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Course for girls between 11 and 13 years of age. All the pupils must learn to take measures. The teacher picks out two scholars at a time; the first takes the measure of the second and vice
The measurements are written on the blackboard and scrupulously verified by the teacher. The attention of the students is called to the precautions necessary when the measure is taken on clothes which already fit badly.
A manikin may be employed for a theoretical demonstration, but never in the practical, since the figures which represent the measurements of the manikin are soon learned by heart, and hence teach nothing
The measurements duly verified and corrected are left inscribed on a part of the blackboard. The teacher assigus one of the class in regular order to design on the other part of the blackboard the pattern in accordance with the given measurements. The whole class copies this--the more advanced portion on paper, the other on slates-using always life-size proportions. The teacher walks around during the exercise indicating mistakes, and after the exercise examines carefully and marks the work done. In this manner the first hour and a half of the period is occupied.
Then the scholars under the direction of the teacher place their patterns on the cloth and learn how to cut out and baste the parts together. This done, the sewing and complete making up follow. Dresses, jackets, aprons, baby linen, etc., are the objects made.
These subjects form part of the examination required for graduation from the elementary primary schools. Within a certain limit of time, at this examination, each pupil must trace a pattern of a basque in its proper dimensions, then cut it out in cloth, and baste the parts properly together.
Two and a half hours per week are given to instruction in this course.
The educational administration of Paris has thus defined the aim of these courses of study and application:
The instruction should aim at only useful ends and every exercise which is not of practical utility should be avoided. Our courses in the elementary primary schools ought not to endeavor to form workers specially trained in any particular branch of work. To do this is the mission of the trade school. The sole purpose of the instruction given should be to prepare scholars to become in later life good housekeepers and mothers of families. Therefore, as the programme shows, the work done is that which is of constant utility in the home circle, such as mending clothes, darning stockings, making linen, adapting cast off clothing of large children for younger ones, etc.
INSTRUCTION IN HYGIENE AND DOMESTIC ECONOMY,
This course of study, while purely theoretical and given orally, is an important adjunct to manual training. In certain of the advanced primary schools of Paris kitchens and laundries are attached for purposes of practical and manual demonstration, but there are none of these annexes to any of the establishments in the particular grade we are now considering.
While the oral instruction is going on the pupils have their needle. work in their hands and partially occupy themselves with sewing. This accustoms them to listen, and work with their fingers at the same time—a situation in which the practical housewife is very often placed. This course occupies three quarters of an hour per week.
Course for girls between 11 and 13 years of age.
Hygiene: Definition of hygiene. Hygiene of the dwelling. Choice of a house, sanitary requirements, ventilation. Care of the house and furniture from the sanitary point of view.
Domestic economy: Definition of domestic economy. Duties of the mistress of the house. Qualities requisite in a good housekeeperorder, economy, cleanliness, vigilance. Budget of receipts, expenses, with daily account keeping. Inventory of the furniture. Rent and taxes. Conditions of renting a house; the lease and notice to leave.
Hygiene: Heating and lighting from the hygienic standpoint. Ventilation of rooms provided with heating appliances. Dangers of having stoves in sleeping rooms; necessary precautions. Properties of different kinds of fuel and their influence upon the respiratory organs. Different modes of lighting. Precautions necessary with oil lamps, gas, etc. Influence of light on the vision. Hygiene of the sight.
Domestic economy: Choice and care of furniture. Distribution of housekeepers' work. Cleaning to be done daily, weekly, and in certain seasons. Advice upon the best way to make beds, sweep, and dust. Cooking utensils. Different forms of stoves and ovens. Lighting fires. Cleaning and lighting of lamps. Care of cooking utensils and dishes, Fuel, economic indications upon the different sorts, their proper employment. The cellar, care to be taken of wine, provisions, and general keeping in order,
Hygiene: Hygiene in relation to clothing. Properties of different kinds of cloth, silk, woollen, cotton, linen, etc. Influence of color in relation to clothing Style of clothing from the hygienic standpoint. Cleanliness of clothing and underclothing; its influence upon the health.
Domestic economy: Choice and care of clothing and underclothing. Materials necessary for all kinds of sewing. The employment of sewing machines. Making of clothing and underclothing. Patching and darning. Laundry work, materials used in this branch. Lye and soap washing. Instructions on the washing, folding, and ironing of linen. Different kinds of soil spots and the best way to remove them.
MANUAL TRAINING IN ELEMENTARY PRIMARY SCHOOLS FOR
Instruction in manual training in this grade of girls' schools at Lille does not differ materially from the system in vogue at Paris. In all of the twenty-one of these schools three and three-quarters hours are devoted weekly to instruction in sewing to picked members of the two highest classes, i. e., pupils from 9 to 13 years of age. There are in addition six courses of cutting and dressmaking, which are held from 10 to 12 o'clock every Thursday morning. Ten to fifteen chosen pupils from each school attend. The municipality makes an appropriation of 1,200 francs ($231.60) annually to defray the cost of these special courses. Students after completing them find themselves in a position to earn 1 or 2 francs (19 or 39 cents) per week immediately on leaving school. In three months' time they are paid 50 centimes (10 cents) a dày and at 16 years of age they gain easily 2 francs (39 cents) per day. At 25 years of age they are often comfortably established in businesses of their own.
