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It will be noticed that during the eleven years for which the statistics are available there has been a marked advance in the proportion of those who have either passed on to some technical school of higher grade or have entered directly into some industrial calling, viz., from none and 9.1 per cent. respectively in 1880, to 13 per cent. and 46 per cent. in 1890. Only one-third instead of the great bulk of the students now connect themselves with commerce. If these figures show anything, they prove that manual training is becoming increasingly influential in giving a technical bent to the mind.
MANUAL TRAINING IN ADVANCED PRIMARY SCHOOLS FOR
BOYS, TOURCOING, ROUEN, AND LILLE.
The conditions of admission, programme of courses, and character of workshop training at Tourcoing, Rouen, and Lille do not differ materially from those at Paris and Roubaix. A statistical statement of what has become of ex-students from the advanced primary schools in the two first named cities may not be without interest.
OCCUPATIONS OF EX-STUDENTS OF THE ADVANCED PRIMARY SCHOOL FOR BOYS
(INSTITUTE COLBERT), TOURCOING.
OCCUPATIONS OF EX-STUDENTS OF THE ADVANCED PRIMARY SCHOOL FOR BOYS,
MANUAL TRAINING IN ADVANCED PRIMARY SCHOOLS FOR
The programme of studies as officially outlined in the preceding pages is practically followed, except that in some schools more attention is paid to inanual training than in others. The domestic economy features, too, stand in the same category.
S. Ex. 65-16
Especially is the instruction in practical cooking but little followed out. The physical limitations are such that a pupil is able to undertake practical exercises only two or three times a term, and of course much can not be expected in the way of results.
The time allotted to instruction in manual training is two hours weekly throughout the first three years and six hours weekly throughout the fourth year of the course.
Manual training in these schools does not in anywise partake of the nature of an apprenticeship to any particular occupation. It is meant to teach students how to cut and sew their own dresses witliout pretending to make of them dressmakers. It teaches them how to make their own hats without making milliners of them. Such exercises are a part, and an essential part, of the general education of young girls, since it prepares them for the role of good housekeepers and mothers of families. Beyond this result nothing is sought.
MANUAL TRAINING IN ADVANCED PRIMARY SCHOOL FOR GIRLS,
The industrial features of instruction were introduced in 1872, when classes in sewing were opened. Painting on porcelain and cloth was inaugurated in 1881. The school had previously occupied itself only with advanced primary studies.
The object of the school is to make girls proficient in such work as is appropriate to their sex, in addition to giving an advanced primary edication.
The course of instruction is for four years. The first three years have two classes each, and the fourth has three classes. The intellectual work is the same as prescribed by law for advanced primary schools. Sewing is obligatory for all pupils; painting is optional. Embroidery and industrial design for cloths was introduced in 1892.
The following table shows the number of hours per week devoted to each study:
COURSE OF STUDY IN THE ADVANCED PRIMARY SCHOOL FOR GIRLS, LILLE.
Special classes are given Mondays and Saturdays for girls who bave left the school but wish to receive additional instrnction in perfecting garments. These classes are occupied six hours per week.
Very few graduates seek positions in the industries-about 30 per year--and these leave school mostly at the end of the second year. Of the graduates about 40 per year become school teachers, there being no normal school here.
The instruction is gratuitous and the conditions for admission are the same as for other advanced primary schools. The attendance was 330 pupils in 1891.
MANUAL APPRENTICESHIP SCHOOLS.
There is a class of institutions in France known as manual apprenticeship schools. They are a kind of public elementary trade school. In point of general instruction they are of the same grade as the advanced primary schools, but less attention is paid to purely intellectual than to workshop training. The latter is usually made to conform in character to the industrial needs of the region.
Previous to 1880 public technical training lacked completely in organization. Certain municipalities, like Paris, Havre, and Reims, alive to the importance of this branch of education, had founded apprenticeship schools or annexed technical courses to their advanced primary institutions. In other cases private or industrial associations had done the same thing.
The law of December 11, 1880, assimilated all these institutions and brought them under the joint control of the minister of public instruction and the minister of commerce and industry. It ailorded also an opportunity for departments or municipalities wishing to provide the proper workshops and pay the necessary instructors to change the character of their advanced primary schools to apprenticeship schools; in other words, to pass from a system of purely intellectual instruction, or mental with a modicum of manual training, to an elementary trade education, preparing the student for the exercise of some manual occupation.
