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the same shall be confirmed, if it be confirmed, and annually thereafter during the regular session of the senate, and on such particular day, if any, or within such particular period as may be prescribed by law, to nominate, and by and with the advice and consent of the senate, to appoint a secretary of state, who shall hold his office until a successor shall be appointed, and who shall discharge such duties, and receive such compensation, as shall be prescribed by law.

SEC. 18. In case a vacancy shall occur in the office of governor at any time after this act shall go into operation, the general assembly, if in session, or if in the recess at their next session, shall proceed to elect, by joint ballot of the two houses, some person, being a qualified resident of the gubernatorial district from which the governor for said term is to be taken, to be governor for the residue of said term in place of the person originally chosen; and in every case of vacancy, until the election and qualification of the person succeeding, the secretary of state, by virtue of his said office, shall be clothed, ad interim, with the executive powers of government; and in case there shall be no secretary of state, or in case he shall refuse to act, remove from the State, die, resign, or be removed for cause, the person filling the office of president of the senate shall, by virtue of his said office, be clothed, ad interim, with the executive powers of government; and in case there shall be no president of the senate, or in case he shall refuse to act, remove from the State, die, resign, or be removed for cause, the person filling the office of speaker of the house of delegates shall, by virtue of his said office, be clothed, ad interim, with the executive powers of government.

Sec. 19. The term of office of the governor, who shall be chosen on the first Monday of January next, shall continue for the term of one year, and until the election and qualification of a successor, to be chosen as hereinafter mentioned.

SEC. 20. At the time and places of holding the elections in the several counties of this State, and in the city of Baltimore, for delegates to the general assembly for the December session of the year eighteen hundred and thirty-eight, and before the same judges by whom the election for delegates shall be held, and in every third year forever thereafter, an election shall also be held for a governor of this state, whose term of office shall commence on the first Monday of January next ensuing the day of such election, and continue for three years, and until the election and qualification of a successor; at which said election every person qualified to vote for delegates to the general assembly, at the place at which he shall offer to vote, shall be entitled to vote for governor, and the person voted for as governor shall possess the qualifications now required by the constitution and form of government, and the additional qualification of being at least thirty years of age, and of being, and of having been for at least three whole years before, a resident within the limits of the gubernatorial district from which the governor is to be taken at such election, according to the priority which shall be determined as hereinafter mentioned; that is to say, the State shall be, and the same is hereby, divided into three gubernatorial districts, as follows: the counties of Cecil, Kent, Queen Anne's, Caroline, Talbot, Dorchester, Somerset, and Worcester shall together compose one district, and until its number shall be determined as hereinafter provided, shall be known as the eastern district; the counties of Saint Mary's, Charles, Calvert, Prince George's, Anne Arundel, inclusive of the city of Annapolis, Montgomery, and Baltimore City, shall together compose one district, and, until its number shall be determined as hereinafter provided, shall be known as the southern district; Baltimore, Harford, Carroll, Frederick, Washington, and Alleghany Counties shall together compose one district, and until its number shall be determined as hereinafter provided, shall be known as the northwestern district; and for the purpose of determining the respective numbers and order of priority of said districts in the same session in which this act shall be confirmed, if the same shall be confirmed as hereinafter mentioned, and on some day to be fixed by concurrence of the two branches, the speaker of the house of delegates shall present to the president of the senate, in the senate chamber, a box containing three ballots of similar size and appearance, and on which shall severally be written, eastern district, southern district, northwestern district; and the president of the senate shall thereupon draw from said box the said several ballots in succession, and the district, the name of which shall be written on the ballot first drawn, shall thenceforth

