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as containing the essence of all their sciences and mora mountain, how art thou fallen! The grand machine is Confucius.
nished his honourable career in the 720 year of his age,
Confucius, and yields to none upon earth, except to that of divine fore, as made them speak it very differently; so that Confeoia. Confusion, revelation. The religion of Confucius, notwithstand by the various inflexions, terminations, and pronun.
ing the estimation in which he is beld, is adopted as a ciations of divers dialects, they could no more under model by none of his countrymen, the literati except- stand one another, than they who understand Latin ed. Their prevailing system is a mediey of pagan can understand those who speak French, Italian, or idolatry and the fabulous superstition of the Indians, Spanish, though all these languages arise out of it. introduced into China by Fo, in the first century of the This opinion is adopted by Casaubon, and by Bishop Christian era.
Patrick in his Commentary in loc. and is certainly much CONFUSION, in a general sense, is ooposed to ore more probable than either of the former. And Mr der, in a pertubation whereof confusion consists : e. gr. Shuckford maintains, that the confusion arose from when things prior in nature do not precede, or posterior small beginnings, by the invention of new words in eido not follow, &c.
ther of the three families of Shem, Ham, and Japhet, In a logical sense, confusion is opposed to distinctness which might contribute to separate them from one anoor perspicuity: and may happen either in words, as ther: and that in each family new differences of speech when miscontrived or misapplied; or in ideas, as when might gradually arise, so that each of these families the idea of any thing presents something along with it, went on to divide and subdivide among themselves. which does not properly belong to that thing. See Others, again, as Mr Jos. Mede and Dr Wotton, &c. IDEA and NOTION.
not satisfied with either of the foregoing methods of In a physical sense, confusion is a sort of union or accounting for the diversity of languages among manmixture by mere contiguity. Such is that between kind, have recourse to an extraordinary interposition fluids of contrary nature, as oil and vinegar, &c. of divine power, by which new languages were framed
Confusion, in Scots Law, is a method of suspending and communicated to different families by a supernaand extinguishing obligations. For the illustration of tural infusion or inspiration ; which languages bave been this, see Law Index.
the roots and originals from which the several dialects Confusion of Tongues, in the history of mankind, is that are, or bave been, or will be spoken, as long as a memorable event, which happened in the one hundred this earth shall last, have arisen, and to which they and first year according to the Hebrew chronology, may with ease be reduced. As to the number of lanand the four hundred and first year by the Samaritan, guages thus introduced, many opinions bave been after the flood, at the overthrow of Babel; and which adopted. If there were no more than there were nawas providentially brought about in order to facilitate tions or heads of nations, then the number would be the dispersion of mankind and the population of the seven for Japhet, four for Ham, and five for Sbem; earth. Until this period there had been one common but if there were as many as there were families, which language, which formed a bond of union that prevented is the more probable opinion, their number cannot be the separation of mankind into distinct nations; and certainly assigned. However, the Hebrews fancy they some have supposed, that the tower of Babel was erect were 70, because the descendants from the sons of ed as a kind of fortress, by which the people intended Noah, enumerated Genesis x. were just so many. Alto defend themselves against that separation which lowing, then, the languages of the chief families to Noal had projected.
have been fundamentally different from each other, the There has been a considerable difference of opinion sub-languages and dialects within each branch would as to the nature of this confusion, and the manner in probably have had a mutual affinity, greater or less as which it was effected. Some learned men, prepossessed they settled nearer or farther from each other. But with the notion that all the different idioms now in the wbichsoever of these hypotheses is adopted, the priworld did at first arise from one original language to mary object of the confusion at Babel was the separawhich they may be reduced, and that the variety tion and dispersion of mankind. among them is no more than must naturally bave hap Dr Bryant, in the third volume of his Analysis of pened in a long course of time by the mere separation Ancient Mythology, has advanced a singular hypotheof the builders of Babel, have maintained, that there sis, both with respect to the confusion of tongues and were no new languages formed at the confusion ; butthe dispersion. He supposes that the confusion of lanthat this event was accomplished by creating a misun guage was local and partial, and limited to Babel only. derstanding and variance among the builders, without By Yarnba, Gen. xi. 1. and 8. which our translators any immediate influence on their languages. But this render the whole earth, be understands every region; opinion, advanced by Le Clerc, &c. seems to be di and by the same words in ver. 9. the whole