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In commenting on the various replies contained in the schedule the writer in the Blätter says:
In respect to single unfavorable results the individuality of the pupil is so clearly a factor that failure can not be laid to the charge of manual training. As to the skill and diligence of the pupils, as well as concerning their interest in their pursuits, the testimony is almost unanimous.
Less unanimous are the answers to the question: Is he above the average? And it must be somewhat difficult to give an adequate reply to such a question, for it would require a wide experience in the education of apprentices to render a full answer.
The question: Does the teacher believe that rightly directed manual training fits one, in a general way, for hand work! is not rightly interpreted by many masters, because they lay too little emphasis on the word general (allgemein). They think of manual training too much as a special preparation for a trade. But while we do not aspire to promote any industrial object by our manual training, but keep only general education in view, we have good grounds for satisfaction in the testimony of master workmen concerning our instruction.
An artist (whose answers are not included in our schedule for sufficient reasons) testifies of the value of manual training as follows: "Yes, it is of great utility! Manual training should be more extensively practised in our industrial and art schools, for it would give us more useful, competent artisans, and fewer drawing room dilettanti, for our handicrafts. In my judgment every boy ought to attend the modelling and wood carving classes, for it is of prime importance that every one should learn how things are made. Without this training no one can become a clever artist. Every world's exposition has brought to view our deficiencies."
Finally, the writer concludes, workmen are not inimical to manual training, but know how to value it."
Herr F. Groppler, the famous Berlin teacher, summarizes other replies made to the schedule inquiries in a statistical report on the influence of training for labor upon the industrial activity of former manual training pupils, published in the Blätter für Knaben-Handarbeit, for June 1892.
He prefaces his tables with the reminder that the most of the German school shops are yet too young to have exerted any appre. · ciable effect on industry. He observes, further, that until 1891—when the inquiries of this Department brought the subject to their attention—the majority of German school teachers did not keep a list of their pupils, had no communication with their graduates, and no knowledge of the callings they followed.
It was determined by those having charge of the matter to ascertain the opinions of a number of German master workmen concerning man. ual training, though aware, as Herr Groppler expresses it, that “their judgment would be subjectively colored.” Accordingly, a schedule of questions was sent out to 50 of the oldest German school workshops.
To some of these inquiries no answer was returned, but from 22 towns 301 full replies were received. The greater part were filled out
by the master workmen themselves, a smaller proportion by parents or by shop superintendents after consultation with the master workmen.
“We leave out of the account, in thisconnection, questions 1 to 8, which relate to the name, the age, the teacher, etc.," says Herr Groppler, who also doubts whether the specialty pursued in the school workshop exercises any influence on the choice of a calling. In general this influence is thought to be very small at most. The special local industries have much more to do with the result, as, for example, at Markneukirchen all the boys become violin makers.
Herr Groppler remarks:
We confine ourselves, therefore, to the following summary of the questions 9 to 14.
Question 9. Does the apprentice show practical ability! Affirmative, 254; qualified affirmative, 16; negative, 6; no answer, 23.
Question 10. Has he a certain degree of manual dexterity! Affirmative, 254; qualified affirmative, 15; negative, 9; no answer, 23.
Question 11. Is he above the average in this respect? Affirmative, 114; qualified affirmative, 18; negative, 102; no answer, 67.
Question 12. Does he show an interest in his pursuit? Affirmative, 274; qualified affirmative, 10; negative, 7; no answer, 10.
Question 13. Is he diligent? Aflirmative, 275; qualified affirmative, 10; negative, 3; no answer, 13.
Question 14. Does the teacher believe that a rightly directed course of manual instruction (a) awakens an interest in hand craft and in practical pursuits? Affirmative, 251; qualified affirmative, 6; negative, 7; no answer, 34.
(6) That, in a general way, it fits one for such pursuits! Affirmative, 250; qualified aftirmative, 12; negative, 19; no answer, 20.
