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trial chemistry, mineralogy, physics applied to chemistry, and experimental mechanics.

The laboratory work is carried on every day in inorganic chemistry during the first year and in organic chemistry during the second. Visits for practical study are pail to industrial establishments in the vicinity. Special attention is paid to such laboratory work as is most useful to the pupils for their future vocations. The school is in session from 6.30 to 11.45 a. m., and from 2 to 5.45 p. m. All the time not required for class instruction is devoted to laboratory work.

The attendance in 1890 was 28 pupils. The young men who graduate find positions very easily, and in many cases are engaged in advance.

CHURCE SCHOOLS FOR INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION.

The Society of Christian Brothers has industrial schools in the following cities: Paris--the Saint-Nicolas School (manual apprenticeship); Lyons--the La Salle School (manual training); Saint-Etienne-School of Manual Apprenticeship.

They are doing excellent work. The La Salle School has an attendance of 172, picked out from the most promising pupils in the Catholic schools of Lyons. The Saint-Nicolas School is attended by 250 pupils annually. A combination of shop apprenticeship and school attendance constitutes one cuique feature of this institution as well as of the school at Saint-Etienne. The great majority of graduates take up technical vocations.

SECONDARY INDUSTRIAL SCHOOLS,

NATIONAL SCHOOLS OF ARTS AND TRADES, CHÂLONS, ANGERS,

AND AIX.

The first of these schools was founded as a private institution in 1780 on the estate of a nobleman. It became a national institution during the first republic, and was removed to Châlons-sur-Marne in 1806. The second was organized at Beaupréau in 1804 and removed to Angers in 1815. The third was founded in 1813 at Aix. A law passed in 1881 directed the construction of a fourth, which is now being completed at Lille.

These schools have for their object the instruction of studeuts in the mechanical arts, and such other branches as will enable them to become superintendents and masters of workshops and industrial establishments.

The three schools liave the same programme and regulations. The studies are for three years. No person can remain a fourth year unless, on account of sickness or another unavoidable cause, he was absent more than six weeks,

Theoretical and practical instruction is given. The following table shows the theoretical branches taught and the number of lessons deyoted to each:

COURSE OF STUDY IN THE NATIONAL SCHOOLS OF ARTS AND TRADES AT AIX,

ANGERS, AND CHÂLONS.

Number of lesso118.

Subject.

First year.

Second year.

Third year.

First half. Second half. First hals. Second half. first halt. Second half.

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These studies include elements of analytic geometry, descriptive geometry, theoretical and applied kinematics, pure and applied mechanics, industrial application of physics and chemistry, drawing, industrial applications; technology, application to the construction of machines; accounting and elements of industrial economics and industrial hygiene.

The practical instruction is given in the following workshops: Carpentry and pattern making, foundery, fitting, forging, and coppersmithing.

The first three months the pupils work in the different shops. After that time they are permanently placed in the shops for which they are best fitted. During the last year, however, they are again placed in the different shops for a short time to get a better general knowledge of practical work. In this way they work at their own particular professions a little over two and a half years.

These schools each adiit 100 pupils every year who board at the schools. Since 1885 pupils who board outside the school may also be admitted.

Over 4,000 pupils have graduated from these schools. Nearly all of these occupyimportant positions in the various industries and in the government service. A society of former pupils has existed since 1846. Its aim is to find occupations for graduates, to maintain a fraternity among them, and to publish articles on technology, science, and industrial arts written by its members. A list of the occupations of members of this society is given in another part of this report.

The instruction is gratuitous. The price for board is 600 francs ($115.80) per year. A sum of 75 francs ($14.48) for incidental expenses is paid upon entering. The cost of the uniform and clothing outfit is fixed at 300 francs ($57.90).

The state provides a scholarship for the payment, either entirely or in part, of the board of pupils who have not the necessary means. In certain cases the expenses for the clothing outfit is paid by the state,

The admission to the school is by competitive examination. Pupils must be between 15 and 17 years of age at the time of the examination for admission, and must be of French parentage.

