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course they may have elected. The number of special courses is larger in this school than in that of lower grade, and painting on porcelain is carried to great perfection.
The difference between the book work done in the ordinary intermediate grades and that covered by the trade classes in the same years is shown by the following table:
In the first year the industrial pupils give but one hour a week each to science, history, and geography, while the regular intermediate classes give, respectively, two, two and a half, and two hours. The industrial pupils devote ten hours to trade instruction, while the intermediate pupils devote only two hours to sewing. The time for drawing is largely increased, that for languages is diminished, in the second and third years.
At Molenbeek commune, Brussels, a trade school similar in character has been added to a public school already containing a kindergarten and a crèche. At Ixelles, another commune of the capital, thorough and practical trade courses have been in operation three years, and cooking has also been introduced by means of a cookery centre similar to the English central stations for the use of classes from many schools. This cookery centre has grown to its present importance from a small housekeeping school first established by a committee of ladies interested in giving domestic training to the children of the people. The Countess of Flanders is president of this society, through whose efforts house. keeping schools have been opened in various parts of the kingdom.
Beginning at Ixelles, with six workingmen's daughters as pupils and an old concierge of the building as cooking teacher, this housekeeping school now employs a directress and three assistants. Several hundred girls, coming in classes of twelve from adjoining public schools during stated hours weekly, receive instruction. Other classes attend from a neighboring convent, and Thursdays are set apart for young girls who wish to remain all day. These are usually little housekeepers in charge of the homes of absent workers. The course will be more fully described under housekeeping schools for girls, but in a general way it may be said to comprise cooking, cleaning, washing and ironing, mending, darning, marketing, keeping accounts, writing out receipts, and describing methods and domestic economy and hygiene.
MANUAL TRAINING FOR GIRLS IN NORMAL SCHOOLS.
In other communes of Brussels and in other cities of the kingdom the grafting of trade and housekeeping courses on the public school system is proceeding so rapidly that teachers to conduct these indus. trial classes in a scientific way are not numerous enough. Candidates are therefore being trained in special normal classes, and industrial instruction now forms a part of the curricula of all the normal schools.
COURSE OF STUDY IN NORMAL SCHOOLS.
The directress of the Brussels Normal School, 22 rue des Visitandines, writes as follows:
The programme of domestic economy and housekeeping classes is perfectly practicable and has for years been followed in its entirety in my school. Young women have a natural aptitude for housekeeping pursuits and the apprenticeship need not be long. The theoretical part of this programme has always figured in our school work; the practical part is newer, and we take this up after regular hours in order not to interfere with other branches of instruction.
Thus, in the second year, on Thursdays, from 2 to 4 o'clock, laundry work is thoroughly taught, the pupils coming in groups and each group having a turn once a fortnight. In the third year, once a week from October to the end of May, from 4.30 to 7.30 o'clock in the afternoon, cooking lessons are given. All the class learns the chemistry of cooking, while the active group prepares the repast, cleans the utensils, dines with the teacher, and then puts everything in order. Each group is in active service once a month.
Thus conducted, domestic work does not encroach upon the scientific and literary courses, and has the happiest effect upon the dispositions of the girls, their tastes, and even their character.
Everywhere in Belgium drawing is a most important essential in public school instruction, both for girls and boys, and needlework occupies always two hours a week, the instruction in this branch being usually given by the regular teacher of the grade. In some schools more time is devoted to sewing. At Ostend girls continue to receive needlework training throughout the entire course. The work in this departme: i is carried forward by a series of progressive lessons, and in the advanced grades the cutting and making of garments receive attention, with mending, darning, etc. Later in the course the elements of domestic economy are taken up.
MANUAL TRAINING FOR BOYS.
While industrial training for girls from the primary to the normal grades has thus been inaugurated, the boys have not been neglected. Belgium has always been quick to profit by new methods in use in other countries, and with a view to introducing manual training into the boys' public schools, in 1882 the minister of public instruction sent Prof. van Kalken to Dresden to take a course under Herr ClausonKaas. In 1883 Prof. van Kalken and M. Sluys, director of the Brus. sels Normal School for Males, were deputed to go to Sweden and study the system prevailing at Nitäs.
Prof. van Kalken, in his address before the German manual training congress at Munich in 1883, says:
The defeat of the liberal party in 1881 interfered for a time with the execution of this plan,
but in 1885 M. Sluys was authorized (by the new minister) to introduce manual training, in accordance with our report of 1853. Since then the normal school pupils have regnlarly received instruction in modelling, pasteboard work, and wood work for four hours each week. The city of Brussels has also introduced some form of manual training into all of her primary schools.
In order to form a teaching force that shall be competent to impart this instruction, the city has instituted various temporary courses under the direction of M. Sluys, with the assistance of well qualified teachers., M. Calozet manages the pasteboard work, which is his specialty, at the normal school at Brussels and in several temporary courses. He has established a journal of manual training and has pab. lished a book entitled School Pasteboard Work, in which he describes his series of models. This series is somewhat like those of Leonard and Kummer of Dresden.