(c) That it inspires respect for manual labor? Affirmative, 253; qualified affirmative, 4; negative, 5; no answer, 38.
From all this Herr Groppler concludes that the movement in behalf of manual training has prospered and gained favor among the laboring classes. “This shows us,” he adds, “that we are on the right track, and that we should press forward unswervingly."
Since the publication (in 1889) of Herr Sonntag's report on the condition of manual instruction in Germany the movement has made rapid progress there. According to that report there were then in Germany 67 independent schools of manual labor and 97 workshops in connection with other institutions, a total of 164 school workshops. Within the last three years the manual workshops have made a gain of 89, that is, 54 per cent. This gives a total of 253 manual training workshops in Germany. Of these 148 are situated in Prussia, the Rhine provinces heading the list with 29.
In the van of the remaining German states the kingdom of Saxony leads with 33 workshops. Bavaria has 15; Saxe-Weimar, 9; Würtemberg, Bremen, and Alsace-Lorraine, 6 each; Baden, Saxe-CoburgGotha, and Lübeck, 5 each; Hamburg, 4; Brunswick, Reuss, and Lippe, 2 each; Hesse, Saxe-Meiningen, Anhalt, Schwarzburg-Sondershausen,
and Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, 1 each. In the 7 remaining German states educational labor training seems to have gained no foothold.
The advance of the new system has been such in all parts of the civilized world, however, that, according to Schenckendorff, Germany now occupies the ninth place in the line of states that seek to promote this educational reform. In his enumeration the order of precedence is given as follows: Finland, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, France, England, Belgium, Switzerland, Germany. America is not taken into the account at all.
The following data as to the cost of materials for instruction, etc., in Germany are derived from the General Educational News (Allgemein unterrichtende Mittcilungen). The cost of a tool outfit for carving, per pupil, in Germany is given as 1.72 marks (41 cents); common working tools sufficient for 16 pupils, 149.42 marks ($35.56). Cost of tools per pupil in pasteboard work, 5.45 marks ($1.30); equipments for 20 pupils in this department, 118.75 marks ($28.26). In the carpentry department the cost of tools, per pupil, is put at 49.80 marks ($11.85); hence, for ten benches, 498 marks ($118.52). Shop equipment (ten benches and tools), 545.70 marks ($129.88). General outfit of workshop (materials, lamps, pails, towels, etc.), 116.50 marks ($27.73). Total cost of equipment for the three departments, 930.37 marks ($221.43).
The current expenses of a workshop per year areFor administration, etc
$35. 70 Teachers' stipend, 9 divisions, at 150 marks for 1 division, 4 hours per week. 321.30 Service and cleaning...
3. 57 Material used ....
70.21 Repair of tools, etc..
7.14 Books, etc...
The cquipment of a shop for metal work for the accommodation of 15 pupils is said to cost 96.85 marks ($23.05).
HIGHER INSTITUTIONS FOR INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION.
German schools have a thoroughly systematic organization, by virtue of which there occurs no break in the continuity of a pupil's studies in passing from a lower to a liigher grade. This peculiarity of the German school system differentiates it from that of all other nations.
Of this fact Sir Philip Magnus takes cognizance in his essay on Education in Bavaria, published in the monograph series of the Indus. trial Education Association, March 1888. He says:
Nothing is more difficult than the endeavor to classify English schools. As regards the elementary schools, there is, of course, no difficulty, because they are all organized on the same plan; but as suon as we proceed one step higher in the educational ladder the difficulty of presenting in a tabular form the various grades of secondary schools is very considerable.
Where the foreign system seems to me to be undoubtedly superior is in the closer definition of the objects which cach school endeavors to fulfil.
Another defect in the English school system, arising from want of organization, is that different schools which ought to aim at educating different classes of pupils overlap one another in their aims and objects, and are with difficulty distinguishable.
