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The director, writing under date of June 24, 1891, sends an incomplete list of the former students of the school, with the present occupation of each. The list contains 22 names. Of these pupils 20 had become draughtsmen, 1 was an architect, and 1 a civil engineer.
RHODE ISLAND SCHOOL OF DESIGN. The Rhode Island School of Design at Providence was opened in 1878, and in the year 1891 the number of students in the school was 341. In the department of free-hand drawing there were 216, in that of mechan. ical drawing 125. There were 8 in the graduating class.
Painting, modelling, and wood carving are also included in the courses of study. The course in each department is of three years' duration. There are eight instructors. A new building is now being erected for the school.
ART AND DRAWING SCHOOL, SAINT LOUIS. From Mr. G. A. Schenk of Saint Louis, Missouri, we have received a circular descriptive of the Art and Drawing School conducted by him in that city,
It appears that there are the following classes under his management:
Night school for free hand drawing (Tuesday and Thursday), from 7 to 9 p. m.; school for machinery, perspective drawing, etc. (Wednesday and Friday), from 7 to 9 p. m. Day school for drawing (daily, except Saturday), and school for carving and modelling (daily, except Saturday). Sunday school for drawing, carving, and modelling, and every Saturday drawing classes for boys and girls.
The principal writes us, under date of August 26, 1891, that within the past fifteen years he has had over 3,000 pupils in the school. Among those who have attended this private school are lithographers, engravers, architects, carvers, modellers, designers, draughtsmen, etc.
LOWELL SCHOOL OF PRACTICAL DESIGN
The Lowell School of Practical Design, Boston, Massachusetts, established in 1872 for the purpose of promoting industrial art, is now under the control of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Tuition is free to all pupils.
The school occupies a drawing room and a weaving room in the building of the institute on Garrison street. The weaving room affords students an opportunity of working their designs into actual fabrics of commercial sizes and of every variety of material and of texture. The room is supplied with two fancy chain looms for dress goods, three fancy chain looms for fancy woollen cassimeres, one gingham loom, and one Jacquard loom. The school is constantly provided with samples of all the novelties in textile fabrics from Paris, such as brocaded silks, ribbons, alpacas, armures, and fancy woollen goods.
The course is of three years' duration. The number of students in this department is limited to sixty-five.
MICHIGAN MINING SCHOOL,
A technical school of high rank, called the Michigan Mining School, is located at Houghton. It might with propriety be called a specialized technological school, as its work is essentially the same as that in the mining engineering course of institutes of technology. It is especially organized to afford training and instruction for the following classes:
(1) Those desiring a practical professional education in mining engi. neering, particularly graduates of colleges or schools in which a more general or literary education is given.
(2) Persons desiring as special students to take certain subjects as an aid in their practical work.
(3) Persons wishing as special students to obtain a knowledge of some science taught here for purposes of general education, or for use in teaching, or as an aid in some other professional course.
The course of instruction leads directly to a profession. The class of 1890 consisted of seven members. Of these four are reported as mining engineers, and one as a civil engineer. The equipment of the laboratories and shops of this institution is ample.
Intermediate in grade between the manual training school and the technological institute are the agricultural colleges of the United States. The department of agriculture has published a complete list of the schools and colleges of this class in forty-three states and territories. From an examination of the courses of study pursued in these insti. tutions it appears that eleven of these colleges of agriculture and mechanic arts in this country, namely, those of Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Ohio, Rhode Is Carolina, Tennessee, and West Virginia, hold out the promise of the degree of bachelor of arts to such as complete a prescribed course.
There are about sixty institutions in the United States devoted to agriculture and the mechanic arts, but not all of these are of collegiate rank. The state of Georgia has six agricultural colleges, but only two of them have power to confer degrees of any kind. It is hoped that a symmetrical development of the two coördinate departments of the land-grant colleges may soon be witnessed, and that neither depart ment may be overshadowed by abnormal growth on the part of the other.
We append a list of these schools, by states, with an outline of their courses of study.
The Alabama Polytechnic Institute, located at Auburn, was organized under the provisions of the land-grant act of 1862 by an act of the state legislature in 1879 as a state agricultural and mechanical college. It has received considerable aid from the state from time to time. Its teaching staff now numbers eighteen. There are five courses of study, three of which require four years each for completion, and lead to the degree of bachelor of science, viz., course in chemistry and agriculture, course in mechanics and engineering, and general course. The remaining courses, requiring but two years cach, are the course in agriculture and the course in mechanic arts.
The college affords to its students a three years' course in manual training, consisting of lessons in carpentering and turning in the first year; pattern making, moulding and casting in iron and brass, and forge work in iron and steel in the second year; and chipping, filing, and machine work in the third year. The work is obligatory with the preparatory and with the two lower academic classes, each student being required to take three exercises a week of two hours each in mechanic arts. With the junior and senior classes the shop work is optional.
