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Instruction in drawing is commenced in the infant classes, where it precedes that of writing; it is continued in the elementary primary schools, and carried to a still further extent in the advanced primary schools. As the latter are available for only a few, the city of Paris has provided for evening classes in a number of the communal (public) schools, where gratuitous instruction is given in drawing and modelling to apprentices and adults. This instruction consists of: Geometrical drawing, with its practical applications-draughting machinery, architectural drawing, coloring, etc.; free-hand drawing (ornament and figure) executed after relief; round rilievo, plants and living models, modelling, and sculpture.

These courses are open every evening from 8 to 10 o'clock. There are 70 of these schools for men and 17 for girls and women.

The instruction given in the above mentioned schools is mainly of a general and theoretical character.

The city of Paris, desiring to complete the education thus given by instruction relating more particularly to industry, created in 1883 two schools of design, one of preparatory practical designing, and the other for the application of the art to a certain number of industries. The latter is a complement of the foriner.


This is a municipal school preparatory to practising designing. The instruction, which is entirely gratuitous, lasts three years, and includes: Applied mathematics, drawing from relief work, round rilievo, plants and living models, sculpture and decorative painting, architectural designing and history of art, history and composition of ornamentation. There are two courses, one during the day and the other in the evening from 8 to 10 o'clock.

Candidates for admission to the day classes must be 14 and those for the night classes 15 years of age. Candidates provided with certificates of primary education may enter at 13 years of age.


This is a municipal school for the application of the fine arts to industry.

There are four shops for practical work, viz., one for ceramics, glasswork, and enamelling; one for decorative painting; one for sculpture in wood, marble, ivory, and metals; and one for designing for cloths and furnishings. These branches relate to the industries which predominate in the quarter where the school is located.

The course is for three years. The instruction is gratuitous. There are both night and day schools. Candidates must be at least 14 years old for the day school and 15 years old for the night school. They are examined for admission. The annual budget amounts to about 62,000 francs ($11,966).



The minister of commerce and industry gives every year a number of travelling scholarships to graduates of industrial or trade schools.

The value of these scholarships varies according to the importance and duration of the trip from 1,500 to 3,000 francs ($289.50 to $579) a year. They are renewable once or twice, but not longer. Holders of scholarships may choose the country wherein they temporarily sojourn. They must study industrial matters while abroad and senol a report of their studies and observations at least every three months to the minister of commerce and industry.

Scholarships are awarded after competitive examination, comprising a translation, a composition, and a technical industrial report in either English or German, at the choice of the candidates.

Candidates must furthermore be of French nationality, between 21 and 30 years of age, have graduated from a public school either wholly or partially under the control of the minister of commerce and industry, and have produced also certificates of health and good morals.

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The author of the Leipsic treatise on Education for Labor expresses the opinion that it is a reproach to Germany, the land of schools, that she has permitted France, Austria, Sweden, and Switzerland to anticipate her in the establishment and extension of a system of manual training in the schools.

He claims that, ever since Martin Luther's day, the leading German educators have strongly urged the necessity of introducing hand training into the schools as a means of mental discipline. Yet he declares that the ideas of such men have been spurned as dreams and phantasms, well enough in the realm of thought, but incapable of growth in the solid ground of reality.

According to Herr Endris the first instruction in manual training given on German soil was begun by Clauson-Kaas, a Dane, at Emden, in the province of Hanover, on the 6th day of September 1880. This foreign enthusiast organized a course of training for teachers, of whom there were 63 in the first class formed The subjects of instruction included carpentry, basket making, straw work, bookbinding, etc.

From this small beginuing came a demand for similar instruction elsewhere, resulting in the formation of associations at Leipsic and Dresden for the promotion of the new enterprise. In Saxony the movement excited great enthusiasm. To reduce the expense of the experiment the minister of internal affairs granted a subvention of 3,000 marks ($714), and the minister of education declared his willingness to aid the cause by every means in his power. At Dresden, where Clauson-Kaas gave a course of instruction, a class of 66 members was formed, composed of as many distinguished men as were ever placed under one teacher together, except possibly in Dr. Holmes's class at Harvard. There were Böttcher, Kockel, Birch-Hirschfeld, and many more whose rightful titles can confer no additional honor on their names. These men submitted themselves to the unwonted discipline of hand work daily, from 7 o'clock in the morning until nightfall, during the entire course. The subjects taught were the same as at Emden, with the addition of metal work and modelling in plaster.

The interest was great. The king, ministerial officers, and deputations from various societies, besides many other high personages, honS. Ex. 65—20


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