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art in American academies. Every step of every process in dressmak. ing is first sketched, and then the pattern is draughted. Flowers for lace and embroidery are drawn from nature. Drawing is the foundation of the instruction in
Final examinations determine promotions to higher grades, and frequent exhibitions of work are held. Certificates are given to all who attain a certain high standard of excellence at the end of the course. The number of pupils is about 350.
The records as to the present occupations of graduates are more perfect in this school than anywhere else in Belgium. Many of these graduates are teaching in the city and provincial schools, and are holding positions of trust in foreign countries. The annual expenditure for the institution is about 40,000 francs ($7,720).
TRADE SCHOOL FOR GIRLS, RUE DES TERRES NEUVES, BRUSSELS.
The Association for the Technical Education of Women was forced, 011: account of the number of applicants who could not be accommodated at the rue du Marais, to open, in 1888, a new trade and housekeeping school for girls. It is installed in handsome quarters in a populous industrial neighborhood, and already has achieved signal success.
Both the general literary studies and the domestic classes are obligatory for all pupils. The trades taught are underwear making, dressmaking, laundry work, and millivery. The school has three aims, viz., to aid pupils to obtain a trade or business suited to the female sex and to help them to an independent position; to initiate young women into domestic work and prepare them to direct their households with intelligence, order, and economy; to continue their primary studies and turn the lessons to useful account.
The domestic classes are a direct application of the lessons given in hygiene and domestic economy. The cooking course is varied with the seasons, and pupils go to market, purchase supplies, and calculate the cost of every ingredient and every meal. In other respects the school resembles its model, rue du Marais, and bids fair to equal it in point of numbers. On the practical side the instruction is more thorough; on the ornamental side less extensive than at the parent school, rne du Marais.
The general course comprises French, Flemish, arithmetic, accounts, geometrical drawing, history, geography, natural science, hygiene, domestic economy, maternal instruction, singing, and gymnastics.
The trade course includes sewing, tressmaking, underwear making, washing, starching, and ironing.
The housework course consists of mending, patching, and the necessary sewing for the family, cooking, house and furniture cleaning, the washing of toilet articles, and various other household duties.
INTERMEDIATE TRADE SCHOOL FOR GIRLS, ANTWERP.
This school was created in 1874 by an association whose object was first to prepare young women for the normal schools, and then to train them for trades without the intervention of the usual apprenticeship in slops. Subsidized by state and city, it is, like the Brussels trade schools, governed by a council of administration of fifteen members, and the instruction follows much the samo lines. The studies last five years, two of which are preparatory. Of trades the pupil may select underwear making, dressmaking, cutting and fitting, and drawing and painting applied to various industries. The school is so largely attended that its present domicile is almost inadequate.
TRADE SCHOOL FOR GIRLS, GHENT
In 1838 the city of Ghent transformed its communal ouvroir or apprentice school annexed to the public school of the rue du Nouveau Bois into a regular trade school for girls.
The literary and trade courses resemble those of the other Belgian trade schools, lasting three years, and presupposing a primary education. At entrance the parents or guardian of the pupil agree to pay when the young girl shall have completed the course the sum of 90 francs ($17.37) as tuition, which, however, is always remitted to students who finish with credit, as a recompense for faithful application.
The dressmaking department, following the plan of the Paris schools, has established an outside clientèle, and sews for regular customers; the workers being supposed to gain greater practical knowledge by making costumes for outsiders than in sewing on their own materials or constructing useless models. Pupils assist the mistress in fitting, draping, and trying on. The proceeds of the work go to the school fund, although this plan is sometimes varied by paying the workers small wages, as in the tailor schools for boys. Drawing is here, as elsewhere, a prominent feature of the industrial training.
TRADE SCHOOL FOR GIRLS, VERVIERS.
This school was established in 1886 by private initiative, and is managed by a committee of nine members. The course of instruction combines literary studies and certain trades. Modifications have lately been made by which more attention is paid to natural science, hygiene, and domestic economy. The other branches pursued are commerce, German, industrial drawing, with special relation to trades, dressmaking, underwear making, and painting. Much stress is laid on proficiency in drawing, and the achievements of the pupils are extremely creditable. Certificates are given to pupils passing good examinations. The attendance numbers nearly 200.
INTERMEDIATE TRADE SCHOOL FOR GIRLS, LIEGE.
The city of Liege supports a trade school for girls as important and useful as those in Brussels. Besides the obligatory general studies, (livided into inferior, intermediate, and superior, seven special courses may be pursued, viz., history and literature, commerce, dressmaking, underwear making, artificial flowers, drawing, and painting. In the literature classes there were in 1892, 37 pupils; in commerce, 86; in dressmaking, 182; in underwear making, 53; in artificial flowers, 16; in drawing, 26; in painting, 17; making, with special pupils, a total of 437 in attendance.
The lessons in flower making commence with the cloth in the bolt, and cover every step-dyeing, making, assembling; they last four years and are taught by a practical flower maker, the head of a large manufactory. Many advanced trade pupils omit the literary studies of the morning and pursue only the industrial work of the afternoon. The method of instruction is founded on the intuitive principle, and aims to develop originality and to reveal natural aptitudes. The school possesses good collections of casts, charts, chemical and physical apparatus, and a small library. The trade instruction is graded, drawing forming the basis of it. After studying the first elements of form models are found in life and in nature, in landscapes, in plants and flowers. Geometry and perspective are insisted on, and the aesthetic in art and the history of art are presented in a way to appeal to the imagination and to furnish exercises useful in the practice of the pupil's future trade.