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be distinguished as the first gubernatorial district, and the person to be chosen gorernor at ihe election first to be held under the provisions of this section, and the Ferson to be chosen at every succeeding third election for governor forever thereafter, shall be taken from the said first district; and the district, the name of which shall be written on the ballot secondly drawn, shall thenceforth be distinguished as the second gubernatorial district, and the person to be chosen governor at the second election to Le held under the provisions of this section, and the person to be chosen at every succeeding third election for governor forever thereafter, shall be taken from the said second district, and the district, the name of which shall be written on the Lallot thirdly drawn, shall thenceforth be distinguished as the third gubernatorial district, and the person to be chosen governor at the third election to be held under the provisions of this section, and the person to be chosen at every succeeding third election forever thereafter, shall be taken from the said third district; and the result of such drawing shall be entered on the journal of the senate, and be reported by the peaker of the house of delegates on his return to that body, and be entered on the journal thereof, and shall be certified by a joint letter, to be signed by the president of the senate and the speaker of the house of delegates, and be addressed and transmitted to the secretary of state, if appointed, and if rot, as soon as he shall be appointed, to be by him preserved in his office.

SEC. 21. The general assembly shall have power to regulate by law all matters which relate to the judges, time, place, and manner of holding elections for governor, and of making returns thereof not affecting the tenure and term of office thereby, and that until otherwise directed, the returns shall be made in like manner as in elections for electors of President and Vice-President, save that the form of the certificates shall le varied to suit the case, and save also that the returns, instead of being made to the governor and council, shall be made to the senate, and be addressed to the president of the senate, and be inclosed under cover to the secretary of state, by whom ihey shall be delivered to the president of the senate, at the commencement of the session next ensuing such election.

SEC. 22. Of the persons voted for as governor at any such election, the person having, in the judgment of the senate, the highest number of legal votes, and possessing the legal qualifications, and resident, as aforesaid, in the district from which the governor at such election is to be taken, shall be governor, and shall quality in the manner prescribed by the constitution and laws, on the first Monday of January next crsuing his election, or as soon thereafter as may be, and all questions in relation to the number or legality of the votes given for each and any person voted for as governor, and in relation to the returns, and in relation to the qualifications of the persons voted for as governor, shall be decided by the senate, and in case two or more persons, legally qualified according to the provisions of this act, shall have an equal number of legal votes, then the senate and house of delegates, upon joint ballot, shall determine which one of them shall be governor, and the one which, upon counting the ballots, shall have the highest number of votes, shall be governor, and shall quality accordingly.

SEC. 23. No person who shall be elected, and shall act as governor, shall be again cligible for the next succeeding term.

SEC. 24. The elections to be held in pursuance of this act shall be held on the first Wednesday of October, in the year eighteen hundred and thirty-eight; and for the election of delegates on the same day in every year thereafter, for the elect on of governor on the same day in every third year thereafter, and for the election of senators of the first class, on the same day, in the second year after their election and classification, and on the same day in every sixth year thereafter; and for the election of senators of the second class, on the same day in the fourth year after their election and classification, and on the same day in every sixth year thereafter; and for the clection of senators of the third class, on the same day, in the sixth year after their election and classification, and on the same day in every sixth year

thereafter. SEC. 25. In all elections for governor, the city of Annapolis shall be deemed and taken as part of Anne Arundel County.

SEC. 26. The relation of master and slave, in this State, shall not be abolished,

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unless a bill so to abolish the same shall be passed by a unanimous vote of the members of each branch of the general assembly, and shall be published at least three months before a new election of delegates, and shall be confirmed by a unanimous vote of the members of each branch of the general assembly, at the next regular constitutional session after such new election, nor then, without full compensation to the master for the property of which he shall be thereby deprived.

Sec. 27. The city of Annapolis shall continue to be the seat of government, and the place of holding the sessions of the court of appeals for the western shore, and the high court of chancery.

SEC. 28. If this act shall be confirmed by the general assembly, after a new election of delegates, in the first session after such new election, agreeably to the

provisions of the constitution and from of government, then and in such case this act, and the alterations and amendments of the constitution therein contained, shall be taken and considered, and shall constitute and be valid, as a part of said constitution and form of government, anything in the said constitution and form of government to the contrary notwithstanding.

RATIFIED 1846. ART. XXVI. That the sessions of the general assembly be biennial instead of annual.

CONSTITUTION OF MARYLAND—1851.*

THE DECLARATION OF RIGHTS.

