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of the interest of the public debt, and for the purchase thereof, on acccunt of the sinking-fund. Every bond, certificate, or other evidence of the debt of the State, shall be signed by the treasurer and countersigned by the comptroller, and no new certificate or other evidence intended to replace another shall be issued until the old one shall be delivered to the treasurer, and authority executed in due form for the transfer of the same shall be filed in his office, and the transfer accordingly made on the books thereof, and the certificate or other evidence cancelled; but the legislature may make provision for the loss of certificates or other evidence of the debt
SEC. 4. The treasurer shall render his accounts quarterly to the comptroller; and on the third day of each session of the legislature he shall submit to the senate and house of delegates fair and accurate copies of all accounts by him from time to time rendered and settled with the comptroller. He shall at all times submit to the comptroller the inspection of the moneys in his hands, and perform all other duties that shall be prescribed by law.
SUNDRY OFFICERS. SECTION 1. At the first general election of delegates to the general assembly, after the adoption of this constitution, four commissioners shall be elected as hereinafter provided, who shall be styled “ commissioners of public works,” and who shall exercise a diligent and faithful supervision of all public works, in which the State may be interested as stockholder or creditor, and shall represent the State in all meetings of the stockholders, and shall appoint the directors in every railroad or canal company in which the State has the constitutional power to appoint directors. It shall also be the duty of the commissioners of public works to review, from time to time, the rate of tolls adopted by any company; use all legal powers which they may possess to obtain the establishment of rates of toll, which may prevent an injurious competition with each other, to the detriment of the interests of the State ; and so to adjust them as to promote the agriculture of the State. It shall also be the duty of the said commissioners of public works to keep a journal of their proceedings; and at each regular session of the legislature to make to it a report, and to recommend such legislation as they shall deem necessary and requisite to promote or protect the interest of the State in the public works; and perform such other duties as may be prescribed by law. They shall each receive such salary as may be allowed by law, which shall not be increased or diminished during their continuance in office.
SEC. 2. For the election of the commissioners of public works, the State shall be divided into four districts. The counties of Alleghany, Washington, Frederick, Carroll, Baltimore, and Harford shall constitute the first district; the counties of Montgomery, Howard, Anne Arundel, Calvert, Saint Mary's, Charles, and Prince George's shall constitute the second district; Baltimore City shall constitute the third district; the counties of Cecil, Kent, Queen Anne's, Talbot, Caroline, Dorchester, Somerset, and Worcester shall constitute the fourth district. One commissioner shall be elected in each district, who shall have been a resident thereof at least five years next preceding his election.
SEC. 3. The said commissioners shall be elected by the qualified voters of their districts respectively; the returns of their election shall be certified to the governor, who shall, by proclamation, declare the result of the election. Two of the said commissioners first elected shall hold their office for four years, and the other two for two years from the first Monday of December next succeeding their election. And at the first meeting after their election, or as soon thereafter as practicable, they shall determine by lot who of their number shall hold their offices for four and two years respectively; and thereafter there shall be elected as aforesaid, at each general election of delegates, two commissioners for the term of four years, to be taken from the districts respectively wherein the commissioners resided at the time of their election, whose term of service has expired. And in case of a vacancy in the office of either of said commissioners, by death, resignation, or otherwise, the governor, by and with the advice and consent of the senate, shall appoint some qualified person from the same district, to serve until the next general election of delegates, when an election
shall be held, as aforesaid, for a commissioner for the residue of said term. And in case of an equal division in the board of commissioners, on any subject committed to their charge, the treasurer of the State shall have power, and shall be called on to decide the same. And in the event of a tie vote for any two of the candidates for the office of commissioner in the same district, it shall be the duty of the governor to commission one or the other of the candidates having the equal number of votes. And if the governor doubt the legality or result of any election held for said commissioners, it shall be his duty to send the returns of such election to the house of delegates, who shall judge of the election and qualification of the candidates at such election.
