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cultural and other industrial schools of European countries are important educational adjuncts. The American system of agricultural fairs, or occasional exhibits of agricultural products, are, for educational purposes, of slight value, compared with these permanent local museums, freely open and accessible to the people, in which are arranged and scientifically classified specimens of flora and fauna; and, conformably to some definite plan or chronological order, models of agricultural implements, collections of improved educational appliances, and productions of industrial and technical art. These collections are to the people an unfailing source of inspiration and a constantly suggestive stimulus.
More than five thousand specimens of industrial art products were added to the collections in the agricultural museum of Würtemberg during the year 1889.
Among the influences which tend to raise the standard of general education in Germany, and to make students emulous of reaching the higher grades of schools, is the natural desire to escape from the three years' military service which the government exacts of all young men who do not enter the higher institutions of learning. On condition of pursuing advanced studies the student is exempt from the irksomeness of a long term of military duty, and is privileged to take what is called tlie voluntary service of one year's duration in the army. This immunity can be secured only by prolonging the period of school attendance; and, accordingly, the German youth chooses what he considers the lesser of two evils.
Among the testimonials to the value of the teaching in the continuation schools of Germany may be cited the letter of Herr Back, director of the Frankfort school, to a representative of this Department. Under date of August 6, 1891, he writes that this discipline inspires the pupil with enthusiasm and love (Lust und Liebe) for his calling and educates him for his trade as the workshop alone could not.
Of similar tenor is the letter of the burgomaster of Strasburg to Herr Groppler of Berlin, in which he says: “I can testify only that, as a rule, the pupils trained in your courses of manual work are far more skilful and more serviceable than others."
INDUSTRIAL TRADE SCHOOLS AND CONTINUATION
SCHOOLS IN PRUSSIA.
Memoranda of the Development of Industrial Trade Schools and Continuation Schools in Prussia (Denkschriften über die Entwickelung der gercerblichen Fachschulen und der Fortbildungsschulen in Preussen), during the years 1879 to 1890, is the title of a voluminous report by Herr Lüders of Berlin.
A partial list of the schools, with the location of each institution, is as follows:
Weaving, dyeing, and fin- Webo., Färberei und Ap.
preturschule. Mülheim-am-Rhein .. Wearing sebool
Industrial drawing Gewerbliche Zeichen
Industrial drawing Gowerbliche Zeichen
Drawing and industrial Gewerbliche Zeichen und
Provincial art and hand. Provinzial Kunst-und
Provincial art and hand. Provinzial Kunst und
Drawing academy. Zeichenakademie. Dusseldorf.
Industrial art school Kunstgewerbeschule
Central Gorman indus. Kunstgewerbeschule des
Industrial art museum, Kunstgewerbemuseum .. Grenzhausen-Höhr .. Trade school of ceramic Keramische Fachschule..
Trade school of metal in. Fachschule für Metallin.
Trade st hool of small iron Fachschule für die ber.
gische Kleineisen und
Stahl trenindustrie Bochum
School of iron manufact. Rheinisch - westfiilische
ure for the Rhino Eisenhüttenschule.
zir Förderung des vancement of the wel. Wohleg der arbeiten. fare of the working den Klassen.
classes. Berlin Artisans' school.
Linen weaving school. Leinenwebeschule Flensburg
Trade school for occan Faclischule für Seedampf.
steamslip machinists. schittsmaschinisten. Magdeburg
Industrial art and arti- Kunstgewerbe-und Hand.
Webeschule Rummelsburg Workshops for weaving Webercilehrwerkstätte...
instruction. Berlin Weaving school
Industrial drawing and Gewerbliche Zeichen und
industrial art school. Kunstgewerbeschule. Aachen Industrial (day) school... Gewerbliche Fachschule
Artisans and industrial Handwerker und Kunst-
Master workmen's school Werkmeisterschule für
for machinists, lock. Maschinenbauer, Schlos.
ser und Selumiede.
Master workmen's school Werkmeisterschule für
for machinists, smiths, Maschinenbauer, Schlog.
ser und Schmiede.
CREFELD. The institution now known as the Crefeld School of Weaving, Dyeing, and Finishing has existed as a weaving school of a high order since the year 1855, and, thanks to the powerful support of the Prussian royal minister of education, as well as that of the city council and chamber of commerce of Crefeld, it has been thoroughly reorganized for the pur. pose of theoretical and practical instruction. Its object is to educate master workmen, pattern designers, and mechanics for every branch of weaving, and also to equip machinists for the textile industry, as well as to impart to young people who wish to engage in the business of manufactured wares, either as purchasers or sellers, a sufficient knowledge of the process of manufacture so that they may be able more accurately to appreciate values.
In order to fulfil thoroughly this object the course of instruction includes the teaching of weaving from the most various kinds of raw materials, the speediest and most exact execution of pattern designs, guidance for the independent invention of new patterns, and for calculating the value of materials, and the most preferable method of manu. facture.
These special studies are cultivated: Manufacturing bookkeeping, the elements of machinery, power machines, spinning and finishing, the setting up of hand looms, and other practice in the workshops (wood and iron). Herr Emil Lembcke is director of the Crefeld school.
The course of study is of two years' duration. In the first year instruction is given in drawing and pattern work, with special reference to the different branches of textile industry. The composition and decomposition of fabrics are taught and illustrated by means of lectures; and practical weaving of small patterns in cotton, wool, linen, silk, and the like, on the hand looin, is also a part of the first year's course.
Lectures are given on the parts of machines, as well as on the construction, setting up, and manipulation of hand looms, and other apparatus of hand weaving. Exercises in sketching the parts of a machme are practised, and the pupils are required to make calculations for the manufacture of fabrics from raw materials of all sorts, and to study the bookkeeping of the factory.