The teaching staff consists of a director, a subdirector, ten teacliers of the highest or regent grade, two governesses, five mistresses for Flemislı, German, and English, a professor of natural science, a teacher of gymnastics, a superintendent of industrial work, six dressmaking and two underwear making teachers, one mistress for artificial flowers, a professor and three drawing teachers, and a painting teacher besides. The important work accomplished by this excellent institution justifies the employment of so large and competent a faculty.
PAROCHIAL TRADE SCHOOLS.
The parochial trade and industrial schools in Belgium deserve mention, the admirable schools of Saint Luke being by far the best.
These Saint Luke schools complete, as it were, the course of Catholic instruction, receiving the pupils after their first communion and teaching them until they are about 20 years of age and have become self supporting workmen. Graduates are in great demand by employers, because of their skill as artisans, and many have set up in business for themselves, and in their own shops direct large numbers of workers at wood, stone, metal, decorative painting, stained glass, engraving, and building. Two ex-pupils are architects of wide renown, two are univer
sity professors, and many others are teachers of drawing and architecture in important schools. In foreign countries, too, they have had signal success, having established industries in France, Holland, and England.
The Ghent school was the first of the Saint Luke schools, having been founded in December 1862 by the Society of Saint Vincent le Paul. In January 1863 it was formally opened with 12 pupils from 12 to 15 years of age. By October of the same year 40 boys were enrolled; and at present 600 students of various ages, from 13 to 25, are in attendance.
At the anniversary of the founding of the Ghent school the association of alumni gave to the institution a fine building, consisting of a museum and library combined.
Under the same anthority and pursuing the same course of study schools have been established at Tournay, Liege, Brussels, and Courtrai in Belgiun, and at Lille in France.
The Saint Luke schools aim to aid young men, particularly the sons of artisans, to acquire the theoretical and practical knowledge necessary to attain an honorable position and insure their efficiency in various Occupations, as architects, managers of public works, sculptors, wood engravers, and painters. All the instruction is essentially practical, and the importance of drawing is fully recognized.
Ten years are required to complete the full course, but only those pupils destined to be architects remain so long. Four or five years suttice to give a good, artistic training as skilled workmen.
Tuition is free, and the financial resources of the Saint Luke schools are derived principally from subscriptions. The Ghent school, with 600 pupils, receives from the state a subsidy of 5,000 francs (8965), and from the province 1,500 francs ($289.50). The Tournay school has 150 pupils, Liege 100, and that at Schaerbeek, Brussels, founded in 1837, is attended by upwards of 400 pupils, and gets from the state 5,000 francs ($965).
TRADE SCHOOLS FOUNDED BY GUILDS AND TRADES.
Trades and trade unions in Belgium recognize the importance of giving apprentices more thorough training than is now generally obtainable since old fashioned apprenticeship, under which a boy might be bound out to a master, no longer exists in the kingdom. Just as the ancient guilds of London are at present endowing and even founding technical schools and classes, so the time honored "syndics” or guilds of Belgium, or their modern representatives, the master tailors and brewers, are taking steps to train workmen to greater technical proficiency.
At Louvain the Saint Peters Trade School was founded in October 1888 by the corporation of trades and commerce of Louvain. The course was fully organized in October 1889 in a fine domicile, and the
plan of study embraces drawing and elaborate trade instruction. The trade classes comprise tailoring, both cutting and sewing; carpet making, shoemaking, blacksmithing, stained glass, carpentry, joinery, decorative painting, plumbing, slating, masonry, and a botanical course for gardeners. The teachers are either scientific and technical school graduates or practical manufacturers and foremen of workshops.
In each department instruction is given also in physics and in commercial accounts. The object of the lessons is to obviate routine and to supply to the student workman those omissions in his all-round training which the specialized shop work surely entails.
Pupils must be at least 12 years of age in order to enter. The school administration is carried on by a commission appointed by the grand council of the corporation, and is composed, for the most part, of employers and workingmen. One member of this commission is charged with the daily direction of the school. Its expenses for 1890–91 amounted to 7,450 francs (81,437.85). In 1891 there were a hundred pupils in the drawing school and a hundred in the trade classes.
SCHOOL FOR TAILORS, BRUSSELS.
The master tailors at Brussels, finding no properly qualified jour. neymen tailors, resolved to establish a school for training skilled workmen.
The first Belgian school for tailors was opened at Brussels, April 12, 1880, under the control of the master tailers. The theoretical course incluies French, arithmetic, accounts, geography, history, and drawing, while in the practical department pupils undergo a three years' training which qualifies each one to make his garment (faire sa pièce). The first year is devoted to a complete course in sewing; tlie second year to completing the separate parts of a garment; the third year to putting together, pressing, and finishing the suit. A fourth year is sometimes added, after which the pupil may consider himself a finished workman.
Cutting lessons were purposely omitted from the course of study to counteract the tendency in the trade for all men to become cutters, while nobody was left to do satisfactory work with the needle. The employers believed that to create a supply of skilled journeymen would conduce to their own advantage and greatly improve standards in the business of custom tailoring. They agreed to give preference, always, to workers completing the prescribed course; and to the progressive spirit of the master tailors of Belgium the credit is due for the creation of excellent trade schools.
On account of tlie sedentary nature of the trade a complete course of gymnastics is obligatory, under a competent professor connecteil with the school. The teaching staff consists of a director, professional tailors to supervise the actual work of the shops, and a professor of science.