region or rectly contrary to the obvious meaning of the word province. This confusion was occasioned, as be sup179w, shapha, “ lip,” used by the sacred bistorian. poses, by a labial failure ; so that the people could not Others have imagined, that this was brought about by articulate. Thus their speech was confounded, but not a temporary confusion of their speech, or rather of their altered; for as soon as they separated, they recovered apprehensions, causing them, whilst they continued to their true tenor of pronunciation, and the language of gether and spoke the same language, to understand the the earth continued for some ages nearly the same. words differently. Scaliger is of this opinion. Others, The interviews between the Hebrews and other naagain, account for this event by the privation of all tions recorded in Scripture, were conducted without language, and by supposing that mankind were under a an interpreter ; and he farther observes, that the varinecessity of associating together, and of imposing new ous languages which subsist at this day retain sufficient names on things by common consent. Another opi- relation to show, that they were once dialects from the nion ascribes the confusion to such an indistinct remem same matrix, and that their variety was the effect of brance of the original language which they spoke be time. See DISPERSION. 3
Confutation CONFUTATION, in Rhetoric, &c. a part of an ing any degree of cold whatever; and it is only within Congelaoration, wherein the orator seconds his own arguments
few years that its congelation by artificial means was tion. Congela- and strengthens his cause, by refelling and destroying known, and still more lately that some climates were
the opposite arguments of the antagonist. This is done found to be so severe as to congeal this fluid by the cold
Petersburg. He had been employed in making ther- M. Braun,
congelation. M. Braun, having determined to avail Conge' d'elire, in ecclesiastical policy, the king's himself of this great degree of natural cold, prepared a permission royal to a dean and chapter in the time of freezing mixture of nitric acid and pounded ice, by a vacancy, to chose a bishop; or to an abbey, or priory, means of which his thermometer was reduced to -69, of his own foundation, to choose their abbot or prior. Part of the quicksilver had now really congealed; yot
The king of England, as sovereign patron of all so far was M. Braun from entertaining any suspicion of archbishoprics, bishoprics, and other ecclesiastical be the truth, that he had almost desisted from farther atnefices, had of ancient time free appointment of all tempts, being satisfied with having so far exceeded all ecclesiastical dignities, whensoever they chanced to be the philosophers who went before bim. Animated, void ; investing them first per bacculum et annulum, however, by the hopes of producing a still greater deand afterwards hy his letters patent; and in course of gree of cold, he renewed the experiment; but having time he made the election over to others, under cer expended all his pounded ice, he was obliged to subtain forms and limitations, as that they should at eve stitute snow in its place. With this fresh mixture the ry vacation, before they choose, demand the king's mercury sunk to -100, 240, and 352°. He then congé d'elire, and after the election crave his royal as supposed that the thermometer was broken ; but on sent, &c.
taking it out to observe whether it was so or not, he CONGE', in Architecture, a mould in form of a found the gnicksilver fixed, and continuing so for 12 quarter round, or a cavetto, which serves to separate minutes. On repeating the same experiment with antwo members from one another ; such as that which other thermometer which had been graduated no lower joins the shaft of the column to the cincture, called al than 120, all the mercury sunk into the ball, and so apophyge.
became solid as before, not beginning to reascend till Conges are also rings or ferrels formerly used in the after a still longer interval of time. Hence the proextremities of wooden pillars, to keep them from split- fessor concluded that the quicksilver was really frozen, ting, afterwards imitated in stone-work.
and prepared for making a decisive experiment. This
sunk in fluid mercury.
ter, but on spermaceti, wax, &c. : for in all of these, his experiments to the Petersburgh Academy, on the
it was as constantly observed to remain stationary, p. 156. Five years afterwards he published another heat.
or even to ascend while the congelation went on. See treatise on the same subject, under the title of Supple-
ment to his former dissertation. In this he declared,
them in this respect. The most difficult of all those of success when the natural cold was of a sufficient Congetation of
which the congelation has been actually ascertained is strength for the purpose. This degree of natural cold quicksilver. quicksilver. This was long thought capable of resistThis was long thought capable of resist- he supposes to be 10 of Fahrenheit, though some
3 R 2
Congela. commencement of the congelation might be perceived unaccountable ; for, in the first place, the natural cold Congela
when the temperature of the air was as high as + 2. was scarcely sufficient, along with that of the artificial tion
there are great objections. It is worthy of remark, The experiments of M. Braun were not repeated that Gottingen, though situated in the same latitude as Of Mr Blu
by any person till the year 1774, when Mr John Fremenbach.
