Astrophysics of Planet Formation
Cambridge University Press, 2010 - 284 páginas
The study of planet formation has been revolutionized by recent observational breakthroughs, which have allowed the detection and characterization of extrasolar planets, the imaging of protoplanetary disks, and the discovery of the Solar System's Kuiper Belt. Written for beginning graduate students, this textbook provides a basic understanding of the astrophysical processes that shape the formation of planetary systems. It begins by describing the structure and evolution of protoplanetary disks, moves on to the formation of planetesimals, terrestrial and gas giant planets, and concludes by surveying new theoretical ideas for the early evolution of planetary systems. Covering all phases of planet formation - from protoplanetary disks to the dynamical evolution of planetary systems - this introduction can be understood by readers with backgrounds in planetary science, observational and theoretical astronomy. It highlights the physical principles underlying planet formation and the areas where more research and new observations are needed.
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accretion rate angular momentum angular momentum transport approximately assume asteroids Astrophysical Journal bodies calculation circular orbit collisions cooling core accretion core mass deﬁned derived diffusion disk models disk surface distribution dominated dust particles dynamics efﬁcient energy envelope equation estimate extrasolar planets ﬁnd ﬁrst ﬂow ﬂuid ﬂux fraction gas disk gas giant giant planet formation giant planets gradient gravitational focusing growth Hill sphere interaction ionization Jupiter Keplerian Kuiper Belt layer magnetic ﬁeld massive planets Mcore mid-plane migration N-body observed occurs opacity orbital radii outer parameters perturbations photoevaporation physical planet formation planet mass planetary systems planetesimal disk planetesimals protoplanet protoplanetary disk radial drift radial velocity radius ratio regime resonance result scale self-gravity semi-major axis signiﬁcant simulations Solar Nebula Solar System solid solution sound speed speciﬁc star stellar sufﬁcient terrestrial planet terrestrial planet formation thermal torque turbulence vertical viscosity viscous stirring wavelength