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Applied mechanics (hydraulics).......
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The first year's studies relate to the general sciences. They consti. tute a basis of the encyclopedic instruction of the engineer.
The second year's courses pertain more especially to technical instruction. They are taught by engineers who are in actual daily practice, and the pupils must adapt themselves to ideas which are more positive and less abstract. The studies are completed by laboratory exercises and visits to factories. In the middle of the second year students have to specialize into one of the four branches-machinists, constructors, metallurgists, or chemists.
The average number of pupils admitted each year is 250. Graduates find ready employment as engineers, managers of establishments, constructors, etc.
During the last half century more than 4,000 graduates of the school have been distributed over all parts of the globe. About 600 foreign pupils have graduated, most of whom are now occupying high positions in their respective countries. Many of the buildings of the late exposition, the Eiffel tower, the palace of the Trocadéro, and part of the machinery hall are works of former pupils of this school.
Candidates for admission must be at least 18 years of age and must pass an examination.
A sum of 60,000 francs ($11,580) annually is set aside by the govern. ment for assisting worthy young men with limited resources.
NATIONAL CONSERVATORY OF ARTS AND TRADES, PARIS.
The National Conservatory of Arts and Trades, which ranks as one of the great scientific institutions of France, was founded by the national convention in 1794, but was not organized until 1796. The celebrated museum was definitely installed in 1798.
The original object was to establish a collection of machinery, patterns, models, tools, drawings, descriptions, and books relating to all the branches of the arts and trades, and also of the originals of all instruments and machines invented or perfected; and to provide means for the explanation of the tools and useful machinery to those interested in the arts and trades. By a special ordinance of the government gratuitous courses of instruction on the application of the sciences and industrial arts were begun in 1819. The conservatory is to industrial
science what the College of France is to pure science. It has rendered great service in the application of science to industry and in the popularization of industrial questions.
There are fifteen professorial chairs, of which twelve are devoted to science applied to the arts and three to the general laws and results of labor, constituting, as it were, the philosophy of the subject. These fifteen courses vary in subject matter from year to year, as each course runs a number of years. The following are the subjects treated :
Mechanical arts-geometry applied to the arts, mechanics applied to the arts, spinning and weaving; art of construction-descriptive geometry, civil constructions; physics-as applied to the arts; chemistrygeneral chemistry, industrial chemistry, chemistry applied to the industries of dyeing, ceramics, and glass making; agriculture-agricultural chemistry, agricultural works and rural engineering; economic sciences and legislation-political economy and industrial legislation, industrial economics and statistics, commercial law.
As the instruction is addressed to an audience which is occupied during the day in commerce or industry, the courses are given in the evening between the hours of 7.45 and 10 o'clock. They continue from November to April of each year.
The lectures are public and gratuitous. In each course places are reserved in the amphitheatre for a certain number of pupils who have made application for the same to the professor. These constitute a class of regular auditors known by name to the teacher. From among these the prize men are selected.
The number of auditors varies from 120,000 to 130,000 per year. The number of regular auditors for which places are reserved is about 20,000.
The minister of commerce, industry, and the colonies has direct control of this institution.
The annual budget of the conservatory is about 290,000 francs ($55,970) for salaries, administration, and prizes, and about 152,000 francs ($29,336) for materials and sundry expenses, making a total of about 442,000 francs ($85,306).
INDUSTRIAL ART EDUCATION.
France possesses, in addition to the schools of fine arts, a number of institutions giving instruction in art as related to industry. The following are the principal schools of this kind:
NATIONAL SCHOOL OF DECORATIVE ARTS, PARIS.
This school was created especially to educate artists and artisans for industries in which art plays an important part. It has, therefore, both morning and evening classes. The instruction is given in two divisions, as follows: Elementary division-mathematics, geometrical
drawing, designing of ornaments, drawing figures and animals, sculpture; advanced division-architecture and construction, architectural drawing, legislation concerning buildings, rilievo designs, antique, living inodels and large rilievo ornamentation, sculpture, anatomy, history and composition of ornamentation, general history and history of industries.
Students must be at least 10 years old for the morning classes, and 14 years for the evening classes. Instruction is gratuitous.
NATIONAL SCHOOL OF DESIGN FOR GIRLS, PARIS.
This school is intended to provide the same instruction for girls as that provided for boys by the National School of Decorative Arts. The teaching is done in three divisions, the elementary section, the advanced section, and a special course, as follows: Elementary section-free-hand drawing, perspective, plans, ornaments, designs from rilievo heads, flowers, etc.; advanced section-designs of ornaments, architecture alternating with the composition of ornaments or industrial models, designs of figures after the antique or nature, designs from natural flowers, history of art and comparative anatomy; the special course relates to modelling, oil and water color painting, painting on porcelain and Delft ware, engraving on wood, and etching.
Tuition is free. Candidates for admission must be at least 12 years
Schools on the model of the National School of Decorative Arts at Paris have been created in several departments, for both sexes. The instruction is gratuitous. Candidates must know how to read, write, and perform simple mathematical calculations.
