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A tuition fee of 60 francs ($11.58) a year is charged all pupils, but the Brussels poor pay no entrance fee; other pupils of the city pay an entrance fee of 50 francs ($9.05), and those living outside the city limits 100 francs ($19.30). After six months' probation, for all lads who have been faithful there is set aside in the school treasury a certain wage, consisting of 1 franc (19 cents) a week the first year, 2 francs (39 cents) a week the second year, and 3 francs (58 cents) a week the third year; and the total is given to the pupil on graduation, but he forfeits it if he leaves without completing the course. In the fourth year the worker receives all that he can carn. The school is well managed and is fulfilling admirably the ends for which it was established. Ex-pupils holding certificates of proficiency bave obtained lucrative employment in foreign countries.

In 1889-'90 there were 32 boys in attendance. In 1892 applicants were being refused. The annual budget amounts to 12,000 francs ($2,316), the state aiding with a subsidy of 2,000 franes (8386), the city paying 1,200 francs ($231.60), and the province 700 francs ($135.10), the master tailors subscribing the balance over and above receipts.


On a similar basis is organized the School for Tailors at Liege, founded October 2, 1888, under the patronage of the government, the province, and the city. In 1890, 33 pupils were enrolled; the state subsidy was 2,000 francs (8356), that of the commune and province being 750 francs ($144.75) each. In 1891 there were 48 pupils. The earn. ings reserved for the boys amount to less than at Brussels, but the quality of work done is so fine as to have excited the admiration of renowned London firms.

At Binche a school for tailors was opened in 1890, by the communal government, with 20 attendants.


The School of Typography (École de Typographie) at Brussels orig. inated in the efforts of the compositors' union to improve the conditions of apprenticeship.

In most printing rooms the child entering to learn the trade of typesetter was a mere drudge and runner, carrying proof sheets, and doing almost menial work, and, after passing years at the business, he did not know even the elements of his trade. So many incompetents were thuis enrolled in the calling that the union asked employers to require candidates to pass an examination, and in 1882 this rule was adopted. The large number of candidates rejected, though the test was simple, dismayed the union and proved the great need for proper technical training. In 1886 the union called a joint meeting of its members and the largest printing firms, with a view to establishing a trade school; and through the efforts of the Printing Club and Library, the Printing Guild, M. Jean Dumont, editor of Le Typographe, and others interested, the Brussels School of Typography was opened in 1888. The significant fact was recognized that, in those countries where technical instruction was advanced, as Germany, Austria, and Italy, printing had reached great artistic perfection; and France, not to be outdone, had opened a school for compositors at Paris, and was then building a model institute for teaching the art of book making.

As a result of prolonged conferences and mutual concessions on the part of employers and the union the school was at last established, the publishers of Brussels agreeing to accept no workmen under 14, and to send all beginners to their free trade school.

After five years' attendance pupils pass an examination and receive a diploma which entitles them to the wages of a skilled workman. The governing committee of the institution is made up half of employers, half of workmen.

The course is divided into two parts, one giving technical, the other literary instruction. Technical teaching keeps - pace with that of the text book, and the pupil advances systematically in the knowledge of his trade to a full mastery of the printing art. During 1890, 71 young men were enrolled-19 in their first school year, 24 in their second, 18 in their third, and 10 in their fourth. The classes are held at night, and during the day the pupils may be found scattered throughout the principal composing rooms and publishing houses of Brussels. The expenses amount to about 7,500 francs ($1,447.50) annually.


A model brewing school was opened at Ghent in October 1887, founded by the Belgian Society of Brewers.

The school is divided into two sections. The first section is designed for the theoretical and practical training of foremen and journeymen brewers; tuition is free. The second section, not gratuitous, provides a complete education in the art of brewing for proprietors or directors of breweries.

During the first year 36 pupils were in attendance; of whom 13 were established brewers, 14 were sons of brewers, and 9 were aspirants to the position of brewers or directors of breweries. All these were pay pupils; but, besides, 27 attended the gratuitous section.

Stimulated by this success the organizers of the school still further developed their plan, and, in 1890, completed their work by the establishment of a scientific station, similar to those that exist in Germany, in England, and in Denmark, whose office is to study all the questions of a scientific nature that pertain to brewing.

The school now consists of three sections-a free section, a techni. cal pay section, and a higher pay section. The gratuitous branches are French and Flemish brewing, applied mechanics, practical work in the brewhouse, and excursions to breweries. The course includes instruction as to waters available for brewing purposes, the barley, its germination, drying of the malt, methods of testing the malt, brewing by the methods of infusion, decoction, etc. In short, every process of the art is fully explained and demonstrated. The courses are given alternately in French and in Flemish, for 24 consecutive Sundays; and, on certain week days, pupils practise in the breweries of the city. At the close of the school year the pupil is examined by a committee composed of two professors and four members of the ad. ministrative council of the school. With a possible 1,000 points the pupil may obtain 100 points for diligence in study, 600 points for the highest excellence in the course of brewing, and 300 points in me chanics. Graduates of the Ghent school are highly esteemed, and they obtain large salaries. The average is 1,800 francs ($347.40) a year.

The technical course, for which 500 francs ($96.50) a year is paid, and the higher course, for which 250 francs ($48.25) is paid, include much more of the theory, chemistry, and technology of brewing. A complete bacteriological laboratory has been equipped, and a model brewery is connected with the school, with a library containing Belgian, French, English, German, and American brewing journals and reviews.