SEC. 4. During the continuance of the lottery system in this State, there shall be elected by the legal and qualified voters of the State, at every general election for delegates to the general assembly, one commissioner of lotteries, who shall hold his office for two years, and till the qualification of his successor, and shall be reëligible. His whole compensation shall be paid out of the fund raised for the Maryland consolidated lottery.grants, and shall not exceed the amount of commissions received by one of the present lottery commissioners, out of said fund; and he shall give such bond, for the faithful performance of his duties, as is now given by the lottery commissioners. The term of the commissioner, who shall be elected at the general election for delegates next succeeding the adoption of this constitution, shall commence at the expiration of the commissions of the present lottery commissioners, and continue for two years, and till the qualification of his successor.
SEC. 5. From and after the first day of April, eighteen hundred and fifty-nine, no lottery scheme shall be drawn, for any purpose whatever, nor shall any lottery-ticket be sold in this State; and it shall be the duty of the several commissioners elected under this constitution to make such contract or contracts as will extinguish all existing lottery-grants before the said first day of April, eighteen hundred and fifty-nine, and also secure to the State a clear yearly revenue equal to the average amount derived by the State from the system for the last five years; but no such contract or contracts shall be valid until approved by the treasurer and comptroller.
SEC. 6. There shall be a commissioner of the land-office elected by the qualified voters of the State, at the first general election of delegates to the assembly after the ratification of this constitution, who shall hold his office for the term of six years from the first day of January next after his election. The returns of said election shall be made to the governor, and in the event of a tie between any two or more candidates, the governor shall direct a new election to be held by writs to the several sheriffs, who shall hold said election after at least twenty days' notice, exclusive of the day of election. The said commissioner shall sit as judge of the land-office, and receive therefor the sum of two hundred dollars per annum, to be paid out of the State treasury. He shall also perform the duties of the register of the land-office, and be entitled to receive therefor the fees now chargeable in said office; and he shall also perform the duties of examiner-general, and be entitled to receive therefor the fees now chargeable by said officer. The office of register of the land-office and examinergeneral shall be abolished from and after the election and qualification of the commissioner of the land-office.
SEC. 7. The State librarian shall be elected by the joint vote of the two branches of the legislature, for two years, and until his successor shall be elected and qualified. His salary shall be one thousand dollars per annum. He shall perform such duties as are now or may hereafter be prescribed by law.
Sec. 8. The county authorities now known as levy courts or county commissioners, shall hereafter be styled "county commissioners," and shall be elected by general ticket, and not by districts, by the voters of the several counties, on the first Wednesday in November, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-one, and on the same day in every second year thereafter. Said commissioners shall exercise such powers and duties only as the legislature may from time to time prescribe; but such powers and duties and the tenure of office shall be uniform throughout the State, and the legislature shall, at or before its second regular session, after the adoption of this constitution, pass such laws as may be necessary for determining the number for each county,
and ascertaining and defining the powers, duties, and tenure of office of said commissioners; and until the passage of such laws the commissioners elected under this constitution shall have and exercise all the powers and duties in their respective counties, now exercised by the county authorities under the laws of the State.
Sec. 9. The general assembly shall provide by law for the election of road supervisors, in the several counties, by the voters of the election-districts respectively, and may provide by law for the election or appointment of such other county officers as may be required and are not herein provided for, and prescribe their powers and duties; but the tenure of office, their powers and duties, and mode of appointment, shall be uniform throughout the State.
SEC. 10. The qualified voters of each county, and the city of Baltimore, shall, at the first election of delegates after the adoption of this constitution, and every two years thereafter, elect a surveyor for the counties, and the city of Baltimore, respectively, whose duties and compensation shall be the same as are now prescribed by law for the county and city surveyors, respectively, or as may hereafter be prescribed by law. The term of office of said county and city surveyors, respectively, shall commence on the first Monday of January next succeeding their election. And vacancies in said office of surveyors, by death, resignation, or removal from their respective counties or city, shall be filled by the commissioners of the counties, or mayor and city council of Baltimore, respectively.