We, the people of the State of Maryland, grateful to Almighty God for our civil and

religious liberty, and taking into our serious consideration the best means of establishing a good constitution in this State, for the sure foundation and more permanent security thereof, declare:

ARTICLE 1. That all government of right originates from the people, is founded in compact only, and instituted solely for the good of the whole; and they have at all times, according to the mode prescribed in this constitution, the unalienable right to alter, reform, or abolish their form of government, in such manner as they may deem expedient.

ART. 2. That the people of this State ought to have the sole and exclusive right of regulating the internal government and police thereof.

ART. 3. That the inhabitants of Maryland are entitled to the common law of Eng. land, and the trial by jury according to the course of that law, and to the benefit of such of the English statutes as existed on the fourth day of July, seventeen hundred and seventy-six, and which, by experience, have been found applicable to their local and other circumstances, and have been introduced, used, and practised by the courts of law or equity, and also of all acts of assembly in force on the first Monday of November, eighteen hundred and fifty, except such as may have since expired, or may be altered by this constitution, subject, nevertheless, to the revision of, and amendment or repeal by the legislature of this State; and the inhabitants of Maryland are also entitled to all property derived to them from or under the charter granted by His Majesty Charles the First to Cæcilius Calvert, Baron of Baltimore.

Art. 4. That all persons invested with the legislative or executive powers of government are the trustees of the public, and as such accountable for their conduct; wherefore, whenever the ends of government are perverted, and public liberty manifestly endangered, and all other means of redress are ineffectual, the people may, and of right ought to, reform the old or establish a new government. The doctrine of non-resistance against arbitrary power and oppression is absurd, slavish, and destructive of the good and happiness of mankind.

* This constitution was framed by a convention which met at Annapolis November 4, 1850, and completed its labors May 13, 1851. It was ratified by the people June 4, 1851.

ART. 5. That the right of the people to participate in the legislature is the best security of liberty, and the foundation of all free government; for this purpose elections ought to be free and frequent, and every free white male citizen having the qualifications prescribed by the constitution ought to have the right of suffrage.

ART. 6. That the legislative, executive, and judicial powers of government ought to be forever separate and distinct from each other; and no person exercising the functions of one of said departments shall assume or discharge the duties of any other.

ART. 7. That no power of suspending laws, or the execution of laws, unless by or derived from the legislature, ought to be exercised or allowed.

Art. 8. That freedom of speech and debate, or proceedings in the legislature, ought not to be impeached in any court of judicature.

Art. 9. That Annapolis be the place for the meeting of the legislature; and the legislature ought not to be convened or held at any other place but from evident necessity.

ART. 10. That for the redress of grievances, and for amending, strengthening, and preserving the laws, the legislature ought to be frequently convened.

ART. 11. That every man hath a right to petition the legislature for the redress of grievances in a peaceable and orderly manner.

Art. 12. That no aid, charge, tax, burden, or fees ought to be rated or levied, under any pretence, without the consent of the legislature.

Art. 13. That the levying of taxes by the poll is grievous and oppressive, and ought to be abolished; that paupers ought not to be assessed for the support of government, but every other person in the State, or person holding property therein, ought to contribute his proportion of public taxes, for the support of government, according to his actual worth in real or personal property; yet fines, duties, or taxes may properly and justly be imposed or laid on persons or property, with a political view, for the good government and benefit of the communiiy.

ART. 14. That sanguinary laws ought to be avoided as far as is consistent with the safety of the State; and no law to intlict cruel and unusual pains and penalties ought to be made in any case, or at any time hereafter.

Art. 15. That retrospective laws, punishing acts committed before the existence of such laws, and by them only declared criminal, are oppressive, unjust, and incompatible with liberty; wherefore, no ex post facto law ought to be made.

ART. 16. That no law to attaint particular persons of treason or felony ought to be made in any case or at any time hereafter.

Art. 17. That every freeman, for any injury done to him in his person or property, ought to have remedy by the course of the law of the land, and ought to have justice and right, freely without sale, fully without any denial, and speedily without delay, according to the law of the land.

Art. 18. That the trial of facts, where they arise, is one of the greatest securities of the lives, liberties, and estate of the people.

