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render them most beneficial to all persons concerned; and for establishing schools and promoting arts and sciences.

SEC. 12. No property qualification shall be necessary to the holding of any office in this State, except the office of senator in the general assembly, and the office of assessor, inquisitor on lands, and levy-court commissioner, and except such offices as the general assembly shall by law designate.

ARTICLE VIII.

Members of the general assembly and all officers, executive and judicial, shall be bound by oath or affirmation to support the constitution of this State, an form the duties of their respective offices with fidelity.

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ARTICLE IX.

The general assembly, whenever two-thirds of each house shall deem it necessary, may, with the approbation of the governor, propose amendments to this constitution, and at least three, and not more than six months before the next general election of representatives, duly publish them in print for the consideration of the people; and if three-fourths of each branch of the legislature shall, after such an election and before another, ratify the said amendments, they shall be valid to all intents and purposes as parts of this constitution. No convention shall be called but by the authority of the people; and an unexceptionable mode of making their sense known will be for them at a special election on the third Tuesday of May in any year to vote by ballot for or against a convention, as they shall severally choose to do; and if thereupon it shall appear that a majority of all the citizens in the State, having right to vote for representatives, have voted for a convention, the general assembly shall accordingly at their next session call a convention, to consist of at least as many members as there are in both houses of the legislature, to be chosen in the same manner, at the same places, and at the same time that representatives are by the citizens entitled to vote for representatives, on due notice given for one month, and to meet within three months after they shall be elected. The majority of all the citizens in the State having right to vote for representatives shall be ascertained by reference to the highest number of votes cast in the State at any one of the three general elections next preceding the day of voting for a convention, except when they may be less than the whole number of votes voted both for and against a convention, in which case the said majority shall be ascertained by reference to the number of votes given on the day of voting for or against a convention; and whenever the general assembly shall deem a convention necessary, they shall provide by law for the holding of a special election for the purpose of ascertaining the sense of the majority of the citizens of the State entitled to vote for representatives.

SCHEDULE. That no inconveniences may arise from the amendments of the constitution of this State, and in order to carry the same into complete operation, it is hereby declared and ordained as follows:

SECTION 1. The offices of the present senate and representatives shall not be vacated by any amendment of the constitution made in this convention, nor otherwise affected, except that the terms of the representatives and the terms of the senators which will expire on the first Tuesday of October, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty-two, are hereby extended to the second Tuesday of November in that year; and the terms of the senators which will expire on the first Tuesday of October, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty-three, are hereby extended to the second Tuesday of November in that year. And the terms of the senators which will expire on the first Tuesday of October, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty-four, are hereby extended to the second Tuesday of November in that year.

The general assembly shall meet on the first Tuesday of January next, and shall not be within the amended provision respecting biennial sessions, which biennial sessions shall commence with the session of the general assembly on the first Tuesday of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty-three.

SEC. 2. The offices of the present sheriffs and coroners shall not be vacated by any amendment to the constitution made in this convention, nor otherwise affected, except that the term of office of the sheriff of Sussex County is hereby extended to the second Tuesday of November, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty-two, and until a successor be duly qualified; and on the second Tuesday of November, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty-two, shall be the first election for sheriff in Sussex County, under this amended constitution. And the term of the present coroner for Sussex County is hereby extended to the second Tuesday of November, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty-four, and until a successor shall be duly qualified; and on the said last-mentioned day shall be the first election for coroner in Sussex County under this amended constitution.

The terms of the present sheriffs and coroners for Kent County and New Castle County are hereby extended to the second Tuesday of November, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty-three, and until successors to them respectively be duly qualified; and on or after the first Tuesday of November, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty-three, the governor shall have power to appoint a sheriff and a coroner for New Castle County, and a sheriff and coroner for Kent County, to continue in office until the second Tuesday of November, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty-four, and until successors to them respectively be duly qualified. And on the said last-mentioned day shall be the first election for sheriff and for coroner in New Castle County and in Kent County under this amended constitution, unless a vacancy happen in the office of sheriff or coroner of New Castle or Kent County, or of coroner for Sussex County, before the second Tuesday of November, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty-two; in which case an election shall be held on that day for a sheriff or a coroner under this amended constitution, in place of the sheriff or coroner whose office had become vacant.

