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industrial chemistry. The plan of studies is absolutely the same for all in the beginning; in the second year the specialization commences, and is accentuated in the third year.

The plan of stadies for the section of mechanics has been devised with a view of specially preparing for the industries of machine construction, and for public works. The pupils of this division are particularly trained in drawing, fitting, carpentry, operations of taking plans, levelling and surveying.

The pupils of the section of spinning and weaving follow, in the second year, a special elementary course. During the last year they pursue a higlier course relative to textile materials and the industries which they are to follow. The practical exercises of spinning and weaving commence in the second year, and are greatly extended during the last year.

The pnpils of the section of chemistry commence, in the second year, the study of analytic and industrial chemistry. Later they study, in special advanced courses, the principles of industrial chemistry. They are trained in experiments. During the last year the greater part of their time is employed in practical work.



The original design of the three national sehools of arts and trades at Aix, Angers, and Châlons was to train skilled mechanics and foremen. In later years there has been an advance both in the character of the instruction and object sought to be accomplished. These schools now train, in reality, overseers and mechanical engineers.

The new institution at Cluny is meant to fill in the gap between the training given in the national schools at Armentières and at Aix, for example. It was only opened in September 1892, so it is impossible, as yet, to speak of results.


The government of France maintains an elaborate system of technical schools from which to recruit the service in its various administrative departments, state manufactories and industries. These schools include: Army and navy schools, schools of agriculture and horticulture, schools of forestry, veterinary schools, schools for the postal and telegraphic services, various schools of navigation and seamanship, schools for engineers of naval vessels, a polytechnic school, a national school for bridges and highways service, schools of mines, and art schools connected with state manufactories at the Gobelins tapestry works at Paris, and also at Beauvais and at Sevres.

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The principal object of this school is to educate technical engineers for service in the various departments of the government service. The course of study covers two years.

The instruction includes a great variety of subjects, as: Mathematics, two years; descriptive geometry, one year; stereometry, one year; mechanics and machinery, two years; physics, two years; chemistry, two years; geodesy and astronomy, one year; architecture, two years; military art, one year; history, geography, and literature, two years; German language, two years; drawing and water color, two years.

The studies are supplemented by visits to establishments in the city and the neighboring country.

Students upon graduating either go directly into the service of the state, or continue their studies in other state schools, such as the school of mines, the school of bridges and highways, etc. Graduates not going into the state service have no difficulty in getting employment in responsible positions.

All students board at the school. The price for board is 1,000 francs ($193) per year, and that of their outfit, 500 francs ($96.50). Numerous partial or entirely free scholarships are given. In 1889 there were 144 of these.

Candidates for admission must be between the ages of 16 and 21 years, and must be either bachelors of science, bachelors of special instruction, bachelors of letters, or must possess a certificate relative to the first proof for bachelor of letters. Numerous preparatory schools exist in various parts of France to fit students for admission to this school.

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This school is maintained to recruit the corps of government engi. neers of bridges and highways. Government students are taken exclusively from the Polytechnic School at Paris. In addition to these students the school receives also others as day students, young men who wish to obtain the same instruction, but who upon graduation do not enter the government service. Their situation is very similar to those of engineers of the school of arts and manufactures.

The course of instruction covers three years, as follows:

First year.-Applied mechanics (resistance and materials), road construction, mineralogy and geology, architecture (the employment of wood and iron in constructions-decoration of bridges), political economy, general principles of construction.

Second year.–Applied mechanics (hydraulics), construction (interior navigation), construction (bridges), steam engines, architecture (employment of wood and iron in constructions-decoration of bridges), administrative law.

Third year.–Construction (railroads), construction (maritime works), administrative law, fortifications. English and German languages are also required.

In each division the students are exercised in practical work, graphic work, drawing, sketching, manipulation, and testing of materials of construction, levelling, and laying plans for machinery, buildings, etc. Supplementary courses are also given in pisciculture, the operation of railroads, photography, electric telegraphy, etc. The instruction is entirely gratuitous.

Students not coming from the Polytechnic School must be 25 years old and must pass an examination for admission. This class of students is very small. A preparatory department for day students is also maintained by this school.


This school is maintained primarily to educate engineers for employ. ment in the exploitation of state mines. For this purpose the students are recruited exclusively from the Polytechnic School. Independent of these, the school also admits a limited number of other students.

