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always, That no member of either house of the general assembly, nor any person connected with a member by consanguinity or affinity, shall be appointed to fill the vacancy occasioned by such removal. The said justices of the supreme court, during their temporary appointment, shall receive an annual salary of one thousand dollars, payable quarter-yearly out of the public treasury. The judges of the inferior courts, and the justices of the supreme court who may be appointed after the end of the first session of the general assembly which shall be begun and held after the first day of January, in the year of our Lord 1824, shall have adequate and competent salaries, which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office.

Sec. 6. The supreme court, or a majority of the justices thereof, the circuit courts, or the justices thereof, shall, respectively, appoint their own clerks.

Sec. 7. All process, writs, and other proceedings shall run in the name of “The people of the State of Illinois.” All prosecutions shall be carried on “In the name and by the authority of the people of the State of Illinois," and conclude “Against the peace and dignity of the same."

SEC. 8. A competent number of justices of the peace shall be appointed in each county, in such manner as the general assembly may direct, whose time of service, power, and duties shall be regulated and defined by law. And justices of the peace, when so appointed, shall be commissioned by the governor.

ARTICLE V.

SECTION 1. The militia of the State of Illinois shall consist of all free, male, ablebodied persons, (negroes, mulattoes, and Indians excepted,) resident in the State, between the age of eighteen and forty-five years, (except such persons as now are, or hereafter may be, exempted by the law of the United States or of this State,) and shall be armed, equipped, and trained as the general assembly may provide by law.

SEC. 2. No person or persons conscientiously scrupulous of bearing arms shall be compelled to do militia duty in time of peace: Provided, Such person or persons shall pay an equivalent for such exemptions.

SEC. 3. Company, battalion, and regimental officers, staff officers excepted, shall be elected by the persons composing their several companies, battalions, and regiments.

SEC. 4. Brigadier and major generals shall be elected by the officers of their brigades and divisions respectively.

SEC. 5. All militia officers shall be commissioned by the governor, and may hold their commissions during good behavior, or until they arrive at the age of sixty years.

Sec. 6. The militia shall in all cases, except treason, felony, or breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at musters and elections of officers, and in going to and returning from the same.

ARTICLE VI.

SECTION 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall hereafter be introduced into this State, otherwise than for the punishment of crimes, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted; nor shall any male person, arrived at the age of twentyone years, nor female person arrived at the age of eighteen years, be held to serve any person as a servant, under any indenture hereafter made, unless such person shall enter into such indenture while in a state of perfect freedom, and on condition of a bona fide consideration received or to be received for their service. Nor shall any indenture of any negro or mulatto, hereafter made and executed out of this State, or if made in this State, where the term of service exceeds one year, be of the least validity, except those given in cases of apprenticeship.

Sec. 2. No person bound to labor in any other State shall be hired to labor in this State, except within the tract reserved for the salt-works near Shawneetown; nor even at that place for a longer period than one year at any one time; nor shall it be allowed there after the year 1825. Any violation of this article shall effect the emancipation of such person from his obligation to service.

SEC. 3. Each and every person who has been bound to service by contract or indenture in virtue of the laws of Illinois Territory heretofore existing, and in conformity to the provisions of the same, without fraud or collusion, shall be held to a specific performance of their contracts or indentures; and such negroes and mulattoes as have been registered in conformity with the aforesaid laws shall serve out the time appointed by said laws: Provided, however, That the children hereafter born of such person, negroes, or mulattoes, shall become free, the males at the age of twenty-one years, the females at the age of eighteen years. Each and every child born of indentured parents shall be entered with the clerk of the county in which they reside, by their owners, within six months after the birth of said child.

ARTICLE VII.

SECTION 1. Whenever two-thirds of the general assembly shall think it necessary to alter or amend this constitution, they shall recommend to the electors, at the next election of members to the general assembly, to vote for or against a convention; and if it shall appear that a majority of all the citizens of the State, voting for representatives, have voted for a convention, the general assembly shall, at their next session, call a convention, to consist of as many members as there may be in the general assembly, to be chosen in the same manner, at the same place, and by the same electors that choose the general assembly; and which convention shall meet within three months after said election, for the purpose of revising, altering, or amending this constitution.

ARTICLE VIII.

That the general, great, and essential principles of liberty and free government may be recognized and unalterably established, we declare:

SECTION 1. That all men are born equally free and independent, and have certain inherent and indefeasible rights; among which are those of enjoying and defending life and liberty, and of acquiring, possessing, and protecting property and reputation, and of pursuing their own happiness.

Sec. 2. That all power is inherent in the people, and all free governments are founded on their authority, and instituted for their peace, safety, and happiness.

SEC. 3. That all men have a natural and indefeasible right to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their own consciences; that no man can of right be compelled to attend, erect, or support any place of worship, or to maintain any ministry against his consent; that no human authority can, in any case whatever, control or interfere with the rights of conscience; and that no preference shall ever be given by law to any religious establishments or modes of worship.

SEC. 4. That no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under this State.