Up to the present time about fifty schools have taken advantage of this law, which is now to be further modified by eliminating entirely the control of the minister of public instruction and leaving them solely under the jurisdiction of the minister of commerce and industry. Thus they are likely to become more purely trade schools than they are at present.
M. Félis Martel, in an interesting monograph, has set forth lucidly, in parallel columns, the chief points of difference between advanced primary and manual apprenticeship schools. It must always be borne in mind that the advanced primary schools and municipal manual apprenticeship schools are of practically the same grade as the American high school. The following is a condensed translation:
ADVANCED PRIMARY SCHOOLS.
MANUAL APPRENTICESIIP SCHOOLS. 1. Creation of school.
1. Creation of school. By the decision of the council for tho By the decision of the council for the department (a) upon the approval of the department approved by the minister of minister of public instruction.
public instruction, who must previously have secured the assent of the minister
of commerce and industry. 2. Instructors.
2. Instructors. The directors and the professors are The director is chosen by the minister chosen by the minister of public instruc- of public instruction, with the approval tion alone; the assistant and special of the minister of commerce and industry, teachers by the profect of the depart from a list of three names submitted by ment.
the municipal council if the school is founded by a municipality, or by the departmental council if founded by a department. The professors and assistant teachers are appointed jointly by the minister of public instruction and the minister of commerce and industry.
The workshop instructors are chosen by the mayor if the school is municipal, responds to local needs, scholarships, a list of three candidates from which to etc., is appointed by the minister of choose a workshop instructor, to prepublic instruction upon the advice of pare for ministerial sanction a programmo the regional inspector.
by the prefect if departmental. 3. Admission of students.
3. Admission of students. Must have previously graduated from Must be at least 12 years old. If candiau elementary primary school.
dates have not graduated from an elementary primary school, they must be 13 years of age and pass an examination equivalent to that required for graduation from an elementary primary school.
5. Instruction. At least eighteen hours per week must Ten hours weekly at most may be acbe given up to literary and scientific in- corded to intellectual instruction. The struction.
bulk of the time is devoted to workshop training and to instruction in technology and science, in its application to
industry. 6. Inspection.
6. Inspection. Inspection under the direction of the Same as in advanced primary schools, minister of public instruction.
and in addition the inspectors of technical education from the ministry of commerce and industry for tho manual and
technological branches. 7. Board of supervisors.
7. Board of superrisors. A board of supervisors whose duty it To appoint thic physician for the school, is to look after the management of the prepare the budget, apportion the work school, to find places for graduates, to of class instruction amongst the different see that the programme of studies best teachers, present to the mayor or prefect
a The department in France may be roughly compared with the county in the United States.
of special studies, and in general to watch over the material interests of the school.
This board is composed of one representative each of the ministers of public instruction and of commerce and industry, and if the school is departmental the prefect as president, two members of the council of the department, and three men chosen from amongst the prominent manufacturers or merchants of the region. If the school is municipal, same as above, except that the mayor replaces the pre
fect as president. 8. Subsidics.
8. Subsidies. Solely, as far as the government is con- Subsidies accorded by both the mincerned, accorded by the minister of pub- ister of public instruction and the minlic instruction,
ister of commerce and industry; only none of the appropriation from the minister of public instruction can be applied to pay the expenses of boarding pupils, or the salaries of workshop instructors or of anything which has to do with apprenticeship training. These are at the chargo of the minister of commerce and industry. Furthermore, the subsidy from this latter source may be applied in any manner agreed upon in any covenant made with
the municipalities concerned. 9. Scholarships.
9. Scholarships. Conferred with the sanction of the Joint nomination of the two ministers, minister of public instruction by the with the advice of the local inspector and prefect upon the advice of the local in- departmental council. spector and departmental council.
The minister of commerce and industry may also give special scholarships (usually for residence abroad) out of his
budget. The table given below presents the official programme of the course of study in the manual apprenticeship schools of France. These schools are all regulated by the law of December 11, 1880.
COURSE OF STUDY IN MANUAL APPRENTICESHIP SCHOOLS.
Hours per day.
First Second Third year. year. year.
Mental instruction as given in the advanced primary schools.
2 1 3 1
2 1 5