen Industrieschule), of which Prof. Kleinfeller is the director, has a teaching staff of 18 members. In this school there are four special courses, each of two years' duration, as follows: A course in technical mechanics; a course in technical chemistry; a course in building construction; a commercial course.
The following table will show the distribution of time in the various courses:
COURSE OF STUDY IN THE ROYAL TECHNICAL SCHOOL, MUNICH.
There are optional courses, also, comprising instruction in special chemical technology, Italian, etc., adapted to the requirements of the particular specialty which a student is pursuing.
For the school year 1890–91 there were 86 students in the first year classes of this school. Of this number 22 took the course in building construction, 13 the chemistry course, 40 the course in mechanics, and 11 the commercial course.
The number of students in the classes of the second year's course during the same period was 36. Of these 16 were in the building construction class, 15 in the mechanical, 4 in the commercial, and 1 in the chemical course.
There were also 9 pupils who took partial courses, and 31 who de. voted themselves wholly to workshop or laboratory practice. Several of this class were engaged in business as druggists, mechanics, locksmiths, and the like.
Connected with the Royal Technical School is a public continuation school (Fortbildungsschule) for builders. Its object is to instruct intelligent master builders, and give them the necessary knowledge and skill which they can not acquire at all, or only imperfectly, in the workshop. The school undertakes to train its pupils to a full understanding of the plan and construction of country as well as city (wellings, to follow the details of working drawings, etc.
The school sessions are held in the winter months, from November to March inclusive, and thus do not interfere with the work of the pupils during the busy season.
The plan of instruction requires four years' study. It is very thorough, and equally as well adapted as that of the technical school to the end in view. Fifty-four hours a week are devoted to studies and practical work. Theoretical and practical instruction as to the various sys- . tems and means of extinguishing fires is imparted to all students throughout the whole course; and they are carefully drilled in the use of the hose, the hydrant, the ladder, and life-saving apparatus.
The number of instructors in this school is 18. The number of pupils during the winter session of 1890-91 was 161, of whom 65 belonged to the class of the first year, 45 to the class of the second year, 31 to the class of the third year, and 20 to the class of the fourth year.
The matriculation fee is 4 marks (95 cents), and each pupil pays an annual tuition fee of 30 marks ($8.57). Extraordinary students—that is, such as take partial courses-pay half this fee for one subject, and the whole of it if two or more subjects are pursued. All candidates for admission must be 16 years old, and present certificates of baving worked at some trade for two years. They must also pass the entrance examination.
The eleventh annual report of the special division (Fachabteilung) of the trade continuation school at Munich, for the school year 1890-91, states that this department is a purely trade Fachschule, deroted to the technical education which fits one for a special trade.”
The director and head teacher is Herr Graef, with whom are associated 25 assistants. The number of pupils enrolled in this department during the school year was 1,197. These pupils represented 84 different trades 'or callings, but more than one half were cabinetmakers, painters, and locksmiths. Almost 25 per cent. of the whole number were over 25 years old.
Tuition costs the Bavarian student 2 marks (48 cents) per month; other German students, 4 marks (95 cents); foreign students, 6 marks ($1.43). The general instruction in this institution seems to be judiciously arranged, while the special teaching is most thorough and minute in its details.
The annual report (1889-'90) of the Nuremberg Building Trade School (with the special schools for locksmiths, etc., and the evening school associated therewith) shows that this institution is in a flourishing condition. The attendance for the school year 1889–90 was as follows:
In the day school, 330 against 291 in 1888-'89; in the winter evening school, 3.11 against 317 in 1888-'89; in the summer evening school, 239 against 187 in 1888–89; in the mechanical workshop, 6 against 3 in 1888–189; total, 916 against 798 in 1888–89.
The teaching force of this institution consists of the director and 24 teachers in the several departments. The object of this school is announced to be “to supplement, through regular instruction, the education of the following named technical workers for their business: Master builders (masons, carpenters, etc.); district and city master builders; machinists, mechanics, etc.; locksmiths; joiners, cabinetmakers, etc.; coppersmiths, etc.”
It costs 3 marks (71 cents) to matriculate in the day school, and the tuition per half-year is 36 marks (88.57). In the evening school the tuition fee is 4 marks (95 cents).
In the special schools (day) instruction is given in the winter months from November 2 to March 31, but practical instruction in the mechanical workshop is the only teaching carried on in the school of building construction during the summer half-year.
In the evening school, both summer and winter, instruction is given in five departments, from 7 to 9 o'clock, to such trade workers as are busy in their workshops during the day, in order to make it possible for them to extend their knowledge of industrial drawing, machine construction, etc.
Considerable attention is devoted to giving instruction in road and bridge building, and building construction in wood and iron.
The Nuremberg Women's Work School was founded in 1874 by Dr. von Cramer-Klett for the purpose of educating young women, not only for landiwork and household and trade lite, but also for the purpose of fitting thein thoroughly and systematically for the profession of teaching. From small beginnings, with one teacher and 30 girl pupils, this institution las prospered, until in the school year 1888-89 the number of pupils in attendance was 530.
The school year consists of three divisions-two wiuter courses and one summer course. The first winter course begins September 1 and continues to the end of December; the second winter course opens Janu. ary 1 and lasts till March 31, with daily instruction from 8 a. m. to 12 m. and from 2 to 4 p. m. Saturday p. m. there is no session. The summer course begins April 1 and ends with July, the daily teaching continuing froin 8 a.m. to 12 m. and from 2 to 5 p. m. From the 1st to the 30th of August is vacation. At the close of the school year a public exhibit of pupils' work is given in the school room.
The matters taught are sewing, mending, knitting, machine sewing, tailoring, ironing, millinery, French conversation, water color and oil painting, religion, method of teaching, and pedagogics, with free-hand drawing
Tuition in courses 1, 2, and 3 is 7 marks ($1.67) per month; in course 4 it is 8 marks ($1.90) per month. These are all day classes, but some pupils attend only one half of each day, either forenoon or afternoon,