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their theatre of war the Queen's bed-chamber. The petty expedients of each faction to distinguish itself in public from the other, are happily ridiculed in various parts of the Spectator. At the play Whig and Tory ladies sat at opposite sides of the house, and 'patched' on opposite sides of their faces: - I must here take notice, that Rosalinda, a famous Whig partizan, has most unfortunately a very beautiful Mole on the Tory part of her forehead; which being very conspicuous, has occasioned many mistakes, and given an handle to her enemies to misrepresent her face, as though it had revolted from the Whig interest. But whatever this natural patch may seem to insinuate, it is well known that her notions of government are still the same. This unlucky Mole, however, has misled several coxcombs; and like the hanging out of false colours, made some of them converse with Rosalinda in what they thought the spirit of her party, when on a sudden she has given them an unexpected fire, that has sunk them all at once. If Rosalinda is unfortunate in her Mole, Nigranilla is as unhappy in a Pimple, which forces her, against her inclination, to patch on the Whig side.' No. 81.

So angry were the Whig ladies with the Queen when she presented Prince Eugene with the jewelled sword, that they abstained in a body from appearing at Court on that occasion : - which being that of Her Majesty's birthday was evidence of unprecedented party rancour.


No. 130. Monday, July 30th, 1711. By Addison.


Spectator, No. 131. Tuesday, July 31st, 1711. By Addison.

Page 127. What they here call a White Witch. According to popular belief, there were three classes of Witches; White, Black, and Gray. The first helped, but could not hurt; the second the reverse, and the third did both. White Spirits caused stolen goods to be restored; they charmed away diseases, and did other beneficent acts; neither did a little harmless mischief lie wholly out of their way: Dryden says

'At least as little honest as he could,

And like White Witches mischievously good."


No. 132. Wednesday, August 1, 1711. By Steele. Page 130. As soon as we arrived at the Inn, the Servant enquired of the Chamberlain what Company he had for the Coach? The best possible illustration of this passage is Hogarth's print of the Inn yard. The landlady in her semicircular glass case, or penthouse bar; the parting drams being imbibed by the coachman and by some of the leave-takers; the sleepiness of the ostlers and porters, and the deliberation

of the passengers show how a journey was then commenced. The enquiry made by the servant was usual. It was a pardonable curiosity in the Spectator to try and learn with whom he was to be jumbled over rugged roads for the three entire days which were consumed by a stage-coach in a single transit from Worcester to London.

Although it was more than a half century later before any great advance in road-making took place, yet the dawn of improvement in carriages was just beginning to break. To the Spectator for June 24, 1711, is appended the following advertisement:

'Whereas Her Majesty has been graciously pleased lately to grant Letters Patent to Henry Mill, Gent. for the Sole Use and Benefit of making and vending certain Steel Springs by him invented for the Ease of Persons riding in Chaises, &c. They effectually prevent all Jolts on Kennels and Rugged Ways.'

Page 131. The Captain's Half-Pike. The soldier's pike had been recently superseded by the socket bayonet. Noncommissioned officers however retained the halbert, and officers their half-pike. The Duke of Monmouth is described at the battle of Sedgemoor as having rushed about on foot among his broken levies to encourage them 'pike in hand.' Page 134. Our Reckonings, Apartments and Accommodation fell under Ephraim. This duty was rather onerous, on account of the number of stoppages on the road, the consequent multiplicity of reckonings, and the equal number of attempts at over-charge. It was the custom for the male to pay for the refreshments of the female passengers. This

was often felt as a grievous tax, and was in some cases resisted. Thoresby, in recording in his diary a stage-coach journey from Wakefield to London in 1714, states that on the third day there was an accession of passengers, which, though Females, were more chargeable in Wine and Brandy than the former Part of the journey, wherein we had neither; but the Next Day we gave them Leave to Treat Themselves.'

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Page 134. The right we had of taking Place, as going to London; of all Vehicles coming from thence. This rule of the road was occasioned by the bad condition of the public ways. On the best lines of communication ruts were so deep and obstructions so formidable that it was only in fine weather that the whole breadth of the road was available, for on each side was often a quagmire of mud. Seldom could two vehicles pass each other unless one of them stopped. Which that should be caused endless disputes, and not a few accidents. Some obstinate drivers preferred disputation, and even collision and broken wheels or broken bones, to'pulling up' in deference to a rival Jehu. At such times the path was blocked up for hours, and when an accumulation of vehicles was the consequence, the end was a general fight amongst the carriers, carters, and coachmen. Single combat also arose, from a like cause, among pedestrians in the streets to settle the important question of who should take the wall.' This was a real privilege when, in ordinary weather, the edge of the foot-path was heaped with mud; and, on wet days, streams poured upon it from the eaves of the houses.


No. 269. Tuesday, January 8, 1712. By Addison. Page 136. He told me that his Master was come up to get a Sight of Prince Eugene. The Prince's mission to this country was no less popular than his victories — gained in association with Marlborough-had made his person. It was to urge the prosecution with Austria of the war against France in terms of the treaty of 1706, and to endeavour to restore to the Queen's favour his great ally the Duke, who had only four days before his arrival been dismissed with disgrace from all his employments. Gratitude, esteem, the partnership in so many military operations,' we read in Prince Eugene's Autobiography, and pity for a person in disgrace, caused me to throw myself with emotion into Marlborough's arms.'

Nothing could exceed the enthusiastic reception with which Eugene was greeted; and, an adroit illustration of the eagerness of the public to behold him, is the bringing Sir ROGER up to London solely for that purpose, only two days after the Prince's appearance. 'The knight,' says the Spectator, made me promise to get him a stand in some convenient place where he might have a full view of that extraordinary man.' This was in fact a necessity; for whenever the Prince ventured in the streets, he was beset by eager multitudes, from the evening of his arrival (5th January, 1712) till his departure.

While there was a chance of gaining over the illustrious

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