The commune of Saint-Gilles, Brussels, is entitled to the honor of having opened the first course for manual training in Belgium. Wood and pasteboard work were there taught. On October 1, 1885, there was begun a course of wood work for the upper class pupils of school No. 5, under the direction of M. van Sweevelt. In March 1986 Froebellian exercises were introduced into the lower grades and pasteboard work into the intermediate grales. * Up to the year 1887 the models of the normal school at Nääs had served as guides in wood work, because this series had a genuine pedagogic value.
Yet the Swedish models could not be slavishly followed in Belgiun, and it was apparent that it would be necessary to prepare
an advanced series of models adapted to the national genius. M. van Sweevelt had begun in 1886 to execute this conception, and in the month of August 1887 he had formed a new series of 100 models of wood work.
Minister Thonissen had great faith in manual training, and resolved to establish temporary courses for the teachers of the whole country. Accordingly, in September 1887, the first course of six weeks instruction was opened at Nivelles, and in the corresponding month this year (1888) it will be repeated. After March 1889 the teachers will have to undergo an examination in hand labor before an examining commis. sion appointed by the state. The course at Nivelles was attended by 60 teachers. M. van Sweevelt instructs in wood work, M. Calozet in pasteboard work, and M. Stepman in modelling. I am engaged to lecture on the following subjects:
(1) Analysis of the ideas of Locke, Rousseau, Froebel, and Biedermann concerning manual labor.
(2) The different systems now in vogue. Manual training wears a special character in France, Sweden, and Germany. Comparison of these systems.
(3) The true character of the work in the elementary school; what distinguishes it from the instruction of the artisan.
(4) Pasteboard work: Description of the Dresden series. Wood work: The Nääs series. This series, admirable for Sweden, is not altogether suitable for Belgium.
(5) Hand labor in connection with drawing and geometrical form teaching; working after a pattern; drawing of patterns; the making of an object from the drawing. (0) Suggestions on beauty, harmony of colors, etc.
o Workshops, their equipment, the minimum number of tools reqnisite, materials, etc.
Since 1887 the state has made manual training obligatory in the state normal schools. All these institutions have received a full set of working tools for modelling, pasteboard work, and wood work. About fifty communes, also, have introduced this instruction into their schools.
To recapitulate: The number of manual training schools: All state normal schools; about fifty primary schools.
Subjects of instruction: Pasteboard work, modelling, and wood work obligatory in state normal schools; elective in primary schools.
Assistance given by the state: Temporary courses established by government; special examinations before an official examining commission; the introduction of manual labor into all state schools.
As to teachers, there are two parties; some aro adherents, and a smaller number are opponents, of the new system.
Public opinion: All journals, Catholic as well as liberal, favor the movement, but artisans are in general inimical to this instruction.
Manual training teachers: The instruction iu hand labor will be given everywhere by special teachers.
From 1888 to 1892 brilliant results have been achieved in the multiplication of these manual training classes all over the kingdom.
In Liege, at the primary school rue des Rivagois, encouraging results have been obtained in modelling, pasteboard and wood work. The city opened, besides, a special course for teachers lasting nine weeks, held from 5 to 8 p. m., and attended by thirty teachers. In the intermediate schools of Liege classes in domestic economy and housekeeping have been created. An interesting variation of these is to be seen in four cooking courses opened in connection with as many night schools in central localities.
At one night school visited by an agent of this Department over 100 pupils were present, nearly all of whom were workers in shops-tailor: esses, vestmakers, dressmakers, the remainder, as a rule, being housekeepers for the workers of their families. Twice a week cooking lessons, theory and practice, are given. The kitchen equipped by the city is altogether in white, so as to inculcate extreme neatness. The city, moreover, furnishes all materials used in the cookery demonstrations. The needlework course comprises cutting and fitting, and careful drawing of patterns, while the general literary course is that of the intermediate grade condensel. Prizes are awarded by the city to the six pupils who stand highest, this reward taking the form usually of a little free summer journey, on which the winners are escorted by a teaclier. In 1889 the successful scholars were sent in this way to the Paris exposition for several days, with ample opportunity for observation and enjoyment.
At Verviers wood work classes for boys bave proved highly success. ful, and the objects made, both by the sloid method and by the adapter methods devised by Belgian teachers, equal in finish and scientific gradations the best work done in American schools. The city has also created carpentry centres, classes from several neighboring public schools frequenting the one shop, which was fitted up at remarkably small cost, considering its excellent appointments.
SPECIAL, INDUSTRIAL, AND TECHNICAL SCHOOLS.
That portion of industrial education in Belgium with which this report more particularly deals—the special, industrial, and technical schools-falls under the supervision, not of the ministry of the interior and of public instruction, but of the ministry of agriculture, industry, and public works.
By an agreement made in 1889 the ministry of public instruction controls all theoretical teaching of hygiene and domestic economy in the primary and night schools, all manual training and needlework classes, and certain normal courses and object lessons. The ministry of agriculture, industry, and public works supervises technical and trade schools, organizes the housekeeping schools proper (écoles ménagères), and all trade and domestic training classes in the public schools. In addition it has for years carried on the great work of developing, subsidizing, and inspecting the large drawing schools, industrial schools, apprentice and agricultural schools.
To this ministry of agriculture, industry, and public works belongs the duty of inspecting workshops and enforcing factory laws. Being thus intimately connected with the industries of the kingdom and