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and simple, and any industrial value which it may bave is general and remote rather than special and immediate. In the last class-manual apprenticeship schools—the training begins to assume a purely industrial character. It is designedly elementary trade training. Schools of this class, as has been indicated, are founded by departments and municipalities, and their operation is determined by the law of December 11, 1880.
With the exception of the class of schools last mentioned education of a purely industrial character does not possess in France any general organization, nor are the institutions in which it is given subject to any special obligation. These institutions may be divided into three grades-primary, secondary, and superior.
Primary education of an industrial character is given in three different classes of schools—the national manual apprenticeship schools at Armentières, Vierzon, and Voiron, and the national school for watchmaking at Cluses; the manual apprenticeship schools just referred to as a part of the general public school system and fully described in an earlier part of this chapter; and institutions or annexed courses founded by industrial societies, chambers of commerce, or private associations.
The national schools are maintained by funds annually voted by the chambers and appropriated in the budgets of the ministers of public instruction and of commerce and industry.
Manual apprenticeship schools are supported in the same way.
The third category-i. e., institutions founded by industrial societies, chambers of commerce, or private associations—are maintained at the expense of their founders. They may draw, however, a special subsidy from the minister of commerce and industry. During 1890, 87 institutions and annexed courses of this character received from this source subsidies amounting to $49,624.49.
Secondary education of an industrial character is given in the three national schools of arts and trades at Aix, Angers, and Châlons, in the central school of Lyons, and in the Industrial Institute of the North at Lille. The first three schools are supported by appropriations from the ministry of commerce and industry, the fourth mainly from a private endowment, and the last principally by the department municipality.
Besides the schools for telegraphy, mines, and road and bridge construction, which are attached to the appropriate ministries, superior technical instruction is given in the National Conservatory of Arts and Trades, and the Central School of Arts and Manufactures.
The National Conservatory of Arts and Trades was founded in 1794. The aim of its founders was to promote the industrial transformation of the country and to disseminate a knowledge of mechanical inventions. At the outset indeed special agents were charged to demonstrate to visitors the operations of new machines and to report to the government all inventions and mechanical improvements.
Later, in addition to the museum, courses of applied science were organized. These courses are public, and are held in the evening from November to April. They are open to the public without any formalities whatever.
More detailed information in relation to representative institutions of the various grades mentioned will be found in another part of this report.
PRIMARY INDUSTRIAL SCHOOLS.
NATIONAL SCHOOL OF MANUAL APPRENTICESHIP, ARMEN
This school was founded in accordance with a decree of the national government passed March 10, 1882. It was opened in 1887. Like those at Vierzon and Voiron, it is intended to serve as a type for the other institutions for manual apprenticeship that may be organized by the departments, communes, or private associations.
The school comprises three divisions: The kindergarten, the eleinentary primary school, and the advanced primary school.
The object of the kindergarten division of this school is to teach the children to read, write, talk, reflect, and do a little work with paper and linen. They begin with paper flowers, then make objects in card. board after pictures and explanations by the teachers, or sometimes after drawings on the blackboard. They also do needlework after patterns, make paper lamp shades, etc. The teachers relate to them events of history and give them ideas of geography, illustrating by means of pictures on cardboard. The school is in session from 8 to 11 a, m, and from 1.30 to 4.30 p. m. Four lours a day are devoted to intellectual training, one hour to manual work, and one hour to recreation. This school differs from those generally known as écoles maternelles publiques in that its aim is not so much to render service to laborers by taking care of their children, as it is to prepare the way for further instruction. For this reason the hours of session are much shorter. The children are mostly those of the better class of working people. One hundred and ten pupils attend this school, ranging in age from 3 to 7 years. They are instructed by a directress and an assistant.
The elementary primary division follows the programme, decreed by the minister of public instruction, for the elementary primary schools of France. Each pupil has two hours per week of manual training. They begin with making patterns of woven goods, simple squares, etc., on paper. In the second year they have albums in which they paste different colored papers, making first simple weaving patterns, then geometrical figures. All this work, even the cutting of the paper, is done by the child. At the end of the second year the pupils begin to draw geometrical figures in pencil. Later on they do pasteboard and wire work, and finally, during the last year, they enter the workshops for wood and iron work.
The conrse of study is for five years. The pupils are divided into four classes-two primary and two advanced classes. The school is in session from 8 to 11 a. m., and from 1.30 to 4.30 p. m. Pupils of the two advanced classes remain from 5 to 6 p. m. for study.