SEO 11. The qualified voters of Worcester County shall, at the first election of delegates after the adoption of this constitution, and every two years thereafter, elect a wreck-master for the said county, whose duties and compensation shall be the same as are now prescribed or may be hereafter prescribed by law. The term of office of said wreck-master shall commence on the first Monday of January next succeeding his election; and a vacancy in said office, by death, resignation, or removal from the county, shall be filled by the county commissioners of said county, for the residue of the term thus made vacant.
SECTION 1. That part of Anne Arundel County called Howard district is hereby erected into a new county, to be called Howard County, the inhabitants whereof shall have, hold, and enjoy all such rights and privileges as are held and enjoyed by the inhabitants of the other counties in this State; and its civil and municipal officers, at the time of the ratification of this constitution, shall continue in office until their successors shall have been elected or appointed, and shall have qualified as such; and all rights, powers, and obligations incident to Howard district of Anne Arundel County shall attach to Howard County:
Sec. 2. When that part of Alleghany County lying south and west of a line beginning at the summit of Big Back Bone or Savage Mountain, where that mountain is crossed by Mason and Dixon's line, and running thence by a straight line to the middle of Savage River where it empties into the Potomac River, thence by a straight line to the nearest point or boundary of the State of Virginia, then with said boundary to the Fairfax stone, shall contain a population of ten thousand, and the majority of electors thereof shall desire to separate and form a new county, and make known their desire by petition to the legislature, the legislature shall direct, at the next succeeding election, that the judges shall open a book at each election-district in said part of Alleghany County, and have recorded therein the vote of each elector "for or against" a new county. In case the majority are in favor, then said part of Alleghany County to be declared an independent county, and the inhabitants whereof shall have and enjoy all such rights and privileges as are held and enjoyed by the inhabitants of the other counties in this State: Provided, That the whole representation in the returns of every census of the United States, hereafter taken, to pass a law for the general assembly of the county, when divided, shall not exceed the present delegation of Alleghany County, allowed under this constitution, until after the next census.
MILITIA. SECTION 1. It shall be the duty of the legislature to pass laws for the enrolment of the militia; to provide for districting the State into divisions, brigades, battalions, regiments, and companies, and to pass laws for the effectual encouragement of volunteer corps by some mode which may induce the formation and continuance of at least one volunteer company in every county and division in the city of Baltimore. The company, battalion, and regimental officers (staff-officers excepted) shall be elected by the persons composing their several companies, battalions, and regiments
. SEC. 2. The adjutant-general shall be appointed by the governor, by and with the advice and consent of the senate. He shall hold his office for the term of six years, and receive the same salary as heretofore, until changed by the legislature.
MISCELLANEOUS. SECTION 1. Every officer of this State, the governor excepted, the entire amount of whose pay or compensation received for the discharge of his official duties shall exceed the yearly sum of three thousand dollars, shall keep a book, in which shall be entered every sum or sums of money received by him or on his account as a payment or compensation for his performance of official duties, a copy of which entries in said book, verified by the oath of the officer by whom it is directed to be kept, shall be returned yearly to the treasurer of the State for his inspection and that of the general assembly of Maryland; and each of such officers, when the amount received by him for the year shall exceed the sum of three thousand dollars, shall yearly pay over to the treasurer the amount of such excess by him received, subject to such disposition thereof as the legislature may deem just and equitable. And any such officer failing to comply with the said requisition shall be deemed to have vacated his office, and be subject to suit by the State for the amount that ought to have been paid into the treasury.
Sec. 2. The legislature shall have power to pass all such laws as may be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the powers vested by this constitution in any department or office of the government, and the duties imposed upon them thereby.
