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the supervision of one of the committee of the Industrial Art Union of Central Germany.
This school is divided into two sections—the preparatory school (drawing and modelling), and the Fachschule, consisting of five special classes. The design of the preparatory school (Vorschule) is to fit young people, such as apprentices, helpers, etc., for the special classes of the Fachschule, and, so far as there is room, to give the like facilities to pupils of other establishments. The special classes are intended for such as would acquire a more extensive knowledge of some branch of industrial art, and fit themselves to be master work. men, foremen of manufactories, etc.
The preparatory school has an evening course and a Sunday course; in the former instruction is given on week-day evenings from 7.30 to 9.30; in the Sunday course, from 8 to 11 o'clock a. m. The evening course falls into three divisions-an elementary, middle, and an upper class, each of which requires one year's attendance.
To enter the preparatory school the pupil must be at least 15 years old, and must possess a general education equal, at least, to that obtainable in the Volksschule.
In the Fachschule classes the time of instruction and practice is from 8 a. m. to 12 m., and from 2 to 6 o'clock p. m. on every week-day, except that on Saturday afternoons there is no school.
The course for workers in wood, metal, clay, porcelain, glass, stone, etc., lasts through two years; in the other classes the course is three years long. These classes are as follows: One for painters on glass, porcelain, decorative painters, etc.; one for modellers of clay and wax; one for goldsmiths, engravers, silversmiths, etc.; and one for wood carvers.
The school year begins in the middle of September and continues till the middle of July. Holidays consist of a week at Christmas time, three weeks at Easter, and eight weeks from the middle of July. Tuition in the evening course of the preparatory school costs 12 marks (82.86) per year; in the Sunday course, 6 marks (81.43). In the Fachschule it is 75 marks (817.85) per year. On leaving the school pupils receive certificates specifying the length of time of their attendance, and the degree of knowledge and skill attained by them.
The Industrial Continuation School of the city of Frankfort on the Main was opened April 15, 1890. Its success was immediate; for at the start there were 231 pupils. This number increased during the summer half-year to 585. At the beginning of the winter half-year, October 12, 1890, there were 612 pupils in attendance, and this number grew to 815. These were of various ages, from 12 to 33. The faculty consists of 27 teachers. The foundation of a library has been laid, and the nucleus of a museum formed, with a collection of models of wood work, etc.
The hours of instruction on week days run from 3 to 5, 5 to 7, and 7 to 9 in the evening; on Sundays, from 8 a. m. to 12 m. The tuition fee for journeymen is 6 marks ($1.43). For apprentices and young arti. sans under 18 years of age, and for school boys, the fee is 3 marks (71 cents) a half year.
An evening school for working girls was opened at Frankfort on the Main April 29, 1889, under the management of the Housekeeping School Association of that city. At Easter, 1890, a morning course was added for the instruction of such girls as could not be accommodated in the evening school, and such as were not obliged to devote all of their time to wage-earning for self-support, and who oftentimes, at 15 or 16 years of age, were not strong enough to work full time.
In both of the courses girls are taught cooking, ironing, and other details of housekeeping-in the morning from 9 to 12, in the evening from 7 to 9 o'clock-in three class rooms. The same teachers conduct both the evening and the morning classes, except in one instance, where a teacher in the evening school is elsewhere engaged during the day, necessitating the employment of a substitute in one of the morning classes.
By a system of rotation the girls who during one week are taught in the kitchen, for example, pass next to the division where ironing and other forms of handiwork receive attention, while those with whom they exchange places take their turn at cooking and ironing. In this way all branches of housework-sewing, cutting out of garments, household economy, etc.-are taken up in regular order.
The attendance in the evening course during the year was from 25 to 30; in the morning course, 15 to 18.
The work of the association received recognition by the government during the year, the Prussian minister of trade and industry having granted to the society a subsidy of 1,000 marks (8238) to aid its objects. The city authorities also gave assistance and encouragement to extend the society's undertaking. The Polytechnic Association also con. tributed liberally in aid of the movement. The association is yet but two years old, and the limit of its growth has not been reached.
COLOGNE. The statistics of the industrial educational establishment (Gererblichen Lehranstalten) of the city of Cologne for the winter semes. ter 1890-91 are concisely given by the director, Friedrich Romberg, in a general review, published in quarto sheets in January 1891.
The organization includes a special trade school (Gercerbliche Fachschule) with 43 teachers and 493 pupils; a special continuation school (Fortbildungsschule) for journeymen with 13 teachers and 232 pupils; and a general continuation school (Allgemeine Fortbillungsschule) for apprentices with 52 teachers and 797 pupils. Of the pupils in tho special trade school 282 were over 18 years of age, and 211 under; in the journeymen's school 189 were over 18, and 43 under; in the apprentices' school 26 were over 18, and 771 under.
The plan of instruction in the various departments of the institution under Herr Romberg's management is much the same as in other German schools of this class, and it needs no detailed description.
Among the means of education made use of in this establishment are excursions (undertaken in summer, and personally conducted by some of the special teachers); the museum of industrial art (which, by the courtesy of Herr Pabst, the director, is open to students free of charge); the library of the Traders' Union (added, in 1859, to the library of the special trade school, and now affording to both teachers and pupils of the institution a very rich collection of technical works for circulation and reference); lectures on technical subjects (to which students are admitted on complimentary tickets).
In the autumn of 1879 the machinists' school came into being as a department of the special trade school above described. , At the opening of the winter half-year of 1890–91 it became a separate establishment. It has the same director, however, as before—Herr Romberg.
The machinists' school includes a higher departinent--the technical intermediate school, and a lower—the master workmen's school. The technical intermediate school (Die Technische Mittelschule) has a preparatory course and two special courses of instruction, each lasting one year. .