The pupils are from 7 to 12 years of age; 150 attend this school; 125 have graduated. Of these 80 entered the advanced primary school.
The instruction is given by a director and three assistants.
The manual work of the highest class (which goes to the workshops) is done one day in the forenoon and the next day in the afternoon. For the other classes the manual training is always gone through in the afternoon from 3.30 to 4.30, the last school hour.
The object of the advanced primary division of this school is to educate the pupils so that they may become foremen and superintendents of workshops.
The course of instruction covers from three to six years, according to the efficiency of the pupils. The programme of studies is general, like that prescribed for advanced primary schools, except that special attention is given to practical branches which are not covered by the general programme.
During the first year pupils go five months to the workshops for carpentry and five months to those for iron work. At the beginning of the second year pupils specialize, after which they remain either at wood or iron work. Those who take the course in weaving begin at that work immediately upon entering the school. There are three workshops for carpentry, and eight for iron work (fitting and forging) and weaving.
During the first year three hours per day are devoted to manual training, and during the second and third years four hours daily. The period is from 1.30 to 4.30 p. m. for the first year, and 8 to 12 a. m. for the other years. The school is in session from S a. m. to 12 m. and from 1.30 to 6 p. m.
The attendance is 155 pupils, 105 of which board at the school. Sixty-seven pupils have completely finished their studies. Of these 1 has gone to a national school of arts and trades, 10 into the marine service as engineers, 34 in various industries, 10 in commerce, 3 in the railway shops as fitters and machinists, 6 in other institutions of instruction, 2 in the government service (roads and bridges, etc.), and 1 is a teacher.
The instruction is gratuitous. No charges are made for books or materials. Boarders pay 500 francs ($96,50) per year, and day boarders (demi-pensionaires) are charged 200 francs ($38.60) annually. There are a number of free scholarships provided by the state, which are obtained by competition.
Pupils are admitted by competitive examination from among those who have finished their elementary primary education. They are generally from 13 to 15 years of age when they enter, and about 18 years of age when they finish their studies.
The school is supported by, and is under the administration of the ministry of public instruction. The faculty consists of 1 director, 1 accountant (comptable), 1 general overseer (who occupies himself with the discipline), 5 overseers, 6 professors, 1 superintendent of shops (graduate of a national school of arts and trades), and 7 foremen (chosen from among the master workmen).
Following is the annual budget of this institution:
COURSE OF STUDY OF THE NATIONAL SCHOOL OF MANUAL APPRENTICESHIP,
study, interrogation. Designing (imitation) and
carpenters. Study Recreation
1 2 1 1
1 1 8 13
The table which is given below shows the occupations followed by the graduates of the three national schools of manual apprenticeship at Armentières, Vierzon, and Voiron. The small number of graduates from these institutions is accounted for by the recent date of their creation, the school at Voiron being established in 1886 and those at Armentières and Vierzon in 1887. The whole number of pupils in attendance at the three schools in May 1889 was 1,418.
OCCUPATIONS OF GRADUATES OF THE NATIONAL SCHOOLS OF MANUAL APPREY.
TICESHIP, ARMENTIÈRES, VIERZON, AND VOIRON.
This school was founded in 1848 by the government of Savoy, and reorganized by the French government in 1860 and in 1890. The objects of the school are: First, to educate skilful workingmen capable of executing in whole or in part all kinds of instruments for measuring time and such other mechanisms of precision as are used in the sciences and arts; second, to give to young men the instruction necsary for attaining to the positions of manufacturers or superintendents of workshops in this industry.
The course of instruction covers three years. No pupil can attend a fourth year unless on account of sickness or for some other legitimate reason he was obliged to suspend work for more than six weeks.
The practical work comprises:
First year.—(1) Preliminary exercises in filing and chiselling: filing squares, octagons, rules, drill-boxes, screws, and barrel arbors. (2) Tool making: one set of drills with drill.box, one set of screw taps with wrench, one set of polished beains, one screw ferrule, one set of cutting files, one set of lathe tools, exercises in polishing arbor and plate work. (3) Rough work: draughting of plans for, and executing rough work, balances, and cages of various kinds and sizes; different sorts of barrels; rough work for chronometers and auxiliary fusees. First year pupils can not pass into the second year's work until they have passed a satisfactory examination before an examining board.
Second year.—Wheel work, setting, cylinder escapements, etc. The instruction comprises: (1) The mechanisms for winding adopted in the