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Arbitrio suo decorandi Villas item in Burgos et Burgos in Civitates ad Inhabitantium Merita et Locorum Opportunitates cum Privilegiis et Immunitatibus congruis erigendi et incorporandi Cæteraque omnia et singula in Præmissis faciendi quæ illi vel illis congrua et opportuna esse videbuntur Etiam si talia fuerint quæ de sua Natura Mandatum et Warrantum exigant magis Speciale quam in Præsentibus sit expressum Volumus etiam ac per Præsentes pro nobis Hæredibus et Successoribus nostris præfato modò Baroni de Baltimore Hæredibus et Assignatis suis omnibusque prædictæ Provinciæ Incolis et Inhabitantibus quibuscunque præsentibus et futuris per hanc Chartam nostram Licentiam damus et concedimus ut Merces quascunque et Mercimonia ex dicta Provinciæ Fructibus et Commoditatibus terrestribus vel maritimis redigenda per se vel per Servos Factores aut Assignatos suos in quoscunque Portus nostros Hæredum et Successorum nostrorum Anglia aut Hiberniæ liberè inferre et exonerare aut aliter de eisdem ibidem disponere Et si Opus fuerit easdem Merces infra unum Annum ab Exoneratione earum continuò numerandum rursus in Naves easdem vel alias onerare et in quascunque voluerint Regiones sive nostras sive extraneas de Amicitia nostra Hæredum et Successorum nostrorum deportare valeant Proviso semper quod tales et talia Custumas et Impositiones Subsidia et Telonia nobis Hæredibus et Successoribus nostris inde solvere teneantur quales et qualia reliqui subditi nostri Regni nostri Angliæ pro Tempore existentes solvere tenebuntur ultra quas et quæ præfatæ Provinciæ dictæ Terræ Terra Mariæ nuncupatæ Incolas gravari volumus Et ulterius de ampliori Gratia nostra speciali ac ex certa Scientia et mero Motu nostris pro nobis Hæredibus et Successoribus nostris concedimus præfato modo Baroni de Baltimore Hæredibus et Assignatis suis plenam et absolutam Potestatem et Authoritatem faciendi et erigendi et constituendi infra Provinciam de Terra Mariæ ac Insulas et Insululas prædictas tot et tales Portus maritimos Navium Stationes Crecas et alia Loca Exonerationis et Depositionis Bonorum et Mercimoniorum è Navibus Cymbis ac aliis Vasibus ac Onerationis in eadem et in tot et talibus Locis et cum talibus Juribus Jurisdictionibus Libertatibus et Privilegiis ad hujusmodi Portus spectantibus prout ei vel eis melius videbitur expedire quodque omnes et singulæ Naves Cymbæ et alia Vasa quæcunque Causa merchandizandi ad Provinciam et ex Provincia prædicta venientia et exeuntia ad hujusmodi Portus per dictum modò Baronem de Baltimore Hæredes et Assignatos suos sic erigendos et constituendos solummodo onerentur et exonerentur aliquo Usu Consuetudine aut aliqua alia Re in contrarium non obstante Salva semper Nobis Hæredibus et Successoribus nostris et omnibus Subitis Regni nostri Angliæ et Hiberniæ Hæredum et Successorum nostrorum Libertate piscandi Piscem marinum tam in Mari Æstuariis et Fretis et Fluminibus Navigio idoneis quam in Portubus Æstuariis et Crecis Provinciæ ante dictæ ac Privilegio saliendi et exsiccandi vel arefaciendi Pisces in Littoribus ejusdem Provinciæ et ea de Causa Buscam et Vimina ibidem crescentia succidere et capere et Casas et Tuguriola in hac Parte necessaria extruere prout rationabiliter hactenus usi fuerunt aut potuerunt Quibus quidem Libertatibus et Privilegiis dicti Subditi nostri Hæredum et Successorum nostrorum gaudebunt absque notabili Damno vel Injuria præfatò modò Baroni de Baltimore Hæredibus vel Assignatis suis aut ejusdem Provinciæ Incolis et Inhabitantibus in Portubus Crecis aut Littoribus prædictis et præsertim in Boscis et Sylvis ibidem crescentibus aliqualiter fienda Et si quis hujusmodi Damnum fecerit aut Injuriam gravis Indignationis nostræ Hæredum et Successorum nostrorum deditæque Legum Castigationis Periculum Penamque præter Emendationem subeat Volumus insuper statuimus et ordinamus ac per Præsentes pro Nobis Hæredibus et Successoribus nostris concedimus præfato modò Baroni de Baltimore Hæredibus et Assignatis suis quod idem Baro de Baltimore Hæredes et Assignati sui de Tempore in Tempus in perpetuum habeant et gaudeant Telonia et Subsidia in Portubus Navium Stationibus et aliis Crecis et Locis prædictis infra Provinciam prædictam solubilia sive emergentia pro Mercimoniis et Rebus ibidem onerandis et exonerandis per ipsos et Populos ibidem ut prædictum est Occasione emergente rationabiliter assidenda Quibus eadem justa de Causa debita Proportione assidere et inducere Telonia et Subsidia ibidem Potestatem pro Nobis Hæredibus et Successoribus nostris damus per præsentes Et ulterius de Gratia nostra speciali ac ex certa Scientia et mero Motu nostris dedimus concessimus et confirmavimus ac per Præsentes pro Nobis Hæredibus

