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Of these 18+ are bearers of the diploma of licentiate of commercial science. These pupils are distributed among the following occupations:


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Connected with the university of Liege is a school of mines of high repute; but as a type of this branch of higher technical education, the institution at Mons may be briefly described. The degree of engineer from this establishment is greatly valued.

As long ago as the year 1836 it was proposed by M. Thorn, governor of the province of Hainaut, to establish a technical school for teaching subjects appropriate to the different industrial professions. The school was opened at Mons, November 1, 1837. At first the course of instruction was of two years' duration, but in the school year 1876–77 the curriculum was enlarged, and the course was lengthened to four years.

Still the actual organization of the School of Mines and Industry was 110t perfected until October 1887, when the institution kuown as L'École d'Industrie et des lines was established at Mons, the capital of the province.

Fourteen professors and five instructors are on the teaching staff. The course includes the specialties of mining, metallurgy, industrial chemistry, mechanics, locomotive, civil, and electrical engineering. At the beginning of the fourth year each pupil is allowed to choose what specialty he will adopt; until that period the studies and practical work are the same for all students.

The amual tuition fee is 120 francs ($23.16). At entrance pupils must be at least 16 years of age, and pass an examination in French, geography, history, arithmetic, algebra, geometry, and trigonometry.

The school at Mons possesses a library, laboratories, and collections, and is well equipped for its work, especially in the department of electrical engineering.

The expenses for the year 1830 amounted to 62,450 francs ($12,052.85). The state subsidy for the year was 20,013 francs ($3,868.30), the provincial subsidy was 27,087 francs ($5,227.79), the city of Mons subsidy was 9,320 francs ($1,798.76). The average attendance at the Mons school is $0 pupils a year.




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THE PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM. Public school education in France began practically in 1833. In that year the distinguished statesman, Guizot, organized primary instruction, dividing it into two grades, called respectively elementary and advanced. The lower division, the elementary, included moral and civic instruction, reading, writing, the elements of French grammar and of arithmetic, and the legal system of weights and measures. In the ad. vanced grades, in addition to these subjects, pupils were to be taught the elements of geometry and its usual applications, mechanical draw. ing, surveying, some practical notions of the physical and natural sciences, singing, the elements of history and geography in general, and particularly the history and geography of France.

The advanced primary schools did not have the success which was hoped for them, for reasons which it would serve no particular purpose to outline here, so that in 1850 they were legislated out of exist

In 1881 they were revived, and, since 1886 particularly, they have undergone a marked development. Curiously enough their suppression served to show the great gulf which existed between primary and higher education. It also marked tie period of attempts to span it, in a measure, by so-called technical trade schools.

The system of public education in France has been entirely remodelled in the last decade. The law of June 16, 1881, made primary education absolutely free. The law of March 28, 1882, rendered attendance at school compulsory for children between the ages of 6 and 13 years, aud gave to instruction a purely secular character. The law of October 30, 1886, definitely organized primary education in its various grades and confided it exclusively to the laity. In accordance with the terms of this enactment primary instruction covers the following classes of schools:

Infant schools (known popularly as kindergartens).
Elementary primary schools.
Advanced primary schools (a) and supplementary courses in

connection with elementary primary schools ().
Schools of manual apprenticeship, as defined by the law of

December 11, 1880.

a The advanced primary school (école primaire supérieure) in France corresponds very nearly to the American high school. Scholars enter at 13 years of age, after having graduated from the elementury primary school, and remain until 16 or 17.

1 In certain towns or villages where a small number of pupils wish to proceed with the higher primary instruction after having graduated from the elementary courses, instead of building up a new advanced primary school the instruction is given in courses annexed to the elementary primary schools and called cours complémentaires.

INFANT SCHOOLS. The so-called infant school (école maternelle) or, to translate literally, mother school, is really not a school in the strict meaning of that word. It is designed to create a pleasant and imperceptible passage from the home to the school, imitating the affection and indulgence of the family wliile at the same time initiating the pupil into school work and regularity. Less attention is paid to teaching the ehild a mass of facts than to the development of its different faculties without fatigue, constraint, or excess of application. He is taught to love the school and early to acquire a taste for work.

Below will be found in detail the programme of studies of these infant schools. The manual exercises are of the simplest sort, but they are, in a measure, an introduction to the more advanced training in the elementary primary schools.

There are two grades in the infant schools, an infantile division for children between the ages of 2 and 5 years, and an advanced division for those from 5 to 6. Both sexes are received, but in the elementary and advanced primary grades boys and girls are taught in separate buildings.

The following is the official programme of courses of study in the infant schools:


Children from 2 to 5 years.

Children from 5 to 6 years.

First prin Care taken of the children in order to Simple conversations interjected during ciples of teach them good habits, to gain their class exercises and recreation.-- Little moral edu. affoction, and to cause them to maintain poems explained and learned by licart.--cation. good relations the one with the other.- Relation of moral tales, followed by ques. First notions of good and evil.

tions to make sure that the pupil has nnderstood the point.--Songs.--Particnlar attention given to those children in whom the teacher has noticed some fault or vico

springing up. Exercises in Pronunciation.- Exercises having for aim Combined exercises of speech, reading, and lauguage. the augmentation of the vocabulary of writing, preparatory to orthography:-1.

the child.-Little memory exercises Oral exercises ; familiar questions baving (songs, fables, tales); questioning. for object to teach children to express

themselves clearly; correction of faults of pronunciation and local accent.—2. Mumory exerciscs; recitation of short poems.-3. Written exercises; dictation, first of a single word, then of two or three, then of short phrases.-4. Readings by the teacher, which are listened to and repeated by the

pupils. Object les. Naines of the principal parts of the hu. Elementary notions in regard to the human

Bons. In mau body; of the principal animals of body; talks on hygiene.-Comparative formation the region; of nutritious plants and study of animals, plants, stones, and metals about com- those most constantly seen, as trees and the child knows.-Distinction between mon ob familiar flowers,-Name and usage of plants uscd for nouri-hment and those em. jects. objects serving for clothing or used in ployed industrially:-Stones and metals of First no- the house, for eating and at labor.- ordinary, usage.--The air, water (vapor, tions of Study of colors and combinations at steam, cloud, rain, snow, ice).-Little natural play.-Notiens

regard to day and object lessons, with the objects them. history. night.-Observations upon periods of selves either before the eyes or in the Illustra- time (a day, week).-The names of day, hands of the children.-Familiar conversations on

evening before, and the morrow.-Age tions with tho object of teaching certain charts. of the child.-The attention of the elementary facts (the right and the left;

child is called to the difierences be- names of days and months; the seasons; tho
tween heat and cold, between rainy distinction between the animal, vegetable,
and fine weather.-Observations upon and mineral kingdoms), especially to cause
the seasons, their influences and prod. them to observe, comparo, question, and
ucts.--First lessons in the education remember.
of the senses. The child is taught to
eclect and compare colors, shades,
forms, lengths, weights, temperatures,
sounds, odors, and flavors.

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