The master workmen's school has three courses of study, each of five months' duration. The winter session begins on the 1st day of November and continues till the end of March; the summer semester begins on the 1st day of May and lasts until the end of September. Admission to either of these schools is by examination. The tuition fee for each course (semester) is 75 marks ($17.85).
In the preparatory classes are taught German, arithmetic, geography, geometrical drawing, and technical free-band drawing, etc.; in the higher classes, mathematics, mechanics, physics, chemistry, geometry, machine construction, theory of steam and hydraulic motors, electrotechnics, etc.
One division of the Fachschule is a school of industrial art (Kunstgewerbeschule). It was organized in the year 1879. The establishment includes a school of decorative painting, a school of cabinetinaking, a school of ornamentation and modelling, and a school of metal work.
This department, also, is under the control of the same directorHerr Romberg. The terms of instruction begin and end on the same days with those of the master workmen's school before reported. The tuition fee is the same in amount_75 marks ($17.85) for each course.
There are no statistics available respecting these several departments except such as we have cited. The master workmen's school
the most recently established of the branch schools-is organized on a generous plan, and its object is intensely practical. It is yet too young to bave a history, however,
DUSSELDORF. The School of Industrial Art is an institution founded by the city. It receives a subvention from the state, and is under the supervision of the state and the local authority. The object of this school is to afford young artisans an opportunity to acquire such knowledge and skill as will be of service to them in their several callings.
There are three departments: A preparatory school (Vorschule); a Fachschule, for wood carving, engraving, modelling, etc.; and an evening school for drawing and modelling. In the first and second departments instruction is given in the daytime to those who can devote their entire time to it.
The course in the preparatory school lasts one year. The hours of study are from 8 a. m. to 12 m., and from 2 to 6 p. m., with a half holiday on Saturday afternoon. For admission to this department pupils must possess a good common school education, must be at least 14 years old, and must bave chosen some practical calling.
As the requirement for admission to the Fachschule the pupil must have completed the course of study in the preparatory department, or stand a satisfactory examination. Guests, that is, such as take only a partial course, can be received into the Fachschule, if actual workmen, not otherwise. Pupils are admitted twice in the year, April 1 and October 1, by the director, and only in exceptional circumstances will any be received in the intervals between those dates.
The tuition fee in the preparatory and Fach departments for the summer session is 25 marks ($5.95); for the winter sessisn it is 35 marks ($8.33). In the evening classes for the summer session the fee is 10 marks ($2.38), in winter the same. Guests must pay in summer 15 marks ($3.57), in winter 20 marks ($4.76).
At the Krupp steel works in Essen several schools are maintained by the famous firm for the benefit of their workmen. They maintain four primary schools as well as a private school for boys and girls. Since 1875 they have also established two industrial schools, where the wives and daughters of laborers who are often surprisingly inexperienced in housework are instructed in the theory and art of domestic economy.
The continuation schools of Essen were founded by Krupp, and are well attended. The firm have received large reflex benefits from their well directed enterprise and philanthropy. Many expert craftsmen, , laborers in special departments, and master workmen have been trained in the Krupp schools; and their acquired skill is equivalent to so much additional capital of a firm whose art is their best inheritance. Much greater still is the advantage which education brings to the pupils themselves. They are thoroughly instructed in their trade, and become accustomed to exact work. The continuation schools-attendance upon which is obligatory-afford them the opportunity to gain further theoretical knowledge of their calling, and to learn the art of drawing besides.
The Royal Designing Academy was founded in the year 1772, and since 1889 has become a Fachschule for artistic gold work. It gives female pupils an opportunity, however, to learn embroidery, painting, and the technics of industrial art. No pupil is admitted under the age of 13. Instruction is given to boys and girls in 20 different rooms.
The yearly tuition fee for foreigners (other than German pupils) is 200 marks ($17.00); for day pupils, 50 marks ($11.90); workshop pupils, 50 marks ($11.90); one-hour pupils, 36 marks ($8.57); half-pay pupils, 18 marks (84.28); brothers of regular pupils, 9 marks ($2.14); free pupils, 2 marks (48 cents).
Instruction is given in drawing and modelling classes in winter from 9 a. m. to 12 m., and from 2 to 4 p. m.; in summer from 8 a. m. to 12 m., and from 2 to 5 p. m.; evenings from 6 to 8 o'clock, and from 8 to 10.
The whole number of male pupils in the Hanau academy during the year 1890-91 was 430, of whom 67 were full-lay pupils, taking 47 hours' instruction per week; 362 took only 16 hours per week. The number of female pupils was 60, of whom 8 were day scholars, receiving 23 hours' weekly instruction; and 52 were girls, taking but 16 hours per week. The study period in this school lasts 404 weeks per year.
Prof. M. Wiese is director of the academy, and under him are 14 teachers in the varied specialties of the establishment. The majority of the pupils, classified according to trades, were trinket makers, 173; jewellers, 32; silversmiths, 30; engravers, 34, etc. Pupils' ages ranged from 13 to 45,
INDUSTRIAL TRADE SCHOOLS AND CONTINUATION
SCHOOLS IN SAXONY, HAMBURG, AND BREMEN.
Between the years 1837 and 1840 five royal labor schools were e3tablished by the state, namely, at Chemnitz, Dresden, Leipsic, Plauen, and Zittau.
The following statistics are given concerning these five schools for the year ending December 2, 1889:
Date of opening
from tuition fees.
State aid. Expenses.
11 12 8 9
98 176 109 88
5.5*2.77 4. 437.96 3, 806. 10
$5, 969.28 6, 748. 97 5, 325.73 4,363. 73