In the second year these studies are pursued farther; especially is attention paid to the independent designing of patterns for the textile industry. Geometrical and machine drawing, lectures on patterns of earlier centuries, etc., come in here. The designing of new, artistic patterris for weaving and printing is given special prominence. Pupils in this course (lraw and paint froin nature.
In the higher department of the second year composition and decomposition are carried forward together with calculations for large pattern weaving. Here, too, are taken up practical exercises in weaving cotton, wool, half wool, linen, jute, and silk material on the power loom. Mounting and dismounting of the loom, practice at the power loom, exercises in silk spinning and in spooling various materials, also practice in smith and locksmith work, and in cabinetinaking are the order of the day.
The preference is given German applicants for admission to this school; and foreigners are received only when vacancies exist. Applicants must be at least 14 years old. The school year lasts from Easter to Easter.
The tuition fee for Prussians is for one half-year, lower division, 60 marks (814.28); upper division, 90 marks ($21.42); trade division, 50 marks ($11.90). For subjects of the German empire, other than Prussians, for one half-year in lower division, 90 marks ($21.42); upper division, 135 marks ($32.13); trade division, 75 marks ($17.85). }'or foreigners, for one half-year in lower division, 210 marks ($57.12); upper division, 360 marks ($85.68); trade division, 200 marks ($47.60). All fees are payable in advance.
Pupils of the weaving school who wish at the same time to take the course in dyeing and finishing connected with the institution have the following fees to pay: Natives, per half-year, 100 marks (823.80); German subjects, other than Prussians, 150 marks ($35.70); foreigners, per half-year, 400 marks ($95.20). Prussians only are admitted as “guests." They are required to pay, in the lower division, for fifteen hours per week, for the half-year, 12 marks ($2.86); for one day per week, for the half-year, 30 marks ($7.14); for two days per week, for the half-year, 40 marks ($9.52). In the upper division, for ten hours per week, for the half-year, 18 marks ($1.28); for one day per week, for the half-year, 45 marks ($10.71); for two days per week, for the half-year, 60 marks ($14.28). Pupils who take drawing only pay, per half-year, 30 marks ($7.14). Pupils who attend Sunday instruction only pay, per half-year, 24 marks (85.71).
In connection with the school are well equipped workshops; and in each shop are stationed three teachers, under whose supervision the pupils have an opportunity to learn practical locksmith work and cabinetwork. These shops, as well as the other rooms of the estab. lislıment, including the weaving ball, are lighted by electricity.
The institution has a library of about 2,000 volumes, exclusive of Fach literature, a collection of patents of the German empire, and holds for distribution (on certain days of the week) among the teachers, pupils, and the public about sixty journals devoted to the textile industry.
Besides the necessary apparatus, models, and machines for instruction in weaving and spinning the school possesses a large collection of modern weaves, and a valuable, well arranged collection of patterns for weaving, etc., which is of the greatest use to the student. The greater part of this collection is under glass, and so arranged that pupils of the institution may make copies of patterns, designs, and industrial products at specified hours of the day.
This museum is under the supervision of Herr Paul Schulze, and the collection contains over 5,000 numbers. Among these objects are By. zantine weaves of silk of the fourth to the tenth centuries; Saracen silk weaves, tenth to thirteenth centuries; early Italian silk weaves, thirteenth to fourteenth centuries; Gothic silk weaves, fourteenth to fifteenth centuries; Renaissance, half silk, sixteenth to seventeenth centuries; Renaissance, half silk, Italian, Spanish, French; Renaissance, satin weaves, sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; Renaissance, linen weaves, German, white and colored, sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and so on; a vast and well assorted collection illustrative of the art of weaving in all its branches down to the present time.
The dyeing and finishing school has large collections of physical and chemical instruments, models, preparations, etc., and a department fully equipped with machinery and apparatus for the practice of dyeing, bleaching, printing, and finishing. The present dyeing and finishing school came into existence in the autumn of 1883, in connection with the Crefeld weaving school, under the direction of Dr. H. Lange.
The object of this department (which occupies the east wing of the new weaving school building) is to give to those who wish to devote themselves to the special study of chemistry, by means of the most thorough and practical instruction, as complete an education as possible in all branches of this science and its relation to practical life; and to instruct such as desire to educate themselves for the dyeing industry in special chemistry, dyeing, bleaching, printing, and finishing; in the manufacture of dye stuffs; in the methods of experimentation with natural and artificial dye stufis; the preparation of chemicals; the cost of dyes; the independent prosecution of these operations; and, finally, to prepare the pupils for practical life through practical work in dyeing, etc.
The institution possesses two chemical laboratories, one large dyeing laboratory, and a laboratory equipped in accordance with the requirements of modern manufacture with the most perfect appliances and labor saving machines for dyeing, etc. In the first (the chemical laboratories) special attention is given to qualitative and quantitative analysis, particularly to practical chemistry. In the dyeing laboratory are conducted experiments with dye stuffs; in short, all operations connected with dyeing, bleaching, etc., are carried on. In the dyeing, printing, and finishing laboratory cotton, wool, linen, jute, silk, etc., are bleached, dyed, printed, and finished on a large scale.
Attendants of this institution come not only from the best known industrial establishments of Crefeld, but from the neighboring cities in the great industrial districts on the right and left of the Rhine. Pupils who wish to attend this institution must be at least 16 years of age, and be well grounded in the elements of chemistry and physics.
Tuition for Prussians, per half-year, is 100 marks ($23.80); for other Germans, 150 marks ($35.70); for foreigners, 400 marks ($95.20). In