A typical example of the organization of German schools is presented in the school system in Bavaria. This system is well illustrated in the city of Munich, which contains specimens of all the different schools existing throughout the country. * The population of Munich is about 230,000, and it contains 20 elementary schools, the averago attendance at which is nearly 25,000 children, or 1 in 9 of the entire population. * The ordinary elementary school age is between 6 and 13, and it is scarcely necessary to say that elementary education is compulsory.
No child can leave the elementary school until he has attained the age of 13; and even then, if he at once enters industrial life, he is required to attend, during the evening, what is called a continuation school, where the instruction consists of the same subjects as are taught in the primary school, further continued, in addition to elementary science, bookkeeping, and what may be called industrial drawing.
These continuation schools are held on the evenings of the week-days and on Sundays. In 1884, throughout Bavaria, there were 273 such schools in which 1,223 teachers were en. gaged; and in Munich only, the attendance in these schools averages about 3,194 yearly.
In the case of those intending to take a higher educational course it is permissible to leave the elementary school (Volksschule) at 10 years of age, and enter the Realschule, if ablo to pass the entrance examination.
In Bavaria there are about 46 such schools, in 34 of which the course of study occupies six years, and in 12, four years. The course of study comprises German, at least one other modern language, science, mathematics, and drawing. Latin is not taught, nor is there any workshop instruction. At the age of 16 the student may pass to the technical college or Industrieschule.
The aim of these schools is to enable the students to obtain a practi. cal education, less theoretical in character than that given in the universities or at the polytechnic schools, which shall adapt them to at once enter upon commercial or industrial work, with a fair chance of immediate employment, and of obtaining steady promotion in their careers.
The school course lasts two years. Workshop instruction has only of late years been given in the technical schools of Germany. In the Realschule leading up to this college no such instruction is given, and the opinion is still very generally held throughout Germany that practice in the use of tools is best commenced in the commercial works, and that the period devoted to school education should be wholly occupied in the teaching of principles. There is, however, a gradually increasing tendency to adopt the opposite view, and the importance attached to workshop instruction in other countries, notably in France and in the United States, is not without effect on German educationists.
The opinions received from different authorities' as to the value of these schools varied very much. More than one of the professors of the university attached very little value to the instruction. On the other hand the testimony of managers of machine works in Bavaria, who had had the opportunity of testing the results of the training given in these Industrieschulen, is very much in favor of the education they provide.
An English foreman, engaged in the works of a large machine maker at Nuremberg, referred to it in the highest possible terms, and distinctly stated that he gave a decided preference to boys who had received, during their school course, some amount of shopwork instruction.
After discussing German university education Sir l'hilip Magnus says:
In this bird's-eye view of Bavarian education I have made no reference to schools of art, to schools of commerce, nor to schools for the instruction of women. To give a full description of the splendid Art School of Munich would alone form subject matter for an interesting paper.
Such a school, provided with the necessary plant and apparatus for the execution in the material itself, be it glass, porcelain, wood, metal, or some textile fabric, of the design prepared by the artist, affords facilities for experimental art work which, when successful, may be, and often is, the means of introducing into the country new industries.
There are in Bavaria other educational institutions, fulfilling various purposes, such as training colleges for teachers, music and dramatic colleges, needlework schools, military, and veterinary schools.
In conclusion the author remarks:
An acquaintance with the German system shows that, notwithstanding many undeniable objections, there is much to be said in favor of state control of secondary and higher education. The rivalry among different schools, the competition for pupils, involving various forms of expensive advertisement, which characterizes the free system of Eng. land, cloes not exist in Germany. The government takes care that cach district is provided with the schools adapted to its wants, and the curricula of these schools are determined by the requirements of the people. The gradation and coordination of schools under such a system is far more complete than is at present possible in England,
From recent consular reports we obtain some suggestions as to the commercial advantages that accrue from the technical schools of the continent. In the German empire there are understood to be 250 such schools; and to their influence is attributed, in part, Germany's ability to compete successfully with the nations of the world in manufactured products.
Mr. James II. Smith, United States commercial agent at Mentz, remarks that these schools play an important part in promoting the