London, and enjoying a temperate climate in general, deric Blumenbach, then a student of physic at Got becomes subject at times to a great severity of cold. tingen, performed them to more advantage than it ap This of 11th of January 1774 is one instance: I find pears
M. Braun bad ever done. He was encouraged others there where the thermometer sunk to -12°, to make the attempt by the excessive cold of the win -16°,or-19°; and at Cattlenburg, a small town about ter that year. “ I put (says he), at five in the even two German miles distant, to -30°. By watching such ing of January 11th, three drachms of quicksilver into extraordinary occasions, experiments on the freezing a small sugar-glass, and covered it with a mixture of of quicksilver might easily be performed in many snow and Egyptian sal-ammoniac. This mixture was places, where the possibility of them is at present litput loose into the glass, so that the quicksilver lay per ile suspected. The cold observed at Glasgow in 1780 fectly free, being only covered with it as by pieces would bave been fully sufficient for that purpose.” of ice; the whole, together with the glass, weighed In consequence of the publication of Ả. Braun's somewhat above an
It was hung out at a Experiments, the Royal Society desired their late sewindow in such a position as to expose it freely to cretary Dr Maty to make the necessary application to the north-west ; and two drachms more of sal-ammo the Hudson's Bay Company, in order to repeat the niac mixed with the snow on wbich it stood. The experiment in that country, Mr Hutchins, who was snow and sal-ammoniac, in the open air, soon froze then at London, and going out with a commission as into a mass like ice; no sensible change, bowever, ap governor of Albany fort, offered to undertake the expeared in the quicksilver that evening ; but at one in periments, and executed them very completely, freezing the morning it was found frozen solid. It had divided quicksilver twice in the mouth of January and Feinto two large and four smaller pieces; one of the bruary 1775. The account of his success was read former was hemispherical, the other cylindrical, each before the Royal Society at the commencement of the seemingly rather above a drachm in weight; the four severest winter that had been known for many years in small bits might amount to balf a scruple. They were Europe ; and at this time the experiment was repeated all with their flat side frozen hard to the glass, and no by two gentlemen of different countries. One was where immediately touched by the mixture; their co Dr Lambert Bicker, secretary to the Batavian society lour was a dull pale white with a bluish cast, like zinc, at Rotterdam; wbo, on the 28th of January 1776, at very different from the natural appearance of quicksil- eight in the moruing, made an experiment to try how ver. Next morning, about eleven o'clock, I found tbat low he could bring the thermometer by artificial cold, the larger hemisphere began to melt, perhaps because the temperature of the atmospliere being then +2°: it was most exposed to the air, and not so near as the He could not however, bring it lower than -94°, at others to the sal-ammoniac mixture which lay be which point it stood immoveable; and on breaking neath. In this state it resembled an amalgam, sinking tbe thermometer, part of the quicksilver was found to on that side to which the glass was inclined: but with bave lost its fluidity, and was thickened to the iconout quitting the surface of the glass, to which it was sistence of an amalgam. It fell out of the tube in yet firmly congealed; the five other pieces bad not little bits, which bore to be flattened by pressure, with. yet undergone any alteration, but remained frozen hard. out running into globules like the inner fluid part. Toward eight o'clock the cylindrical piece began to The experiment was repeated next day, when the soften in the same manner, and the other four soon thermometer stood at +8°, but the mercury would not followed. About eight they fell from the surface of then descend below —80°; and as the thermometer the glass, and divided into many fluid shining globules, was not broken, it could not be known whether the which were soon lost in the interstices of the frozen
mercury had congealed or not. All that could be iamixture, and reunited in part at the bottom, being ferred from these experiments therefore was, that the now exactly like common quicksilver.” At the time congealing point of mercury was not below -940 of this experiment was made, the thermometer stood at Fahrenheit's thermometer. The other who attempt-10° in the
ed the congelation of this fuid was the late Dr AnThe circumstances attending this experiment are still thony Fothergill; but it could not be determined
Congela- whether he succeeded or not. An account of bis ex sensibly below it. The diameter of the bulb of the Congela-
that of the swelled part of the cylinder two-thirds ;
Others declared it as stood the evening before at -18°. A bottle of spiri-
first suggested the proper method of obviating the dif three weeks to compare their scales. On the mornDe Black's ficulties on this subject. Dr Black, in a letter to Mring of the experiment they were about 23° below directions Hutchins, dated October 5. 1779, gave the following 0.-In making it, the thermometer of the appafor making directions for making the experiment with accuracy: ratus was suspended in the bulb of the cylinder by the experi- « Provide a few wide and short tubes of thin glass, means of some red worsted wound about the upper ment.
sealed at one end and open at the other : the wideness part of its stem, to a sufficient thickness to fill the up-
the operation of congelation ; by which means the Apparatas The apparatus recommended by Mr Cavendish, and spirit of nitre, in pouring it upon the snow, sometimes
which Mr Hutchins made use of, consisted of a small touched the bulb of the thermometer, and instantly
mercurial thermometer, the bulb of which reaches raised it much higher; por did the mercury ever de-
is the precise point at which mercury ed or not, and during that time, it showed no sign of