SEC. 5. That elections shall be free and equal.
Sec. /. That the right of the trial by jury shall remain inviolate.
SEC. 7. That the people shall be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and

possessions from unreasonable searches and seizures; and that general warrants, whereby an officer may be commanded to search suspected places without evidence of the fact committed, or to seize any person or persons not named, whose oitences are not particularly described and supported by evidence, are dangerous to liberty, and ought not to be granted.

SEC. 8. That no freeman shall be imprisoned or disseized of his freehold, liberties, or privileges, or outlawed or exiled, or in any manner deprived of his life, liberty, or property, but by the judgment of his peers or the law of the land. And all lands which have been granted as a common to the inhabitants of any town, hamlet, village, or corporation, by any person, body politic or corporate, or by any government having power to make such grant, shåll forever remain common to the inhabitants of such town, hamlet, village, or corporation; and the said commons shall not be leased, sold, or divided under any pretence whatever: Provided, however, That nothing in this sec

tion shall be so construed as to affect the commons of Cahokia or Prairie du Pont: Provided also, That the general assembly shall have power and authority to grant the same privileges to the inhabitants of the said villages of Cahokia and Prairie du Pont as are hereby granted to the inhabitants of other towns, hamlets, and villages.

SEC. 9. That in all criminal prosecutions, the accused hath a right to be heard by himself and counsel; to demand the nature and cause of the accusation against him; to meet the witnesses face to face; to have compulsory process to compel the attendance of witnesses in his favor; and in prosecutions by indictment or information, a speedy public trial by an impartial jury of the vicinage; and that he shall not be compelled to give evidence against himself. ·

Sec. 10. That no person shall, for any indictable offence, be proceeded against criminally by information, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or the militia when in actual service, in time of war, or public danger, by leave of the courts, for oppression or misdemeanor in office.

SEC. 11. No person shall, for the same offence, be twice put in jeopardy of his life or limb; nor shall any man's property be taken or applied to public use, without the consent of his representatives in the general assembly, nor without just compensation being made to him.

SEC. 12. Every person within this State ought to find a certain remedy in the laws for all injuries or wrongs which he may receive in his person, property, or character; he ought to obtain right and justice freely, and without being obliged to purchase it, completely and without denial, promptly and without delay, conformably to the laws.

SEC. 13. That all persons shall be bailable by sufficient sureties, unless for capital offences, where the proof is evident or the presumption great; and the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when, in case of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may require it.

SEC. 14. All penalties shall be proportioned to the nature of the offence, the true design of all punishment being to reform, not to exterminate, mankind.

SEC. 15. No person shall be imprisoned for debt, unless upon refusal to deliver up his estate for the benefit of his creditors, in such manner as shall be prescribed by law, or in cases where there is strong presumption of fraud.

Sec. 16. No ex post facto law, nor any law impairing the validity of contracts, shall ever be made; and no conviction shall work corruption of blood or forfeiture of estate.

Sec. 17. That no person shall be liable to be transported out of this State for any offence committed within the same.

Sec. 18. That a frequent recurrence to the fundamental principles of civil government is absolutely necessary to preserve the blessings of liberty.

Sec. 19. That the people have a right to assemble together in a peaceable manner to consult for their common good, to instruct their representatives, and to apply to the general assembly for redress of grievances.

Sec. 20. That the mode of levying a tax shall be by valuation, so that every person shall pay a tax in proportion to the value of the property he or she has in his or her possession.

Sec. 21. That there shall be no other banks or moneyed institutions in this State but those already provided by law, except a State bank and its branches, which may be established and regulated by the general assembly of the State as they may think proper.

SEC. 22. The printing-presses shall be free to every person who undertakes to examine the proceedings of the general assembly or of any branch of government; and no law shall ever be made to restrain the right thereof. The free communication of thoughts and opinions is one of the invaluable rights of man, and every citizen may freely speak, write, and print on any subject, being responsible for the abuse of that liberty..

SEC. 23. In prosecutions for the publication of papers investigating the official conduct of officers, or of men acting in a public capacity, or where the matter published is proper for public information, the truth thereof may be given in evidence. And in all indictments for libels the jury shall have the right of determining both the law and the fact, under the direction of the court, as in other cases.

SCHEDULE.

SECTION 1. That no inconveniences may arise from the change of a territorial to a permanent State government, it is declared by the convention that all rights, suits, actions, prosecutions, claims, and contracts, both as it respects individuals and bodiescorporate, shall continue as if no change had taken place in this government in virtue of the laws now in force.

SEC. 2. All fines, penalties, and forfeitures due and owing to the Territory of Illinois shall inure to the use of the State. All bonds executed to the governor, or to any other officer in his official capacity in the Territory, shall pass over to the governor or to the officers of the State, and their successors in office, for the use of the State, by him or by them to be respectively assigned over to the use of those concerned, as the case may be.

SEC. 3. No sheriff or collector of public moneys shall be eligible to any office in this State, until they have paid over, according to law, all moneys which they may have collected by virtue of their respective offices.

Sec. 4. There shall be elected in each county three county commissioners for the purpose of transacting all county business, whose time of service, power, and duties shall be regulated and defined by law.