ART. 19. That in all criminal prosecutions, every man hath a right to be informed of the accusation against him; to have a copy of the indictment or charge, in due time (if required) to prepare for his defence; to be allowed counsel; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have process for his witnesses ; to examine the witnesses for and against him on oath; and to a speedy trial by an impartial jury, without whose unapimous consent he ought not to be found guilty.

Art. 20. That no man ought to be compelled to give evidence against himself in a court of common law, or in any other court, but in such cases as have been usually practised in this State, or may hereafter be directed by the legislature.

ART. 21. That no freeman ought to be taken or imprisoned, or disseized of his freehold, liberties, or privileges, or outlawed, or exiled, or in any manner destroyed, or deprived of his life, liberty, or property, but by the judgment of his peers, or by the law of the land: Provided, That nothing in this article shall be so construed as to prevent the legislature from passing all 'such laws for the government, regulation, and disposition of the free colored population of this state as they may deem necessary.

ART. 22. That excessive bail ought not to be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel or unusual punishment intlicted by the courts of law.

ART. 23. That all warrants, without oath or affirmation, to search suspected places, or to seize any person or property, are grievous and oppressive; and all general warrants to search suspected places, or to apprehend suspected persons, without naming or describing the place, or the person in special, are illegal, and ought not to be granted.

ART. 24. That no conviction shall work corruption of blood or forfeiture of estate.

ART. 25. That a well-regulated militia is the proper and natural defence of a free government.

ART. 26. That standing armies are dangerous to liberty, and ought not to be raised or kept up without consent of the legislature.

ART. 27. That in all cases and at all times the military ought to be under strict subordination to, and control of, the civil power.

ART. 28. That no soldier ought to be quartered in any house in time of peace without the consent of the owner, and in time of war in such manner only as the legislature shall direct.

ART. 29. That no person, except regular soldiers, mariners, and marines, in the service of this State, or militia when in actual service, ought in any case to be subject to or punishable by martial law.

ART. 30. That the independency and uprightness of judges are essential to the impartial administration of justice, and a great security to the rights and liberties of the people; wherefore the judges shall not be removed, except for misbehavior, on conviction in a court of law, or by the governor, upon the address of the general assembly: Provided, That two-thirds of all the members of each house concur in such address. No such judge shall hold any other office, civil or military, or political trust or employment of any kind whatsoever, under the constitution or laws of this State, or of the United States, or any of them, or receive fees or perquisites of any kind for the discharge of his official duties.

ART. 31. That a long continuance in the executive departments of power or trust is dangerous to liberty; a rotation, therefore, in those departments is one of the best securities of permanent freedom.

ART. 32. That no person ought to hold at the same time more than one office of profit, created by the constitution or laws of this State; nor ought any person in public trust to receive any present from any foreign prince or state, or from the United States, or any of them, without the approbation of this State.

ART. 33. That as it is the duty of every man to worship God in such manner as he thinks most acceptable to him, all persons are equally entitled to protection in their religious liberty; wherefore, no person ought, by any law, to be molested in his person or estate, on account of his religious persuasion or profession, or for his religious practice, unless under color of religion any man shall disturb the good order, peace, or safety of the State, or shall infringe the laws of morality, or injure others in their natural, civil, or religious rights; nor ought any person to be compelled to frequent or maintain or contribute, unless on contract, to maintain any place of worship or any ministry; nor shall any person be deemed incompetent as a witness or juror who believes in the existence of a God, and that under his dispensation such person will be held morally accountable for his acts, and be rewarded or punished therefor, either in this world or the world to come.

ART. 34. That no other test or qualification ought to be required, on admission to any office of trust or profit, than such oath of office as may be prescribed by this constitution, or by the laws of the State, and a declaration of belief in the Christian religion; and if the party shall prosess to be a Jew, the declaration shall be of his belief in a future state of rewards and punishments.

ART. 35. That every gift, sale, or devise of land, to any minister, public teacher, or preacher of the gospel, as such, or to any religious sect, order, or denomination, or to or for the support, use, or benefit of, or in trust for any minister, public teacher, or preacher of the gospel, as such, or any religious sect, order, or denomination, and

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