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casting in order to understand the uses that are made of the patterns. All the work is executed from sketches or plans made by the pupils themselves.

Pupils of the section for weaving study the composition of textures, prepare the looms, execute work on the different kinds of looms, learn to read and prepare cards, perfect the work, and analyze samples. They also study the development and construction of machinery used in weaving. The work done in all the shops is practical, such as an apprentice in an establishment would perform, only that it is done more systematically.

Particular attention is given to drawing. The first year pupils do only free-hand drawing from copy and geometrical solids. At the beginning of the second year the drawing is special for each section or group.

The manual work occupies three hours per day the second year, four hours the third year, and five hours the fourth year. During the last six months it continues seven hours in order to accustom the pupils to the hard work required in an establishment.

The theoretical instruction is identical to all pupils of the same division. It is intended to give a good general education so as to develop their intellectual faculties. The subjects taught and the number of hours per week devoted to each are as follows:

COURSE OF STUDY IN THE MANUAL APPRENTICESHIP SCHOOL FOR BOYS, SAINT

ETIENNE.

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The attendance is, on an average, about 300 pupils. About 250 have graduated since the foundation of the school.

The pupils upon leaving the school usually find employment in the arms manufactories, either as mechanics, turners, or draughtsmen; in other iron and steel works; in weaving establishments as office employés for technical work, such as examiners, finishers, overseers, etc.; in dyeing establishments; and in carpenter shops. The time during which the school has been in operation is too short to have produced many higher officials, and most of the early graduates are now doing military duty.

About 35 per cent. of the students remain to graduate; 55 per cent. stay 3 years. Experience has shown that almost every one in these classes enters some technical vocation.

Instruction is gratuitous. Candidates must be at least 13 years of age, and must present a certificate of primary education or pass an examination.

This school is under the administration of the city government, in the same manner as the other public schools.

Many other excellent manual apprenticeship schools exist in France. In general characteristics they do not differ materially from those whose organization has been outlined in the preceding pages.

It is always a question of interest to know what becomes of students who have followed courses in this kind of an institution. The following statements give, partially at least, the desired information for several other schools from which statistics were available.

MANUAL APPRENTICESHIP SCHOOL FOR BOYS, REIMS. This school was founded in 1875 conjointly by the city and the Industrial Society of Reims. The first of the following tables gives the occupations of graduates of the school, and indicates the number, without showing the occupations, of those leaving the school without graduating. The second table gives the occupations of those who did not remain to graduate.

OCCUPATIONS OF EX-STUDENTS OF THE MANUAL APPRENTICESHIP SCHOOL,

REIMS.

Occupation.

1877 1878 1879 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890 1891 Total.

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Army.
Draughtsmen.
Employés, banks, wine trade,

avd wholesalo commerce. Employés, non-technical,

miscellaneous. Employés, postal, telegraph,

and other government ser.

vice.
Employés, railway service
Employés, retail trade..
Employés, technical, boiler

and machine shops, cliemi.

cal works, etc. Employés, technical, build.

ing, locksmithing, etc. Employés, technical, woollen

industry.
Farmers
Road and bridge construction
Students, agricultural schools
Students, colleges and colle-

giate institutes.
Students, institutes of tech.

nology.
Students, normal schools
Students, schools for naval

engineers.
Students, other schools..
Unknown
Left school without gradu. 18

ating.

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OCCUPATIONS OF EX-STUDENT3 (LEAVING SCHOOL WITHOUT GRADUATING) OF

THE MANUAL APPRENTICESHIP SCHOOL, REIMS.

Occupation.

1877 1878 1879 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890 1891 Total.

Army

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Dra:iglitsmen.
Employés, banks, wine trade,

and wholesale comunerce. Employés, non-teclinical,

miscellaneous. Employós, postal, telegraph,

and other government ser.

rice.
Employés, railway service...
Employés, retail trade.
Employés, technical, boiler

and machine shops, chemi.

cal works, etc. Employés, technical, build.

ins, locksmithiing, etc. Employés, techuical, woollon

industry.
Farmers .
Road and bridge construction
Students, agricultural schools
Students, colleges and colle-

giate institutos.
Students, institutes of tech-

nology. Students, normal schools Students, school for naval

engineers. Students, other schools. Unknown..