SEC. 5. The governor, secretary, and judges, and all other officers under the territorial government, shall continue in the exercise of the duties of their respective departments until the said officers are superseded under the authority of this constitution.

Sec. 6. The governor of this State shall make use of his private seal until a State seal shall be provided.

SEC. 7. The oaths of office herein directed to be taken may be administered by any justice of the peace until the general assembly shall otherwise direct.

Sec. 8. (Apportionment of senators and representatives.* ]

SEC. 9. The president of the convention shall issue writs of election, directed to the several sheriffs of the several counties, or in case of the absence or disability of any sheriff, then to the deputy sheriff, and in case of the absence or disability of the deputy sheriff, then such writ to be directed to the coroner, requiring them to cause an election to be held for governor, lieutenant-governor, Representative to the present Congress of the United States, and members to the general assembly, and sheriffs and coroners in the respective counties; such election to commence on the third Thursday of September next, and to continue for that and the two succeeding days; and which election shall be conducted in the manner prescribed by the existing election laws of the Illinois Territory; and the said governor, lieutenant-governor, members of the general assembly, sheriffs, and coroners, then duly elected, shall continue to exercise the duties of their respective offices for the time prescribed by this constitution, and until their successor or successors are qualified, and no longer.

Sec. 1o. An auditor of public accounts, an attorney-general, and such other officers for the State as may be necessary, may be appointed by the general assembly, whose duties may be regulated by law.

Sec. 11. It shall be the duty of the general assembly to enact such laws as may be necessary and proper to prevent the practice of duelling.

SEC. 12. All white male inhabitants above the age of twenty-one years, who shall be actual residents of this State at the signing of this constitution shall have a right to vote at the election to be held on the third Thursday and the two following days of September next.

Sec. 13. The seat of government for the State shall be at Kaskaskia until the gen

* This section was changed by the following acts: Laws 1821, (14 Feb.,) 154. Resolution recommending a special session to make a new apportionment, Laws 1825, 186. Act in pursuance thereof: Laws 1826, (12 Jan., )45; Laws 1831, ( 7 Feb.,) 5; Laws 1836, (14 Jan.,) 268. Same repealed: R. S., 1845, 455; Laws 1841, (26 Feb.,) 23; Laws 1843, (3 Feb.) 10; id , (6 Feb.,) 11. Acts providing for special election of senator and representatives: Laws 1843, 136, 137. Apportionment acts amended: Laws 1845, (21 Feb ,) 51; 'id., (1 Mar.,) 120; id., (15 Jan.,) 191; id., (23 Jan.,) 197. General act: Laws 1817, (25 Feb.,) 3.

eral assembly shall otherwise provide. The general assembly, at their first session holden under the authority of this constitution, shall petition the Congress of the United States to grant to this State a quantity of land, to consist of not more than four, nor less than one section, or to give to this State the right of pre-emption in the purchase of the said quantity of land; the said land to be situate on the Kaskaskia River, and, as near as may be, east of the third principal meridian on said river. Should the prayer of such petition be granted, the general assembly, at their next session thereafter, shall provide for the appointment of five commissioners to make the selection of said land so granted; and shall further provide for laying out a town upon the land so selected; which town, so laid out, shall be the seat of government of this State for the term of twenty years. Should, however, the prayer of said petition not be granted, the general assembly shall have power to make such provisions for a permanent seat of government as may be necessary, and shall fix the same where they may think best.

Sec. 14. Any person of thirty years of age who is a citizen of the United States and has resided within the limits of this State two years next preceding his election, shall be eligible to the office of lieutenant-governor; anything in the thirteenth section of the third article of this constitution contained to the contrary notwithstanding.

RESOLUTION OF CONGRESS-1818. Resolution declaring the admission of the State of Illinois into the Union. Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That whereas, in pursuance of an act of Congress passed on the eighteenth day of April, one thousand eight hundred and eighteen, entitled "An act to enable the people of the Illinois Territory to form a constitution and State government, and for the admission of such State into the Union, on an equal footing with the original States,” the people of said Territory did, on the twenty-sixth day of August, in the present year, by a convention called for that purpose, form for themselves a constitution and State government, which constitution and State government, so formed, is republican, and in conformity to the principles of the articles of compact between the original States and the people and States in the territory northwest of the river Ohio, passed on the thirteenth day of July, one thousand seven hundred and eightyseven:

Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the State of Illinois shall be one, and is hereby declared to be one, of the United States of America, and admitted into the Union on an equal footing with the original States, in all respects whatever.

APPROVED, December 3, 1818.

CONSTITUTION OF ILLINOIS-1848.

PREAMBLE. We, the people of the State of Illinois, grateful to Almighty God for the civil, political,

and religious liberty which He hath so long permitted us to enjoy, and looking to Him for a blessing upon our endeavors to secure and transmit the same unimpaired to succeeding generations, in order to form a more perfect government, establish justice, insure domestic tranquillity, provide for the common defence, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this constitution for the State of Illinois.

ARTICLE I.

BOUNDARIES. SECTION 1. The boundaries and jurisdiction of the State shall be as follows, to wit: Beginning at the mouth of the Wabash River; thence up the same, and with the line

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