Following are the brauches in which the candidates are examined: Penmanship; French grammar and orthography; arithmetic, theoretical and practical; elementary geometry; algebra, to equations of the second degree; history of France and geography, as taught in the high schools.

The following exercises are also included: A dictation, with the definition of the words, and a grammatical and logical analysis; a lineal design, and a pen and ink ornamental design; two problems in arithmetic and two in geometry; one piece of wood work and one piece of iron work, to test the manual skill of the candidate.

These institutions are under the jurisdiction of the minister of commerce and industry, and are maintained entirely by the state. The interior affairs are administered by a director, with the concurrence of a board composed of the professors and chiefs of the workshops.

The expenses of the three schools during 1890 were as follows:

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OCCUPATIONS OF GRADUATES OF THE NATIONAL SCHOOLS OF ARTS AND TRADES

AT AIX, ANGERS, AND CHÂLONS.

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Army service:

General
High commissioned officers.
Lower commissioned officers..

Non-cominissioneel oflicers and soldiers.
Bridges and metallic constructions:

l'roprietors, nanagers, and engineers... Chiefs of workshops and construction,

draughtsmen, etc. Dridges, roads, etc.:

Engineers and assistant engineers..
Superintendents and overseers...
Telegraph and telephone constructors.
Superintendents of mines, surveyors,

47
26

Building:

Architects.
Building materials--brickwork, cement,

ceramics, Jime, mosaics, paints, plaster,
quarries, slate, tiling, tiiber:
Manufacturers, merchants, and om.

ployés.
Education:

Directors, engineers, professors of in.

struction, chiefs and assistant chiefs

of workshops, and curators. Electric works:

61

107

experts, and managers.

Constructors, directors, and engineers.
Chiets and assistant chiefs of work-

slops, draughtsmcu, etc.

3 16

45 29

OCCUPATIONS OF GRADUATES OF THE NATIONAL SCHOOLS OF ARTS AND TRADES

AT AIX, ANGERS, AND CHÂLONS-Continued.

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Eugiuecrs :

Civil engineers.
Consulting engineers and patent solici.

tors.

Mechanical draughtsmen... Gas works:

Proprietors, engineers, directors of

works, draughtsmen, etc.

Gas fitters.. Insurance:

Directors and agents..
Mechanical construction works in general:

Proprietors, managers, and engiireers..
Chiefs and assistant chiefs of work.

shops and construction, draughtsmen,

accountants, etc. Mercantile branches :

Merchants and employés...
Metal works, founderies and forges :

Proprietors, directors, and engineers...
Chiefs and assistant chiefs of work:

shops and factories, draughtsmen, etc. Yines :

Engineers, managers, and superin.

tendents.

Mechanics, etc..
Navigation-construction workshops:

Proprietors, managers, and construction

engineers. Chiefs and assistant chiefs of work.

shops, foremen, draaghtsmen, etc. Navigation - commercial and military marine, maritimo canals:

Chief engineers
Marino officers and principal engineers.
Engineers, inspectors and chiof on.

gineers, commercial marine.
First and second master ongineers,

engineers' apprentices, engineers on

commercial vessels, etc. Paper works:

Proprietors, managers, and engineers...
Blechanics and other employés.
Constructors of materials for paper

mills. Powder and dynamite works, cannon foun. derics and arsenals, and tobacco works:

Employés. .
Public officials:

Collectors of revenues, and of alms
Government counsellor
Notaries, court presidents, judges, ex.

perts, and arbiters.
Inspector of child labor in manufacto-

ries and public establishments. Secretary of mayor's oflice...

Senators and representatives. Public works:

Contractors, engineers, and foremen..

Mechanics, draughtsmen, etc...... Railways, road construction:

Ensincers, chiefs and assistant chiefs of sections and workshops, overseers,

and draughtsmen.
Railways, plant and rolling stock:

Engineers and assistant engineers..
Chiefs and assistant chiefs of railway

stations, offices, etc.
Locomotive engineers and firemen.
Railways, offices and workshops :

Engineers and assistant engineers in

offices and workshops. Chiefs and assistant chiefs of work.

shops and oflices, and other employés. Forenen, assistant foremen, finishers,

fitters, repairers, etc.