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A very large proportion of students, nearly two-thirds, leave without completing the course of study. The percentage is not abnormal nor appreciably higher than for other similar schools in different parts of France. There are several causes for this state of affairs. Students are in many cases compelled to withdraw by their parents removing from the neighborhood of the school. This accounts for the large number of those whose occupations are unknown in the table for students leaving without graduating.

Parents of students attending manual apprenticeship schools of this sort belong usually to the working or lower middle classes. Needing all the income possible, they are apt to take away their childre soon as they can find for them a remunerative occupation. Such lack of consideration works a grave injustice alike to scholar and school and is the greatest obstacle manual apprenticeship institutions have to contend with. A great many parents send their children for a year, or a year and a half at most, for the sake of the name of having them educated in a manual apprenticeship school, a fact which enables a boy to more easily find employment.

There has been with the growth of time, however, a marked improvement in the sentiment of the working classes, particularly, in this regard. Experience has taught them that a year or two of sacrifice at this age of a boy's life is better for all parties.

*All tuition charges were abolished in 1882–83. This fact accounts for the large augmentation of scholars leaving without graduating, which began in that year. A greater percentage of children of the poorer classes came in, and consequently the proportion of those who from one cause or another were unable to finish their course of study increased.

The occupations enumerated in the foregoing tables (students of course excepted) are those which were finally chosen, not those into which students entered the first thing upon leaving, which might well be in many instances mere makeshifts.

The tables disclose the fact that among graduates whose occupations are known some 65 per cent. are pursuing technical vocations for their life's work. Amongst those who left before graduation 53 per cent. of those about whom the essential facts are known are technically employed.

MANUAL APPRENTICESHIP SCHOOL, NANTES. This institution was founded in 1838 and has graduated in all nearly 4,000 pupils. Only in recent years has an alumni society been formed. The statistics of occupations, followed by members of this organization, give the following results:

OCCUPATIONS OF EX-STUDENTS OF THE MANUAL APPRENTICESHIP SCHOOL,

NANTES.

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This school was founded in 1879. In January 1892 the attendance was 90. The table below gives a list of the occupations chosen by the 409 papils who have left the school since the beginning:

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MANUAL APPRENTICESHIP SCHOOL, ROUEN.

Since the foundation of the school in 1878 about 200 pupils have graduated. They are mostly occupied in industrial establishments in the city and vicinity and in the railway car shops. All work at the trades they learned in school.

MANUAL APPRENTICESHIP SCHOOL, BOULOGNE-SUR-MER.

In 1891 the attendance was 46 in the first year class, 15 in the second, and 7 in the third. The relative diminution is caused by parents putting their children to work before they have finished their studies. Pupils leaving school generally adopt some trade. Some of them enter the navy as engineer apprenticés.

BOOK WORK IN RELATION TO MANUAL TRAINING.

This question is difficult to answer directly. It will be remembered that the advanced primary and manual apprenticeship schools are considered to be of the same grade. In the first instance the law prescribes eighteen hours as the minimum of intellectual instruction per wcuk. In the second the maximum is set down as ten. As a matter of practice the minimum in the former case far exceeds the number named. But this is after all merely a comparison of a high school where manual training may or may not exist, according to the circumstances, with an elementary trade school.

Though statistics are not available in support of the assertion, careful observation and inquiry lead to the belief that the amount of book work accomplished by students in manual training schools is practically the same as that done by students in schools of the same grade where manual training is not a factor. Furthermore, it is generally the case that students who do well at manual training are also apt in intellectual exercises, while the converse does not nearly so often hold good.

Too often in advanced primary schools the only time available for manual training is two hours after the intellectual exercises of the day have been completed, and when under ordinary circumstances the school would have adjourned. In such cases, therefore, the intellectual work of both classes of students must of necessity cover the same ground.

EDUCATION OF A PURELY INDUSTRIAL CHARACTER.

In the schools which we have thus far considered we have been deal. ing with the four classes of schools in the general system of public primary education, viz., the infant schools, the elementary primary schools, the advanced primary schools, and the manual apprenticeship schools. In the first three classes the manual work is educative pure

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