et Successoribus nostris damus concedimus et confirmamus præfato modd Baroni de Baltimore Hæredibus et Assignatis suis plenam et absolutam Licentiam Potestatem et Authoritatem Quod ipse præfatus modò Baro Hæredes et Assignati sui de Tempore in Tempus imposterum imperpetuum ad ejus vel eorum Libitum et Voluntatem possint et valeant assignare alienare concedere demittere vel feoffare dremissorum tot tales et tantas Partes et Parcellas eas perquirere volenti vel volentibus quot quales et quantas duxerint opportunas habendum et tenendum eisdem Personæ et Personis eas capere vel perquirere volenti et volentibus Hæredibus et Assignatis suis in Feodo simplici vel Feodo talliato vel pro Termino Vitæ Vitarum vel Annorum Tenendum de præfato modò Paroni de Baltimore Hæredibus et Assignatis suis per tot talia et tanta hujusmodi Servitia Consuetudines et Redditus quot quanta et qualia eidem modò Baroni de Baltimore Hæredibus et Assignatis suis visum fuerit vel placuerit et non de nobis Hæredibus et Successoibrus nostris immediatè et eisdem Personæ et Personis et earum cuilibet et quibuslibet damus et per Præsentes pro Nobis Hæredibus et Successoribus nostris concedimus Licentiam Authoritatem et Potestatem quod tales Persona et Personæ Præmissa sive aliquam inde Parcellam de præfato modò Barone de Baltimore Hæredibus et Assignatis suis recipere possit et possint ac tenera sibi et Assignatis suis vel Hæredibus suis de quocunque Statu Hæreditario in Feodo simplici vel Feodo talliato vel aliter prout eis et modò Baroni de Baltimore Hæredibus et Assignatis suis videbitur expedire de eodem Barone de Baltimore Hæredibus et Assignatis suis Statuto in Parliamento Domini Edwardi Filii Regis Henrici nuper Regis Angliæ Progenitoris nostri edito communiter vocato “ Statutum quia Emptores