Every Thursday evening, from 7.30 to 9.30, two courses in cutting and dressmaking are given to those students who have left school before having completed their studies in order to enter situations found for them by their parents. Forty-seven are now availing themselves of the privilege. The municipality bears the expenses, which amount to 900 francs ($173.70) a year.
ADVANCED PRIMARY SCHOOLS.
The official programme of courses of study in this grade of schools is given in detail in the following pages.
The distribution of classes and the amount of time accorded to each study has not been officially regulated. An inspection of the distribution of classes in such advanced primary schools as Lille, Roubaix, and Tourcoing will fairly indicate the prevailing conditions. At Roubaix, for example, an exceedingly well equipped advanced primary school exists. The city is, moreover, a great industrial centre. In this school the time per week alloted to manual training is as follows: Fourth year class, five and one-half hours; third year class, four hours; second year class, two and one-half hours; first year class, three and one-half hours. This is, however, above the average.
Workshops had, up to the year 1889, been provided for 207 of the 503 schools and supplementary courses of this grade.
The official programme of courses of study in the advanced primary schools of France includes instruction in the following subjects:
Penmanship; French language and elements of literature; history; geography; civic instruction and political economy; arithmetic; algebra; geometry; surveying; bookkeeping; elements of physics; chemistry; natural sciences; hygiene; agriculture and horticulture; modern languages; electrical instruction; singing; gymnastic and military exercises.
We give in detail so much of the official programme as relates in any way to manual training.
COURSE OF STUDY IN THE ADVANCED PRIMARY SCHOOLS.
Drawing for boys and girls.
Continuation of the exercises of the elementary schools, and application of the following programmes :
Free-hand drawing: Drawing of purely geometrical objects, from copy and relief; mouldings, ovals, heart-shaped ornaments, beads, dentils, etc.
Drawing from copy and relief: Ornaments whose elements are taken from the vegetable kingdom; leaves, flowers, fruits, palms, foliage, etc.
Exercises in designing from memory.
Elementary notions of the orders of architecture given on the blackboard by the teacher (three lessons).
Drawing of the human head: Its parts and proportions.
Geometrical drawing: Execution on paper, with the aid of instruments, the geometrical figures which in the previous schools had been made on the blackboard.
Principles of coloring with even tints.
Reproducing designs of plane surfaces and of light reliefs: Panels, church windows, tiling, inlaid flooring, ceilings. Some of those to be finished with India ink and coloring
Representations of geometrical solids and other simple objects, such as framework, pieces of carpentry, exterior stone dressing, iron work, most common pieces of furniture, etc., by means of geometrical lines. Employing of colors for indicating the nature of the materials. Coloring plans and charts.
Geometrical drawing for boys.
Plane geometrical figures. Executing, to a certain scale, from a side sketch, a plane surface decoration (tiling, inlaid flooring, borders, church windows). Coloring with even tints, the different parts, either to conform to the sketch, or to combine the colors in such a way as to obtain a satisfactory decorative effect.
Projection. Executing, to a scale to be determined, from a side sketch, a drawing of a horizontal projection (plan), and of a vertical projection (elevation) of a geometrical solid. Displacing this solid parallel to the plans of projection, and giving new projections after the displacement.
Penetration. Executing, to a determined scale, after a side sketch given to the pupil, a drawing, by projection (plan, elevation), of two solids which mutually penetrate each other. The surfaces of the solids must be developed if they can be. The following are cases of the above: A sphere and a regular prism (square or liexagonal), of which the axis passes through the centre of the sphere; the sphere and cylinder to the cono of revolution. Cylinders of the same diameter, etc.
Plans of perspective. Making, by the exact processes of linear perspection, the representation of simple solids (the cube, prism, cylinder), alone, side by side, or above one another, but without penetrating. The pupil will receive a sketch on which will be indicated the dimensions of the solids, the position which they are to
occupy on the picture, the point of view, and the height above the ground; also the dimensions to be given on the perspective picture.
Parts of machinery and plans of buildings. Execution on a given scale, after a sketch, the drawing of the parts of a machine, or the plan of a building.
Ornamental designing for boys and girls.
The proofs of ornamental drawings are always taken from models in relief.
The material conditions of acceptance, and the rules for the correction of drawings, are determined by the ministerial circular of May 1, 1883, relative to the examination of drawings by the superior commission.
Manual training for boys.
A. WOOD WORK.
Principal woods employed in the constructions and in machinery; qualities and uses.
B. IRON WORK.
Properties, varieties, qualities, and uses of iron; principal tools nsually employed in iron work.
Work with the file, the hammer, and forging, soldering, chiselling, boring, turning, putting together, and adjusting.
Sketching objects in iron or wood to be executed, and their construction after the skotch.
Manual training for girls.
The dwelling: furniture, care of the furniture.
Supplies: water, bread, milk, lard, butter, oil, cheese, sugar, coffee, etc.; choice and qualities of meats; various modes of cutting meats; boiled beef, soups, fryings, roasts.
Elementary principles of cooking.
Washing: lye washing of linens by the old and the new methods; potash, soda, soap, chlorides.
Scouring: effects of greaso, of acids, of alkalies, of mud, of ink, of paint, etc.
Clothing: qualities of the various tissues; their imitations; preserving woollens goods and furs during the summer; hygiene of clothing.
First year.—Review of the olements included in the work of the primary school in order to equalize and perfect the work already done.
Various kinds of stitches; hemming, whip-stitch, flattened seams, gathering, crocheting, knitting.
Simple darning; knitted darning.