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SEC. 8. No act of the general assembly shall be in force until it shall have been published in print, unless in cases of emergency.

SEC. 9. All commissions shall be in the name and by the authority of the State of Indiana, and sealed with the State seal, and signed by the governor, and attested by the secretary of state.

SEC. 10. There shall be elected in each county a recorder, who shall hold his office during the term of seven years, if he shall so long behave well: Provided, That nothing herein contained shall prevent the clerks of the circuit courts from holding the office of recorder.

SEC. 11. Corydon, in Harrison County, shall be the seat of government of the State of Indiana until the year eighteen hundred and twenty-five, and until removed by law.

SEC. 12. The general assembly, when they lay off any new county, shall not reduce the old county or counties from which the same shall be taken to a less content than four hundred square miles.

Sec. 13. No person shall hold more than one lucrative office at the same time, except as in this constitution expressly permitted.

Sec. 14. No person shall be appointed as a county officer, within any county, who shall not have been a citizen and an inhabitant therein one year next preceding his appointment, if the county shall have been so long erected; but if the county shall not have been so long erected, then within the limits of the county or counties out of which it shall have been taken.

SEC. 15. All towns and township officers shall be appointed in such manner as shall be directed by law.

Sec. 16. The following officers of government shall not be allowed greater annual salaries, until the year eighteen hundred and nineteen, than as follows: The governor, one thousand dollars; the secretary of state, four hundred dollars; the auditor of public accounts, four hundred dollars; the treasurer, four hundred dollars; the judges of the supreme court, eight hundred dollars each; the presidents of the circuit courts, eight hundred dollars each; and the members of the general assembly, not exceeding two dollars per day each, during their attendance on the same, and two dollars for every twenty-five miles they shall severally travel, on the most usual route in going to and returning from the general assembly; after which time their pay shall be regulated by law. But no law passed to increase the pay of the members of the general assembly shall take effect until after the close of the session at which such law shall have been passed.

SEC. 17. In order that the boundaries of the State of Indiana may more clearly be known and established, it is hereby ordained and declared that the following shall be and forever remain the boundaries of the said State, to wit: Bounded on the east by the meridian-line which forms the western boundary of the State of Ohio; on the south by the Ohio River, from the mouth of the Great Miami River to the mouth of the river Wabash; on the west by a line drawn along the middle of the Wabash River from its mouth to a point where a due-north line, drawn from the town of Vincennes, would last touch the northwestern shore of the said Wabash River; and from thence, by a due-north line, until the same shall intersect an east and west line drawn through a point ten miles north of the southern extreme of Lake Michigan; on the north by the said east and west line, until the same shall intersect the first-mentioned meridianline, which forms the western boundary of the State of Ohio.

ARTICLE XII. SECTION 1. That no evils or inconvenience may arise from the change of a territorial government to a permanent State government, it is declared by this constitution that all rights, suits, actions, prosecutions, recognizances, contracts, and claims, both as it respects individuals and bodies-corporate, shall continue as if no change had taken place in this government.

Sec. 2. All fines, penalties, and forfeitures, due and owing to the Territory of Indiana, or any county therein, shall inure to the use of the State or county. All bonds

executed to the governor, or any other officer, in his official capacity in the Territory, shall pass over to the governor or other officers of the State or county, and their successors in office, for the use of the State or county, or by him or them to be respectively assigned over to the use of those concerned, as the case may be.

Sec. 3. The governor, secretary, and judges, and all other officers, both civil and military, under the territorial government, shall continue in the exercise of the duties of their respective departments, until the said officers are superseded under the authority of this constitution.

SEC. 4. All laws and parts of laws now in force in this Territory, not inconsistent with this constitution, shall continue and remain in full force and effect until they expire or be repealed.

Sec. 5. The governor shall use his private seal until a State seal be procured.

Sec. 6. The governor, secretary of state, auditor of public accounts, and treasurer shall severally reside and keep the public records, books, and papers, in any manner relating to their respective offices, at the seat of government: Provided, notwithstanding, That nothing herein contained shall be so construed as to affect the residence of the governor for the space of six months, and until buildings suitable for his accommodation shall be procured at the expense of the State.

SEC. 7. All suits, pleas, plaints, and other proceedings, now depending in any court of record, or justices' courts, shall be prosecuted to final judgment and execution; and all appeals, writs of error, certiorari, injunction, or other proceedings whatever, shall progress, and be carried on, in the respective court or courts, in the same manner as is now provided by law, and all proceedings had therein, in as full and complete a manner as if this constitution were not adopted; and appeals and writs of error may be taken from the circuit court and general court, now established in the Indiana Territory, to the supreme court, in such manner as shall be provided for by law.