Terrarumin Regno nostro Angliæ dudum cdito aut aliquo alio Statuto Actu Ordinatione Usu Lege vel Consuetudine aut aliqua alia Re Causa vel Materia in contrarium inde antehac habita facta edita ordinata seu provisa in contrarium inde non obstante Ac eidem Baroni de Baltimore et Hæredibus suis Particulas aliquas Terræ infra Provinciam prædictam in Maneria erigere et in Maneriorum eorum singulis habere et_tenere Curiam Baronis et omnia quæ ad Curiam Baronis pertinent et visum Franciplegii ad Conservationem Pacis et melius Partium illarum Regimen per se et Seneschallos suos vel aliorum Maneriorum illorum cum constituta fuerint Dominos pro Tempore existentes deputandos habere et custodire et in eisdem omnibus uti ad Visum Franciplegii pertinentibus Licentiam damas et concedimus per Præsentes Ac ulterius volumus ac per Præsentes pro Nobis, Hæredibus et Successoribus nostris convenimus et concedimus ad et cum præfato modò Baroni de Baltimore Hæredibus et Assignatis suis quod nos Hæredes et Successores nostri nullo Tempore imposterum aliquas Impositiones Custumas aut alias Taxationes Quotas seu Contributiones quascunque imponemus aut imponi faciemus aut causabimus in aut super Incolas aut Inhabitantes Provinciæ prædictæ pro Bonis Terris vel Tenementis suis infra eandem Provinciam aut super aliqua Tenementa Terras Bona seu Catalla infra Provinciam prædictam aut in aut super aliqua Bona vel Merchandizas infra Provinciam prædictam aut infra Portus aut Navium Stationes dictæ Provinciæ onerandas seu exonerandas et hanc Declarationem nostram in omnibus Curiis et Prætoriis et coram quibuscunque Judicibus nostris Hæredum et Successorum nostrorum pro sufficiente et legitima Liberatione Solutione et Acquietantia inde de Tempore in Tempus recipi et allocari volumus ac pro nobis Hæredibus et Successoribus nostris jubemus et mandamus præcipientes omnibus et singulis Officiariis et Ministris nostris Hæredum et Successorum nostrorum et sub gravi Indignatione injungentes ne quid in contrarium Præmissorum ullo unquam Tempore attemptare audeant aut eisdem ullo modo contraveniant sed præfato modò Baroni de Baltimore et Hæredibus ac præfatæ Provinciæ de Terra Maria Incolis et Mercatoribus prædictis eorumque Servis et Ministris Factoribus et Assignatis in plenissimo hujus Chartæ nostræ Usu et Fruitione omni Tempore prout decet auxilicntur et assistant Et ulterius volumus ac per Presentes pro Nobis Hæredibus et Successoribus nostris concedimus præfato modò Baroni de Baltimore Hæredibus et Assignatis suis et dictæ Provinciæ Terræ-tenentibus Habitatoribus præsentibus et futuris et singulis eorum quod Provincia prædicta Terræ-tenentes vel Incolæ ejusdem Coloniæ aut Patriæ vel Terræ Virginia aut alicujus alterius Coloniæ deductæ vel deducendæ Membrum vel Pars de cætero non habeantur vel reputentur aut de eisdem dependen

tes sint aut Regimine subsint in aliquo Ipsamque et ipsos ab eisdem separamus et separatos esse volumus per Præsentes ac quod Coronæ nostræ Angliæ immediate sint subjecti et de eadem dependentes imperpetuum Et si fortè imposterum contingat Dubitationes aliquas Questiones circa verum Sensum et Intellectum alicujus Verbi Clausulæ vel Sententiæ in hac præsenti Charta nostra contentæ generari eam semper et in omnibus Interpretationem adhiberi et in quibuscunque Curiis et Prætoriis nostris obtinere volumus præcipimus et mandamus quæ præfato modd Baroni de Baltimore Hæredibus et Assignatis suis benignior utilior et favorabilior esse judicabitur Proviso semper quod nulla fiat Interpretatio per quam sacro-sancta Dei et vera Christiana Religio aut Ligeantia Nobis Hæredibus et Successoribus nostris debita. Immutatione Prejudicio vel Dispendio in aliquo patiantur Eo quod expressa Mentio &c

In cujus Rei &c T. R. apud Westmonasterium XX°. Die Junii.

Per Breve de Privato Sigillo.

CONSTITUTION OF MARYLAND-1776.*

A DECLARATION OF RIGHTS, and the CONSTITUTION and FORM of

GOVERNMENT, agreed to by the Delegates of Maryland, in free and full Convention assembled.