Draughtsmen
Railways--inspection and control:

Inspectors, sub-inspectors, controllors,
and assistant controllers.

S. Ex. 65 -19

Industries and occupations.

Spinning, combing, weaving, finishing, and dyeing : Proprietors, directors, engineers, and

various higher occupations. Manufacturers of laces, velvets, tulles,

ete. Constructors of materials, looms, stitch.

ing machines, and paper tubes. Steam apparatus, and brass and copper work:

Employés. Sugar works, refineries, and distillerics : Proprietors, managers, engineers, and

heads of factories. Mechanics, etc. Constructors of sugar works, refineries,

and distilleries: managers, engineers, chiefs of workshops, foremen, andcon.

struction draughtsmen.
Various professions and occupations:

Bankers
Dentist
Pharmacist..
Proprietors and landlords..

Representatives of various industries..
Water works:
Contractors for works of conveyance and

distribution. Managers, engineers, and agents..... Miscellaneous: Proprietors, managers, engineers, and

constructors of materials in the follow.
ing industries:

Agricultural machinery.
Articles for travel, fans, saddlery.
Artillery and arms...
Artistic metal work-iron, copper,

lead, and tin.
Bell founderies...
Belting and straps of leather, cotton,

and india-rubber.
Blacking, paints, and varnishes...
Bottles, corks, bottle clasps, and si-

phong.
Bruskos, etc..
Cables and chains..
Carpentry, gairmills, cabinetmak.

ing, and patternmaking.
Carriages and wheels.
Chemical products, salts, etc.
Chemist
Chest making,
Chocolates and conserves.
Coal mines.
Elevators
Engraving.
Faucet founderies.
Fileg...
Food products,
Founderies, bolt and nail forges,

horseshoes, sad-irons, buttons,

hooks.
Galvanizing
Gas ovens, and other ovens.
Gilding, silver plating, nickel plat.

ing, and galvanizing:
Glass and crystal works.
Grinders..
Grindstones and emery paper.
Hardware and tinware.
Heaters, flues, and ventilators.
Ice making and ice machinery.
Locksmithing
Machinery, tools, stamps, and saws
Mallcable iron works..
Matches
Mills for flour and other foods.
Motors, petroleum...
Oil and grease, petroleum, soap, and

candles.

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OCCUPATIONS OF GRADUATES OF THE NATIONAL SCHOOLS OF ARTS AND TRADES

AT AIX, ANGERS, AND CHÂLONS-Concluded.

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Two important institutions projected along practically the same line as the national schools of arts and trades are the Central Industrial School at Lyons and the Industrial Institute of the North of France at Lille. The former of the two just mentioned is of a somewhat higher grade. It is in fact to Lyons very much what the Central School of Arts and Manufactures is to Paris.

About 350 have graduated from the Lyons institution, and nearly all have chosen technical vocations. They are found principally as proprietors, managers, or employés in silk and velvet factories, chemical and iron works, paper mills, engineers on railway or road construction, etc.

INDUSTRIAL INSTITUTE OF THE NORTH OF FRANCE, LILLE. This school is largely a technological institution. It was founded by the department of the north in the city of Lille. Its object is to fit civil engineers, managers, and superintendents for the workshops of the principal industries of the north of France.

The instruction is theoretical and practical, and includes lectures, designing, experiments and work in general, industrial and analytic chemistry, experiments in dyeing, work in shops, and numerous visits to industrial establishments in the region. A great part of the time is spent in the shops and laboratories. The programme of studies has special reference to industries of the neighborhood. Instruction in the textile arts is greatly developed at the institute. The lessons are accompanied by practical exercises in a large and well equipped shor, with machines of a sufficient variety to initiate the student into nearly all the operations belonging to the linen, cotton, or woollen industries.

The instruction is given in two distinct divisions—of technology (on the type of schools of arts and trades) and civil engineering (on the type of the Central School of Arts and Manufactures). Each course is divided into three sections—mechanics, spinning and weaving, and

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