Sec. 8. The president of this convention shall issue writs of election, directed to the several sheriffs of the several counties, requiring them to cause an election to be held for governor, lieutenant-governor, Representative to the Congress of the United States, members of the general assembly, sheriffs, and coroners, at the respective election districts in each county, on the first Monday in August next, which election shall be conducted in the manner prescribed by the existing election laws of the Indiana Territory; and the said governor, lieutenant-governor, members of the general assembly, sheriffs, and coroners, then duly elected, shall continue to exercise the duties of their respective offices for the time prescribed by this constitution, and until their successor or successors are qualified, and no longer.

Sec. 9. Until the first enumeration shall be made, as directed by this constitution, the county of Wayne shall be entitled to one senator and three representatives; the county of Franklin, one senator and three representatives; the county of Dearborn, one senator and two representatives; the county of Switzerland, one representative; and the county of Jefferson and Switzerland, one senator; and the county of Jefferson, two representatives; the county of Clark, one senator and three representatives; the county of Harrison, one senator and three representatives; the counties of Washington, Orange, and Jackson, one senator; and the county of Washington, two representatives; the counties of Orange and Jackson, one representative each; the county of Knox, one senator and three representatives; the county of Gibson, one senator and two representatives; the counties of Posey, Warrick, and Perry, one senator, and each of the atoresaid counties of Posey, Warrick, and Perry, one representative.

SEC. 10. All books, records, documents, warrants, and papers appertaining and belonging to the office of territorial treasurer of the Indiana Territory, and all moneys therein, and all papers and documents in the office of the secretary of said Territory, shall be disposed of as the general assembly of this State may direct.

Sec. 11. All suits, actions, pleas, plaints, prosecutions, and causes whatsoever, and all records, books, papers, and documents now in the general court, may be transferred to the supreme court established by this constitution ; and all causes, suits, actions, pleas, plaints, and prosecutions whatsoever, now existing or pending in the circuit courts of this Territory, or which may be therein at the change of government,

and all records, books, papers, and documents relating to the said suits or filed in the said courts, may be transferred over to the circuit courts established by this constitution, under such rules and regulations as the general assembly may direct.

Done in convention, at Corydon, on the twer.ty-ninth day of June, in the year of our Lord eighteen hundred and sixteen, and of the Independence of the United States the fortieth. In witness whereof we have hereunto subscribed our names.



Resolution for admitting the State of Indiana into the Union. Whereas, in pursuance of an act of Congress passed on the nineteenth day of April, one thousand eight hundred and sixteen, entitled “An act to enable the people of the Indiana Territory to form a constitution and State government, and for the admission of that State into the Union,” the people of the said Territory did, on the twenty-ninth day of June, in the present year, by a convention called for that purpose, form for themselves a constitution and State government, which constitution and State government, so formed, is republican, and in conformity with the principles of the articles of compact between the original States and the people and States in the territory northwest of the river Ohio, passed on the thirteenth day of July, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven :

Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the State of Indiana shall be one, and is hereby declared to be one, of the United States of America, and admitted into the Union on an equal footing with the original States, in all respects whatever.

APPROVED, December 11, 1816.

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To the end that justice be established, public order maintained, and liberty perpetuated,

we, the people of the State of Indiana, grateful to Almighty God for the free exercise of the right to choose our own form of government, do ordain this constitution.



SECTION 1. We declare that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness; that all power is inherent in the people; and that all free governments are, and of right ought to be, founded on their authority, and instituted for their peace, safety, and well-being. For the advancement of these ends, the people have, at all times, an indefeasible right to alter and reform their government.

Sec. 2. All men shall be secured in their natural right to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their own consciences.

Sec. 3. No law shall, in any case whatever, control the free exercise and enjoyment of religious opinions, or interfere with the rights of conscience.

SEC. 4. No preference shall be given by law to any creed, religious society, or mode of worship; and no man shall be compelled to attend, erect, or support any place of worship, or to maintain any ministry against his consent.

SEC. 5. No religious test shall be required as a qualification for any office of trust or profit.

SEC. 6. No money shall be drawn from the treasury for the benefit of any religious or theological institution.

Sec. 7. No person shall be rendered incompetent as a witness in consequence of his opinions on matters of religion.

Sec. 8. The mode of administering an oath or affirmation shall be such as may be most consistent with and binding upon the conscience of the person to whom such oath or affirmation may be administered.

SEC. 9. No law shall be passed restraining the free interchange of thought and opinion, or restricting the right to speak, write, or print freely

on any subject whatever; but for the abuse of that right every person shall be responsible.

SEC. 10. In all prosecutions for libel, the truth of the matters alleged to be libellous may be given in justification.

Sec. 11. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects against unreasonable search or seizure, shall not be violated; and no warrant shall issue but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the person or thing to be seized.