A DECLARATION OF RIGHTS, &c. THE parliament of Great Britain, by a declaratory act, having assumed a right to make laws to bind the Colonies in all cases whatsoever, and, in pursuance of such claim, endeavoured, by force of arms, to subjugate the United Colonies to an unconditional submission to their will and power, and having at length constrained them to declare themselves independent States, and to assume government under the authority of the people;—Therefore we, the Delegates of Maryland, in free and full Convention assembled, taking into our most serious consideration the best means of establishing a good Constitution in this State, for the sure foundation and more permanent security thereof, declare,

I. That all government of right originates from the people, is founded in compact only, and instituted solely for the good of the whole.

II. That the people of this State ought to have the sole and exclusive right of regulating the internal government and police thereof.

III. That the inhabitants of Maryland are entitled to the common law of England, and the trial by jury, according to the course of that law, and to the benefit of such of the citylish statutes, as existed at the time of their first emigration, and which, by experience, have been found applicable to their local and other circumstances, and of such others as have been since made in England, or Great Britain, and have been introduced, used and practised by the courts of law or equity; and also to acts of Assembly, in force on the first of June seventeen hundred and seventy-four, except such as may have since expired, or have been or may be altered by acts of Convention, or this Declaration of Rights—subject, nevertheless, to the revision of, and amendment or repeal by, the Legislature of this State: and the inhabitants of Maryland are also entitled to all property, derived to them, from or under the Charter, granted by his Majesty Charles I. to Cæcilius Calvert, Baron of Baltimore.

IV. That all persons invested with the legislative or executive powers of government are the trustees of the public, and, as such, accountable for their conduct; wherefore, whenever the ends of government are perverted, and public liberty manifestly endangered, and all other means of redress are ineffectual, the people may, and of right ought, to reform the old or establish a new government. The doctrine of

* This constitution was framed by a convention which met at Annapolis August 14, 1776, and completed its labors November 11, 1776. It was not submitted to the people.

non-resistance, against arbitrary power and oppression, is absurd, slavish, and destructive of the good and happiness of mankind.

V. That the right in the people to participate in the Legislature, is the best security of liberty, and the foundation of all free government; for this purpose, elections ought to be free and frequent, and every man, having property in, a common interest with, and an attachment to the community, ought to have a right of suffrage.

VÍ. That the legislative, executive and judicial powers of government, ought to be forever separate and distinct from each other.

VII. That no power of suspending laws, or the execution of laws, unless by or derived from the Legislature, ought to be exercised or allowed.

VIII. That freedom of speech and debates, or proceedings in the Legislature, ought not to be impeached in any other court or judicature.

IX. That a place for the meeting of the Legislature ought to be fixed, the most convenient to the members thereof, and to the depository of public records; and the Legislature ought not to be convened or held at any other place, but from evident necessity.

X. That, for redress of grievances, and for amending, strengthening and preserving the laws, the Legislature ought to be frequently convened.

XI. That every man hath a right to petition the Legislature, for the redress of grievances, in a peaceable and orderly manner.

XII. That no aid, charge, tax, fee, or fees, ought to be set, rated, or levied, under any pretence, without consent of the Legislature.

XIII. That the levying taxes by the poll is grievous and oppressive, and ought to be abolished; that paupers ought not to be assessed for the support of government; but every other person in the State ought to contribute his proportion of public taxes, for the support of government, according to his actual worth, in real or personal property, within the State; yet fines, duties, or taxes, may properly and justly be imposed or laid, with a political view, for the good government and benefit of the community.

XIV. That sanguinary laws ought to be avoided, as far as is consistent with the safety of the State: and no law, to inflict cruel and unusual pains and penalties, ought to be made in any case, or at any time hereafter.

XV. That retrospective laws, punishing facts committed before the existence of such laws, and by them only declared criminal

, are oppressive, unjust, and incompatible with liberty; wherefore no ex post facto law ought to be made.

XVI. That no law, to attaint particular persons of treason or felony, ought to be made in any case, or at any time hereafter.

XVII. That every freeman, for any injury done him in his person or property, ought to have remedy, by the course of the law of the land, and ought to have justice and right freely without sale, fully without any denial, and speedily without delay, according to the law of the land.

XVIII. That the trial of facts where they arise, is one of the greatest securities of the lives, liberties and estates of the people.