The State Colored Normal and Industrial School at Huntsville was organized in May 1875. It has been aided freely by the state from the first, as well as by liberal contributions from the Peabody education fund, the John F. Slater fund, and private subscriptions. It was by the Alabama general assembly of 1890–91 made the beneficiary of that part of the congressional grant, given under act approved August 30, 1890, "to the more coinplete endowment and support of the colleges for the benefit of agriculture and the mechanic arts."
Instruction is given under the department of mechanic arts in carpentry, printing, mattress making, and shoemaking; under the department of agriculture, in farming and horticulture, and in dairy and live stock; and under the department of domestic industries, in laundry work, cooking, cutting and sewing, nursing, and housekeeping.
The number of students and the time devoted to the work in the various branches are shown in the following table taken from the cata. logue of 1890–91:
Hours Days per per day.
3 3 6 3 6
5 15 18 21 18 22
2 2 to 4
S. Ex. 05-S
In addition to the above work in classes regularly organized for spe. cial instruction, all receive lessons in domestic affairs.
All of the departments contribute in some way to the equipment of the institution, and are in most cases a source of income to the student as well as a means of training.
The North Alabama Agricultural School at Athens has a course of studies which is designed as a preparation for the Auburn college. The faculty consists of the principal and two professors.
At Abbeville is located the Southeast Alabama Agricultural School. In all there are five teachers, and the school is preparatory for the college at Auburn..
At Tucson there has been recently organized an agricultural university. Courses of study are not yet announced.
The Arkansas Industrial University, a state institution, is located at Fayetteville.
There are twenty-five in the teaching staff, and there are eight courses of study. The agricultural course of four years leads up to the degree of bachelor of scientific agriculture. There is also a two year's course in agriculture, but leading to no degree. The degree of mechanical engineer is conferred on students who have pursued a four years' course in that branch. The two years' manual training course does not entitle one to a degree. A four years' course in civil engineering leads to the degree of civil engineer, a scientific course of the same duration leads to the degree of bachelor of science, and a classical course of four years leads to the degree of bachelor of arts. There is, besides, a normal course of two years leading to a certificate of proficiency.
A course of manual training has recently been established, extend ing through the four years of collegiate study, and in close relation with the theoretical teaching. Five hours a week are given to drawing and ten hours a week to the shop work. The subjects taught in the training shops are carpentry and joinery, wood turning, cabinetmaking, patternmaking, foundery work, forging, metal fitting, machine tool wook, and care of steam machinery.
The equipment of the training shops is excellent. In the wood working shop there are 18 benches with tools, 7 turning lathes, circular saw, scroll saw, band saw, planing machine, etc. The forge shop has 9 forges and all needed appliances. The machine shops have 13 benches with vises, sets of tools, etc. The foundery has a Collan cupola with a capacity of a ton of iron.
Seventy-five students can be accommodated in the shops at one time, divided among the rooms as follows: Wood working room.
24 Metal working room
18 Forging room.... Foundery.
20 Tool room
1 Engine and boiler room
3 The department of manual training in this university has been in operatio: for so short a time that there have been no graduates from the school.
At the College of Agriculture of the University of California, located at Berkeley, there is a four years course of study, which leads to the degree of bachelor of science. Special students, also, are received. The faculty includes nineteen professors, six instructors, and fifteen assistant and other officers.
The State Agricultural College of Colorado is located at Fort Collins. There are ten members of the faculty. The courses of study are two -the agricultural and the mechanical-each leading to the degree of bachelor of science. Only two years are required to complete either of the courses in addition to three years of preparatory work.
The department of practical mechanics gives a systematic and progressive education in the use of tools and materials. It does not teach special trades, nor manufacture salable articles. So, without teaching any one complete trade, the mechanical principles of many are gained.
The shop instruction includes courses of 13 weeks each in bench work in wood, and iron and steel forging, and courses of 12 weeks eacli in wood turning, patternmaking, moulding and casting, machine work in metals, and vise work in metals.
This course consists of exercises with the different wood working bench tools, so arranged in a graded series as to embrace the manipulation of the tools in their various applications.
The first class, consisting of three members, was graduated in 1884. One of the graduates is a farmer and veterinary surgeon, another is a stockman, and the third, a woman, is married and at home. There were six members of the class of 1885. Five of them were women, four of whom are accounted for as at home, and the other one is a professor in the state college. The one male graduate is assistant to the state meteorologist, at the experiment station. The class of 1886 had only one member. Four members belonged to the class of 1857. One is an engineer, one a librarian, one a county clerk, and one is at home. The class of 1888 bad four members. One is a farmer, one a superintendent of an experiment station, one a teacher, and one a student