SCHOOL OF TAPESTRY, AUBUSSON.
The instruction at this school relates more especially to the manufacture of tapestry. It comprises geometrical drawing, ornamental de. signing, the elements of architecture, anatomy, and decorative composition; special courses relating to local industries, tapestry designing, preparation of cards for weaving, embroidery, and chemical coloring.
Boys must be at least 13, and girls 12 years of age, to be admitted.
SCHOOL OF CERAMICS, LIMOGES.
The instruction relates especially to the manufacture of ceramics. There are three divisions—the elementary, superior, and special. The elementary division comprises free-hand drawing; ornamental designing; geometrical drawing (perspective, shading, and coloring); rilievo (ornament, flower, figure). The superior division includes drawing from the antique, nature, and living models; comparative anatomy; drawing from large rilievo and models taken from art industries
(bronze vases, ceramics, furniture, tapestry, etc.); architecture; composition of ornament; general history. The special course includes modelling; drawing and painting of flowers from nature; ceramic painting; engraving for ceramie impressions.
Boys must be 13, and girls 12 years of age, to be admitted.
SCHOOL AT NICE.
The instruction consists of geometrical drawing and drawing of ornaments after the antique and from nature; sculpture after the antique and from nature, with exercises in composition; elementary mathematics and perspective; elements of architecture; architecture (course in construction); history and composition of ornament; comparative anatomy; applications to decoration.
Pupils must be at least 10 years of age to attend the day classes, and 14 for the night classes.
NATIONAL SCHOOL OF INDUSTRIAL ARTS, ROUBAIX.
This school, which was organized at the expense of the state and the city of Roubaix, has for its object the education of artists and artisans for the industries of Roubaix.
The instruction comprises twenty-two courses of study, as follows:
Section of design and painting: Preparatory free-hand drawing; elementary drawing and the perspective of observation; intermediate drawing (ornament, head); advanced drawing and artistic anatomy; history of art; painting; decorative composition.
Section of architecture: Linear and plain geometrical drawing; algebra and geometry in space; applied mechanics and descriptive geometry; sketches of machines; architecture; general construction, for workmen on buildings.
Industrial section: Chemistry; physics; dyeing, first year; dyeing, second year; experiments; weaving, first year; weaving, second year; practical work in threading; heating.
This school possesses large physical and chemical laboratories. The laboratory for dyeing permits fifty students to work at the same time, and to perform experimentally all the operations required in dyeing.
The average attendance is 600 pupils. The annual budget is 70,000 francs ($13,510).
SCHOOL OF INDUSTRIAL ARTS, SAINT-ETIENNE.
This school was organized on the model of that of Roubaix. The instruction includes nineteen courses: Three in drawing; eight special courses-elementary geometry; descriptive geometry, perspective, anatomy, history of art, physics, chemistry, geometrical drawing; eight courses of application--decorative composition, modelling, architecture, engraving of arms, preparation of cards for weaving, weaving, dyeing, heat and mechanics.
The average attendance is 450 pupils. .
SCHOOL OF INDUSTRIAL ARTS, REIMS.
This school was created for the education of artisans for different industries. It is a day school. Evening classes are also held.
The day classes are for pupils who specialize in a certain branch of industrial art, and the evening classes are for artisans, laborers, and employés who desire to perfect themselves in their work. The instruction comprises an elementary division, an advanced division, and special courses, as follows:
The elementary division: Geometrical and free-hand drawing; perspective and shadows; elements of drawing from rilievo and from figures. The advanced division: Drawing of figures from nature and the antique; comparative anatomy; drawing of ornaments from models borrowed from art establishments, tapestry, furniture, bronzes, vases, etc.; elementary study of architecture; drawing of machinery; composition of ornament; general history of art. The special courses comprise: Modelling; wood and stone sculpturing; oil and water color painting; architecture; construction of buildings; carpentry; stone cutting; iron work; verification of works; preparation of cards for loom work. Twice a week the classes are open to girls, who must be accompanied by a parent or guardian.
The attendance in 1889–90 was 350 pupils. Pupils are required to be at least 13 years of age. They must be able to read and write and understand the elements of arithmetic. They are classed according to special aptitude, as determined by examination.
MUNICIPAL DRAWING SCHOOLS.
There exist, also, numerous municipal drawing schools in France, most of which are subsidized by the state. Although the state exercises, to some extent, a control over the instruction, the latter is far from uniform. The programmes vary according to the particular needs of the locality or the existence of local industries.
The instruction is divided into three classes, which generally include the following subjects:
Elementary classes: Freehand and linear drawing. Intermediate classes: Drawing of ornaments and parts of rilievo, the practical study of projection (sketches, plans, levelling, etc.). Advanced classes: Drawing from rilievo, general history of art, study of order and ordinances, the application of projection to carpentry, iron work, stone cutting, etc.
About 250 schools of this kind exist in France.