Sec. 12. All courts shall be open; and every man, for injury done to him in his person, property, or reputation, shall have remedy by due course of law. Justice shall be administered freely and without purchase; completely, and without denial; speedily, and without delay.

SEC. 13. In all criminal prosecutions the accused shall have the right to a public trial by an impartial jury, in the county in which the offence shall have been committed; to be heard by himself and counsel; to demand the nature and cause of the accusation against him, and to have a copy thereof; to meet the witnesses face to face, and to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor.

Sec. 14. No person shall be put in jeopardy twice for the same offence. No person in any criminal prosecution shall be compelled to testify against himself.

SEC. 15. No person arrested or confined in jail shall be treated with unnecessary rigor.

Sec. 18. Excessive bail shall not be required. Excessive fines shall not be imposed. Cruel and unusual punishments shall not be inflicted. All penalties shall be proportioned to the nature of the offence.

SEC. 17. Offences, other than murder or treason, shall be bailable by sufficient sureties. Murder or treason shall not be bailable, when the proof evident or the presumption strong.

SEC. 18. The penal code shall be founded on the principles of reformation, and not of vindictive justice.

Sec. 19. In all criminal cases whatever the jury shall have the right to determine the law and the facts.

Sec. 20. In all civil cases, the right of trial by jury shall remain inviolate.

Sec. 21. No man's particular services shall be demanded without just compensation. No man's property shall be taken by law without just compensation ; nor, except in case of the State, without such compensation first assessed and tendered.

SEC. 22. The privilege of the debtor to enjoy the necessary comforts of life shall be recognized by wholesome laws, exempting a reasonable amount of property from seizure or sale for the payment of any debt or liability hereafter contracted; and there shall be no imprisonment for debt, except in case of fraud.

SEC. 23. The general assembly shall not grant to any citizen, or class of citizens, privileges or immunities which, upon the same terms, shall not equally belong to all citizens.

SEC. 24. No ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts, shall ever be passed.

Sec. 25. No law shall be passed, the taking effect of which shall be made to depend upon any authority, except as provided in this constitution.

Sec. 26. The operation of the laws shall never be suspended, except by the authority of the general assembly.

Sec. 27. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, except in case of rebellion or invasion, and then only if the public safety demand it.

SEC. 28. Treason against the State shall consist only in levying war against it, and in giving aid and comfort to its enemies.

Sec. 29. No person shall be convicted of treason, except on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or upon his confession in open court.

Sec. 30. No conviction shall work corruption of blood or forfeiture of estate.

Sec. 31. No law shall restrain any of the inhabitants of the State from assembling together in a peaceable manner to consult for their common good, nor from instructing their representatives, nor from applying to the general assembly for redress of grievances.

Sec. 32. The people shall have a right to bear arms for the defence of themselves and the State.

SEC. 33. The military shall be kept in strict subordination to the civil power.

Sec. 34. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner ; nor in tiine of war but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

SEC. 35. The general assembly shall not grant any title of nobility, or confer hereditary distinctions.

SEC. 36. Emigration from the State shall not be prohibited.

Sec. 37. There shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude within the State, otherwise than for the punishment of crimes, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted. No indenture of any negro or mulatto, made and executed out of the bounds of the State, shall be valid within the State.



SECTION 1. All elections shall be free and equal.

Sec. 2. In all elections not otherwise provided for by this constitution, every white male citizen of the United States, of the age of twenty-one years and upwards, who shall have resided in the State during the six months immediately preceding such election; and every white male of foreign birth of the age of twenty-one years and upwards, who shall have resided in the United States one year, and shall have resided in this State during the six months immediately preceding such election, and shall have declared his intention to become a citizen of the United States, conformably to the laws of the United States on the subject of naturalization, shall be entitled to vote in the township or precinct where he may reside.

Sec. 3. No soldier, seaman, or marine in the Army or Navy of the United States, or of their allies, shall be deemed to have acquired a residence in the State, in consequence of having been stationed within the same; nor shall any such soldier, seaman, or marine have the right to vote.

Sec. 4. No person shall be deemed to have lost his residence in the State by reason of his absence, either on business of this State or of the United States.

SEC. 5. No negro or mulatto shall have the right of suffrage.

Sec. 6. Every person shall be disqualified from holding office during the term for which he may have been elected, who shall have given or offered a bribe, threat, or reward to procure his election.

Sec. 7. Every person who shall give or accept a challenge to fight a duel, or who shall knowingly carry to another person such challenge, or who shall agree to go out of the State to fight a duel, shall be ineligible to any office of trust or profit.

Sec. 8. The general assembly shall have power to deprive of the right of suffrage, and to render ineligible, any person convicted of an infamous crime.

SEC. 9. No person holding a lucrative office or appointment under the United States, or under this State, shall be eligible to a seat in the general assembly; nor shall any person hold more than one lucrative office at the same time, except as in this consti

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