XIX. That, in all criminal prosecutions, every man hath a right to be informed of the accusation against him; to have a copy of the indictment or charge in due time (if required) to prepare for his defence; to be allowed counsel; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have process for his witnesses; to examine the witnesses, for and against him, on oath; and to a speedy trial by an impartial jury, without whose unanimous consent he ought not to be found guilty.

XX. That no man ought to be compelled to give evidence against himself, in a common court of law, or in any other court, but in such cases as have been usually practised in this State, or may hereafter be directed by the Legislature.

XXI. That no freeman ought to be taken, or imprisoned, or disseized of his free. hold, liberties, or privileges, or outlawed, or exiled, or in any manner destroyed, or deprived of his life, liberty, or property, but by the judgment of his peers, or by the law of the land.

XXII. That excessive bail ought not to be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel or unusual punishments inflicted, by the courts of law.

XXIII. That all warrants, without oath or affirmation, to search suspected places, or to seize any person or property, are grievous and oppressive; and all general warrants—to search suspected places, or to apprehend suspected persons, without naming or describing the place, or the person in special-are illegal, and ought not to be granted.

XXIV. That there ought to be no forfeiture of any part of the estate of any per-. son, for any crime except murder, or treason against the State, and then only on conviction and attainder.

XXV. That a well-regulated militia is the proper and natural defence of a free government.

XXVI. That standing armies are dangerous to liberty, and ought not to be raised or kept up, without consent of the Legislature.

XXVII. That in all cases, and at all times, the military ought to be under strict şubordination to and control of the civil power.

XXVIII. That no soldier ought to be quartered in any house, in time of peace, without the consent of the owner; and in time of war, in such manner only, as the Legislature shall direct.

XXIX. That no person, except regular soldiers, mariners, and marines in the service of this State, or militia when in actual service, ought in any case to be subject to or punishable by martial law.

XXX. That the independency and uprightness of Judges are essential to the impartial administration of justice, and a great security to the rights and liberties of the people; wherefore the Chancellor and Judges ought to hold commissions during good behaviour; and the said Chancellor and Judges shall be removed for misbehaviour, on conviction in a court of law, and may be removed by the Governor, upon the address of the General Assembly; Provided, That two-thirds of all the members of each House concur in such address. That salaries, liberal, but not profuse, ought to be secured to the Chancellor and the Judges, during the continuance of their commissions, in such manner, and at such times, as the Legislature shall hereafter direct, upon consideration of the circumstances of this state. No Chancellor or Judge ought to hold any other office, civil or military, or receive fees or perquisites of any kind.

XXXI. That a long continuance, in the first executive departments of power or trust, is dangerous to liberty; a rotation, therefore, in those departments, is one of the best securities of permanent freedom.

XXXII. That no person ought to hold, at the same time, more than one office of profit, nor ought any person, in public trust, to receive any present from any foreign prince or state, or from the United States, or any of them, without the approbation of this State.

XXXIII. That, as it is the duty of every man to worship God in such manner as he thinks most acceptable to him; all persons, professing the Christian religion, are equally entitled to protection in their religious liberty; wherefore no person ought by any law to be molested in his person or estate on account of his religious persuasion or profession, or for his religious practice; unless, under colour of religion, any man shall disturb the good order, peace or safety of the State, or shall infringe the laws of morality, or injure others, in their natural, civil, or religious rights; nor ought any person to be compelled to frequent or maintain, or contribute, unless on contract, to maintain any particular place of worship, or any particular ministry; yet the Legislature may, in their discretion, lay a general and equal tax, for the support of the Christian religion ; leaving to each individual the power of appointing the payment over of the money, collected from him, to the support of any particular place of worship or minister, or for the benefit of the poor of his own denomination, or the poor in general of any particular county: but the churches, chapels, glebes, and all other property now belonging to the church of England, ought to remain to the church of England forever. And all acts of Assembly, lately passed, for collecting monies for building or repairing particular churches or chapels of ease, shall continue in force, and be executed, unless the Legislature shall, by act, supersede or repeal the same: but no county court shall assess any quantity of tobacco, or sum

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