The duration of studies is three years. The instruction has for its object the imparting of knowledge concerning the exploitation of mines, the treatment of mineral substances, and the management of railroads. The following are the principal subjects taught:

First year.–Working of mines; general metallurgy (iron); analytical chemistry of the metalloids; industrial chemistry; mineralogy; animal paleontology; topography; designs and plans for exploitations; exercises in the analysis of minerals; exercises in mineralogy and paleontology; exercises in topography.

Second year.—Metallurgy (different metals); analytical chemistry (metals); geology and petrography; machines and resistance of materials; railroads; industrial economics; theses in metallurgy and machines; exercises in mineral analysis; exercises in petrography; industrial visits and geological courses.

Third year.-Applied geology; construction work; construction of machinery; legislation concerning mines; applications of electricity; artillery; analysis of theses; projects of thesis and of exploitation, machines, and metallurgy. Students of the third year must also fol. low a course in English or German.

In addition to visits to mines and industrial establishments and numerous excursions which students have to make in order to complete their education, they are required during vacation to make a stay of a month in a mining or metallurgical district of France or Belgium. On their return they must make a report on the places they have visited.

The instruction is entirely free. Students who are not graduates of the Polytechnic School are admitted according to the following condi. tions:

(1) Day students who intend to become engineers or managers in the working of mines for private persons. Only four or five are admitted each year. They must be between the ages of 17 and 23 years and are selected by examination. They follow the same course as the government students, but are not given employment by the state upon graduating. When they finish they receive a diploma, and generally find employment as engineers in mines, metallurgical industries, the railroad service, etc. There are preparatory courses for entrance as day students.

(2) Foreign students are admitted by request of their governments. They must pass an examination.

(3) Free students are admitted on their own initiative, to follow all or part of the courses. They receive no title or diploma, and are not considered as regular students.


This is a national school, intended to furnish managers and engineers. The organization and requirements are very similar to those mentioned in connection with the previous institution.

The average number of students admitted annually is twenty-five.

The administration does not guarantee positions to graduates. All, however, obtain positions without difficulty at salaries which commence at 1,800 to 2,400 francs ($347.40 to $163.20) per year and advance as they gain experience. The school furnishes also engineers to metallurgical and chemical establishments in France and foreign countries. In the metallurgical industry of the department of the Loire 32 out of the 56 managers and engineers are graduates of the Saint-Etienne School of Mines. Out of 372 engineers directly employed in private mines in France 278 are graduates of this school, 68 of the Central School of Arts and Manufactures at Paris, and 26 of the National High School of Mines at Paris.

The instruction is gratuitous. The conditions for admission are the same as for the Central School of Arts and Manufactures at Paris, with the additional requirement of a knowledge of chemistry.

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These are practical schools, intended to educate master workmen for mines. The instruction is both theoretical and practical, and lasts two years. One-half of each year is given up to work in the mines, and the other half to special studies in the elements of mathematics, physics, chemistry, working of mines, designing, etc.

Pupils must be 16 years of age to be admitted to the Douai school and 19 to be admitted to the Alais school.

The state gives scholarships, preference being given to the sons of miners.


The government maintains a school of decorative art and tapestry and a practical school of chemistry as applied to dyeing at the national manufactory of Gobelins, a school of decorative art at the manufactory of Beauvais, and a practical school of ceramies at the national manufactory of Sevres, to recruit the service at these state establishments with artisans possessing technical artistic skill.


The Central School of Arts and Manufactures was founded in 1829 as a private institution. It became a state institution in 1857.

The ains of the founders were to establish a school for the higher industrial studies, uniting the scientific theoretical branches with practical work. The plan originally adopted exists at the present day. The institution is intended to form engineers for all the various branches of industry and for the public service.

The minister of commerce, industry, and the colonies has direct control of this institution.

The course of study covers three years, as follows:
First yoar:

Analysis (differential and integral calculus).
Kinematics and rational mechanics

52 Descriptive geometry and applications

50 General physics...

60 General chemistry.

60 Mineralogy and geology.

30 Construction of the elements and parts of machines.

20 Architecture and civil constructions....

30 Industrial hygiene and applied natural sciences..




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