The school budget of 1890 amounted to 30,000 francs ($5,790); state subsidy, 5,800 francs ($1,119.40); provincial and city subsidy, each, 500 francs ($96.50). Since the founding of the school in 1887 the Flemish course of the gratuitous section has been followed by 54 pupils, and the French course by 57. In the professional section 162 pupils have been enrolled; and at the opening of the superior section in 1890, 13 pupils entered the new department, most of whom were master brewers or the sons of established brewers.

As a proof of the excellence of this Ghent school, the new scientifie brewing institute at Berlin has adopted the same plan of study in the botanical course; and the new school of brewing at Lille (established in October 1890) has selected a course identical with that at Ghent.


No manual training schools of the type of those in Saint Louis, Toledo, New Orleans, Chicago, and Baltimore exist in Belgium. The riearest approach to their educational idea is embodied in two institutions, one at Ghent, newly established, the other at Tournay, one of the oldest foundations in the kingdom. The Tournay school, though called an industrial school and ranked as such in all catalogues, departs so widely from the lines pursued by the other industrial schools that it is more convenient and also more exact to describe it among the trade schools, of which it is by far the most important.

S. Ex. 65—13


The original aim of this establishment was to do away with the disadvantages of apprenticeship, which is usually passed under conditions unfavorable both to the technical proficiency and the character of the young workman.

In 1841 a school of arts and trades was opened at Tournay to perfeet workmen in local industries, to turn out good foremen and artisans-in a word, to teach manual labor properly. At first a boarding department was attached to the school, and workshops for hosiery, carpentry, casting iron and copper, locksmithing, and modelling. The whole was under the control of the clergy. Pupils were admitted at 8 years of age, and could remain till they were 21. The price of board was 100 francs ($19.30) a year, besides which the school appropriated three-fourths of the earnings of the pupil in the shops, the other fourth being reserved for the boy till his departure from the establishment.

In 1860 the institution reorganized more on the model of other industrial schools, retaining, however, the special workshops where the students were regularly employed all day; but, after 1865, it was on longer administered by priests, and the boarding department was kept entirely distinct.

As the school is at present operated, a theoretical industrial course, as well as shop work, is obligatory upon all pupils. This comprehends arithmetic, geometry, mechanics, physics, chemistry, industral economy, and drawing, the first year being preparatory, the regular studies covering three years besides. They are pursued only in the early morning in summer and in the evening in winter. Drawing occupies six hours a week. The day is devoted to shop work.

The governinent contracts with a large manufacturer to assume the responsibility of carrying on the school shops, where he is at liberty to engage, too, his own workmen; but he agrees to furnish always definite employment to the pupils at fixed rates. The classes in iron or wood work labor in squads under a teacher or foreman, performing all the processes requisite in the manufacture of the product. Such constant change of employment is, however, insisted on by the director of the school to prevent the lad from being a mere automaton or a routine worker, and to enable him to become proficient in all branches of his chosen trade.

Each student workman's earnings are partly reserved for him until his majority, partly turned into the school treasury. The pupils are mostly over 14 years old, and each candidate serves six months probation before being finally received. If one shows no aptitude for a trade he is sent back to his parents. On entering the boy selects as his specialty either wood work or iron work, not both. The shops actually in operation admit of considerable liberty of choice among such pursuits as carpentry, joinery, iron casting, fitting, turning, core making, and copper work. Of late a special class has been sent to a shop in the town where most beautiful and artistic ornamental iron work is produced.

The average yearly attendance is 125, and pupils come from Holland, England, Spain, Russia, and even America. The state contributes to the support of the school the sum of 21,000 francs ($4,053), while province and commune each give 7,000 francs ($1,351) a year. The book work accomplished is less than that which American high school boys undertake. In winter the theoretical course is followed by lads of the town who do not enter for shop work, which swells the enrolment to 250, and entitles Tournay to class itself with other Belgian industrial schools.


As Tournay represents the earlier ideas regarding apprenticeship, the trade school for boys at Ghent stands for modern achievements in technical instruction; but the object is not, as in American manual training schools, to educate and to develop faculty, it is to form the best possible artisan by means of scientific preparation.

In 1882 M. Lippens, mayor of Ghent, announced that the creation of a school of apprenticeship, where children coming from the primary schools could be instructed in wood and iron work, would be an essential measure of policy.

In 1883 M. Lippens and M. Dauge, the alderman of public instruction, visited the apprenticeship schools of Paris, Rouen, and Havre. The Havre school particularly attracted their attention, both on account of its excellent organization, and because of the results obtained. Vari- . ous circumstances conspired to delay the execution of M. Lippens's project. But in 1887 the aldermanic college sent a special delegate, M. Devylder the present director of the school, to Havre to study the apprenticeship school of that city in all its details, as much from an elucational point of view as from the trade and administrative standpoint. The favorable report of M. Devylder induced the board of public instruction to found a professional school for boys, and a course was opened in October 1887.

In 1890 the school was commodiously installed in a building crected especially for its accommodation. The course of study includes Flemish, French, arithmetic, practical geometry, accounts, the elements of physics and mechanics, a practical acquaintance with metals and common woods, and drawing Lessons and shop work in the well equipped school work rooms alternate during the day. No classes are held at night.

The pupils select either wood or iron as their specialty, and the shop instruction differs, accordingly, from the very first, although almost the same theoretical course is covered in both departments. Manual and mental exercises are so combined that, after three years' application,

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