SEC. 3. If in any election directed by this constitution any two or more candidates shall have the highest and an equal number of votes, a new election shall be ordered, unless in cases specially provided for by the constitution.
SEC. 4. The trial by jury of all issues of fact in civil proceedings, in the several courts of law in this State, where the amount in controversy exceeds the sum of five dollars, shall be inviolably preserved.
Sec. 5. In the trial of all criminal cases the jury shall be the judges of law as well
Sec. 6. The legislature shall have power to regulate by law all matters which relate to the judges, time, place, and manner of holding elections in this state, and of making returns thereof: Provided, That the tenure and term of office, and the day of election, shall not be affected thereby.
SEC. 7. All rights vested, and all liabilities incurred, shall remain as if this constitution had not been adopted.
SEC. 8. The governor and all officers, civil and military, now holding commissions under this State, shall continue to hold and exercise their offices, according to their present tenure, until they shall be superseded, pursuant to the provisions of this constitution, and until their successors be duly qualified.
SEC. 9. The sheriffs of the several counties of this State, and of the cty of Baltimore, shall give notice of the several elections authorized by this constitution, in the manner prescribed by existing laws for elections under the present constitution.
Sec. 10. This constitution, if adopted by a majority of the legal votes cast on the first Wednesday of June next, shall go into operation on the fourth day of July next, and on and after said day shall supersede the present constitution of this state.
AMENDMENT OF THE CONSTITUTION. It shall be the duty of the legislature, at its first session immediately succeeding ascertaining, at the next general election of delegates, the sense of the people of Mar;land in regard to the calling a convention for altering the constitution; and in case the majority of votes cast at said election shall be in favor of calling a convention, the legislature shall provide for assembling such convention, and electing delegates thereto at the earliest convenient day; and the delegates to the said convention shall be elected by the several counties of the State and the city of Baltimore, in proportion to their representation respectively in the senate and house of delegates at the time when said convention may
be called. Done in convention, the 13th day of May, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and fifty-one, and of the Independence of the United States the seventy-fifth.
J. G. CHAPMAN, President. GEORGE G. BREWER, Secretary.
CONSTITUTION OF MARYLAND—1864.*
DECLARATION OF RIGHTS.
We, the people of the State of Maryland, grateful to Almighty God for our civil and
religious liberty, and taking into our serious consideration the best means of establishing a good constitution in this State, for the sure foundation and more permanent security thereof, declare:
ARTICLE 1. That we hold it to be self-evident that all men are created equally free; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, among which are life, liberty, the enjoyment of the proceeds of their own labor, and the pursuit of happiness.
ART. 2. That all government of right originates from the people, is founded in compact only, and instituted solely for the good of the whole; and they have at all times the unalienable right to alter, reform, or abolish their form of government in such manner as they may deem expedient.
Art. 3. That the people of this State ought to have the sole and exclusive right of regulating the internal government and police thereof.
ART. 4. That the inhabitants of Maryland are entitled to the common law of England, and the trial by jury according to the course of that law, and to the benefit of such of the English statutes as existed on the fourth day of July, seventeen hundred and seventy-six, and which, by experience, have been found applicable to their local and other circumstances, and have been introduced, used, and practised by the courts of law or equity, and also of all acts of assembly in force on the first day of June, eighteen hundred and sixty-four, except such as may have since expired or may be inconsistent with the provisions of this constitution, subject, nevertheless, to the revision of and amendment or repeal by the legislature of this State; and the inhabitants of Maryland are also entitled to all property derived to them from or under the charter granted by His Majesty Charles the First to Cecillus Calvert, Baron of Baltimore.
* This constitution was framed by a convention which met at Annapolis April 27, 1864, and completed its labors September 6, 1864. It was submitted to the people, and ratified October 12 and 13, 1864, by the following vote: Home voic, 27,541 for, 29,536 against, and 61 blank: Soldiers' vote, 2,633 for, and 263 against ; majority in favor of ratification, 375,