SEC. 3. The first election for representatives under this amended constitution shall be held on the second Tuesday of November, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty-two, which shall be the commencement of biennial elections. At this election one senator shall be chosen in each county for four years. Also, at the biennial election to be held in the several counties on the second Tuesday of November, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty-four, two senators shall be chosen in each county for four years each. But as the term of one senator in each county will expire on the second Tuesday of November, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty-three, when no election will be held to provide for this special case, a senator shall be chosen in each county, at the election held on the second Tuesday of November, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty-two, for one year, to succeed the senator for such county whose term shall expire on the second Tuesday of November, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty-three, and to continue in office until the second Tuesday in November, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty-four, when two senators shall be chosen in each county as afore provided.

SEC. 4. The term of office of the present governor shall not be vacated nor extended by amendment made to the constitution in this convention; but the said office shall continue during the original term thereof; but the ninth and fourteenth sections of the third article of this constitution shall be immediately in force as amended. An election for governor shall be held on the second Tuesday of November, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty-two.

SEC. 5. This constitution as amended, so far as shall concern the judicial department, shall commence and be in operation from and after the third Tuesday of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty-two. All the

courts of justice now existing shall continue with their present jurisdiction, and the chancellor and judges and the clerks of the said courts shall continue in office until the said third Tuesday of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty-two; upon which day the said courts shall be abolished, and the offices of the said chancellor, judges, and clerks shall expire. All writs of error and appeals and proceedings which, on the third Tuesday of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty-two, shall be depending in the high court of errors and appeals, and all the books, records, and papers of said court, shall be transferred to the court of errors and appeals established by this amended constitution; and the said writs of errors, appeals, and proceedings shall be proceeded in, in the said court of errors and appeals, to final judgment, decree, or other determination.

All suits, proceedings, and matters which, on the third Tuesday of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty-two, shall be depending in the supreme court, or court of common pleas, and all books, records, and papers of the said courts, shall be transferred to the superior court established by this amended constitution, and the said suits, proceedings, and matters shall be proceeded in to final judgment or determination in the said superior court. All indictments, proceedings, and matters which, on the third Tuesday of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty-two, shall be depending in the court of general quarter sessions of the peace and jail-delivery, shall be transferred to and proceeded in to final judgment and determination in the court of general sessions of the peace and jaildelivery established by this amended constitution, and all books, records, and papers of said court of general quarter sessions of the peace and jail-delivery shall be transferred to the said court of general sessions of the peace and jail-delivery. All suits, proceedings, and matters which, on the third Tuesday of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty-two, shall be depending in the court of chancery or in the orphans' court, and all records, books, and papers of said courts, respectively, shall be transferred to the court of chancery or orphans' court, respectively, established by this amended constitution, and the said suits, proceedings, and matters shall proceed in to final decree, order, or other determination.

SEC. 6. The registers' courts and justices of the peace shall not be affected by any amendments of the constitution made in this convention; but the said courts and the terms of office of registers and justices of the peace shall remain the same as if said amendments had not been made.

SEC. 7. The general assembly shall have power to make any law necessary to carry into effect this amended constitution.

Sec. 8. The provision in the twentieth section of the sixth article of this amended constitution (being the thirtieth section of the sixth article of the original constitution) of limitation of writs of error, shall have relation to, and take date from, the twelfth day of June, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and ninetytwo, the date of said original constitution. Sec. 9.

The governor shall have power to issue writs of election to supply vacancies in either house of the general assembly that have happened or may happen.

SEC. 10. It is declared that nothing in this amended constitution gives a writ of error from the court of errors and appeals to the court of oyer and terminer, or court of general sessions of the peace and jail-delivery, nor an appeal from the court of general sessions of the peace and jail-delivery.

The acts of the general assembly, increasing the number of justices of the peace, shall remain in force until repealed by the general assembly; and no office shall be vacated by the amendment to this constitution, unless the same be expressly vacated thereby, or the vacating the same is necessary to give effect to the amendments.

AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION OF 1831.

RATIFIED JANUARY 30, 1855. Art. IV. SECTION 1. Strike out the date, and insert “on the Tuesday next after the first Monday in the month of November of the year;" so that it will read:

“All elections for governor, senators, representatives, sheriffs, and coroners shall be held on the Tuesday next after the first Monday in the month of November of the year in which they are to be held, and be by ballot."

RATIFIED JANUARY 28, 1875. ARTICLE 1. Add Sec. 17. The legislature shall have power to enact a general incorporation act to provide incorporation for religious, charitable, literary, and manufacturing purposes, for the preservation of animal and vegetable food, building and loan associations, and for draining low lands; and no attempt shall be made, in such act or otherwise, to limit or qualify the power of revocation reserved to the legislature in this section.

FLORIDA.*

PREROGATIVES GRANTED TO CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS.

FERDINAND and ELIZABETH, by the Grace of God, King and Queen of Castile, of Leon, of Arragon, of Sicily, of Granada, of Toledo, of Valencia, of Galicia, of Majorca, of Minorca, of Sevil, of Sardinia, of Faen, of Algarve, of Algezira, of Gibraltar, of the Canary Islands, Count and Countess of Barcelona, Lord and Lady of Biscay and Molina, Duke and Duchess of Athens and Neopatria, Count and Countess of Rousillion and Cerdaigne, Marquess and Marchioness of Oristan and Gociano, &c. For as much as you, Christopher Columbus, are going by our command, with some of our vessels and men, to discover and subdue some Íslands and Continent in the ocean, and it is hoped that by God's assistance, some of the said Islands and Continent in the ocean will be discovered and conquered by your means and conduct, therefore it is but just and reasonable, that since you expose yourself to such danger to serve us, you should be rewarded for it. And we being willing to honour and favour you for the reasons aforesaid; Our will is, That you, Christopher Columbus, after discovering and conquering the said Islands and Continent in the said ocean, or any of them, shall be our Admiral of the said Islands and Continent you shall so discover and conquer; and that you be our Admiral, Vice-Roy, and Governour in them, and that for the future, you may call and stile yourself, D. Christopher Columbus, and that your sons and successors in the said employment, may call themselves Dons, Admirals, Vice-Roys, and Governours of them; and that you may exercise the office of Admiral, with the charge of Vice-Roy and Governour of the said Islands and Continent, which you and your Lieutenants shall conquer, and freely decide all causes, civil and criminal, appertaining to the said employment of Admiral, Vice-Roy, and Governour, as you shall think fit in justice, and as the Admirals of our kingdoms use to do; and that you have power to punish offenders; and you and your Lieutenants exercise the employments of Admiral, Vice-Roy, and Governour, in all things belonging to the said offices, or any of them; and that you enjoy the perquisites and salaries belonging to the said employments, and to each of them, in the same manner as the High Admiral of our kingdoms does. And by this our letter, or a copy of it signed by a Public Notary: We command Prince John, our most dearly beloved Son, the Infants, Dukes, Prelates, Marquesses, Great Masters and Military Orders, Priors, Commendaries, our Counsellors, Judges, and other Officers of Justice whatsoever, belonging to our Household, Courts, and Chancery, and Constables of Castles, Strong Houses, and others; and all Corporations, Bayliffs, Governours, Judges, Commanders, Sea Officers; and the Aldermen, Common Council, Officers, and Good People of all Cities, Lands, and Places in our Kingdoms and Dominions, and in those you shall conquer and subdue, and the captains, masters, mates, and other officers and sailors, our natural subjects now being, or that shall be for the time to come, and any of them, that when you shall have discovered the said Islands and Continent in the ocean ; and you, or any that shall have your commission, shall have taken the usual oath'in such cases, that they for the future, look upon you as long as you live, and after you, your son and heir, and so from one

Spain claimed and exercised the right of ultimate dominion over her possessions in America on the rights given by the discovery of America under this commission, and the grant of Pope Alexander. [See pages 305-307. 1

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