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course of law, and justice administered according to the very right of the cause and the law of the land, without sale, denial, or unreasonable delay or expense; and every action shall be tried in the county in which it shall be commenced, unless when the judges of the court in which the cause is to be tried shall determine that an impartial trial therefor cannot be had in that county. Suits may be brought against the State, according to such regulations as shall be made by law.

Sec. 1o. No power of suspending laws shall be exercised, but by authority of the legislature.

SEC. 11. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel punishment inflicted; and in the construction of jails a proper regard shall be had to the health of prisoners.

SEC. 12. All prisoners shall be bailable by sufficient sureties, unless for capital offences, when the proof is positive or the presumption great; and when persons are confined on accusation for such offences, their friends and counsel may at proper seasons have access to them.

SEC. 13. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it.

SEC. 14. No commission of oyer and terminer or jail-delivery shall be issued.

SEC. 15. No attainder shall work corruption of blood, nor, except during the life of the offender, forfeiture of estate. The estates of those who destroy their own lives shall descend or vest as in case of natural death; and if any person be killed by accident, no forfeiture shall be thereby incurred.

SEC. 16. Although disobedience to laws by a part of the people, upon suggestions of impolicy or injustice in them, tends, by immediate effect and the influence of example, not only to endanger the public welfare and safety, but also in governments of a republican form contravenes the social principles of such governments founded on common consent for common good, yet the citizens have a right in an orderly manner to meet together, and to apply to persons intrusted with the powers of government for redress of grievances or other proper purposes, by petition, remonstrance, or address.

Sec. 17. No standing army shall be kept up without the consent of the legislature: and the military shall, in all cases and at all times, be in strict subordination to the

civil power.

SEC. 18. No soldier shall in time of peace be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war but by a civil magistrate, in a manner to be prescribed by law.

Sec. 19. No hereditary distinction shall be granted, nor any office created or exercised, the appointments to which shall be for a longer term than during good behavior; and no person holding any office under this State shall accept of any office or title of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign state.

We declare that everything in this article is reserved out of the general powers of government hereinafter mentioned.

ARTICLE II. SECTION 1. The legislative power of this State shall be vested in a general assembly, which shall consist of a senate and house of representatives.

SEC. 2. The representatives shall be chosen (for two years) by the citizens residing in the several counties.

No person shall be a representative who shall not have attained the age of twentyfour years,

and have been a citizen and inhabitant of the State three years next preceding the first meeting of the legislature after his election, and the last year of that term an inhabitant of the county in which he shall be chosen, unless he shall have been absent on the public business of the United States, or of this State.

There shall be seven representatives chosen in each county, until a greater number of representatives shall by the general assembly be judged necessary; and then, twothirds of each branch of the legislature concurring, they may by law make provision for increasing their number.

SEC. 3. The senators shall be chosen for four years by the citizens residing in the several counties.

No person shall be a senator who shall not have attained to the age of twentyseven years, and have, in the county in which he shall be chosen, a freehold estate in two hundred acres of land, or an estate in real or personal property, or in either, of the value of one thousand pounds at least, and have been a citizen and inhabitant of the State three years next preceding the first meeting of the legislature after his election, and the last year of that term an inhabitant of the county in which he shall be chosen, unless he shall have been absent on the public business of the United States, or of this State.

There shall be three senators chosen in each county. When a greater number of senators shall by the general assembly be judged necessary, two-thirds of each branch concurring, they may by law make provision for increasing their number; but the number of senators shall never be greater than one-half nor less than one-third of the number of representatives.

If the office of representative or the office of senator become vacant before the regular expiration of the term thereof, a representative or a senator shall be elected to fill such vacancy, and shall hold the office for the residue of said term.

When there is a' vacancy in either house of the general assembly, and the general assembly is not in session, the governor shall have power to issue a writ of election to fill such vacancy; which writ shall be executed as a writ issued by a speaker of either house in case of vacancy.

Sec. 4. The general assembly shall meet on the first Tuesday of January, biennially, unless sooner convened by the governor.

The first meeting of the general assembly, under this amended constitution, shall be on the first Tuesday of January, in the year of our Lord 1833, which shall be the commencement of the biennial sessions.

Sec. 5. Each house shall choose its speaker and other officers; and also each house, whose speaker shall exercise the office of governor, may choose a speaker pro tempore.

Sec. 6. Each house shall judge of the elections, returns, and qualifications of its own members; and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and shall be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members in such manner and under such penalties as shall be deemed expedient.

SEC. 7. Each house may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish any of its members for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds, expel a member, and shall have all other powers necessary for a branch of the legislature of a free and independent State.

SEC. 8. Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and publish them immediately after every session, except such parts as may require secrecy, and the yeas and nays of the members on any question shall, at the desire of any member, be entered on the journal.

Sec. 9. The doors of each house, and of committees of the whole, shall be open, unless when the business is such as ought to be kept secret.

Sec. 10. Neither house shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two houses shall be sitting.

Sec. 11. The senators and representatives shall receive a compensation for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the treasury of the State; but no law varying the compensation shall take effect until an election of the representatives shall have intervened. They shall in all cases, except treason, felony, or breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the sessions of their espective houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any speech or debate in either house they shall not be questioned in any other place.

Sec. 12. No senator or representative shall, during the time for which he shall have been elected, be appointed to any civil office under this State, which shall have been created, or the emoluments of which shall have been increased, during such time. No person concerned in any army or navy contracts, nor member of Congress, nor

any person holding any office under this State, or the United States, except the attorney-general, officers usually appointed by the courts of justice, respectively, attorneys at law, and officers in the militia, holding no disqualifying office, shall, during his continuance in Congress or in office, be a senator or representative.

SEC. 13. When vacancies happen in either house, writs of election shall be issued by the speakers respectively, or in cases of necessity, in such other manner as shall be provided by law; and the persons thereupon chosen shall hold their seats as long as those in whose stead they are elected might have done if such vacancies had not happened.

SEC. 14. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the house of representatives; but the senate may propose alterations as on other bills; and no bill

, from the operations of which, when passed into a law, revenue may incidentally arise, shall be accounted a bill for raising revenue; nor shall any matter or clause whatever, not immediately relating to and necessary for raising revenue, be in any manner blended with or annexed to a bill for raising revenue.

SEC. 15. No money shall be drawn from the treasury but in consequence of appropriations made by law; and a regular statement and account of the receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be published at least once in every two years.

Sec. 16. The State treasurer shall. be appointed biennially by the house of representatives, with the concurrence of the senate. In case of vacancy in the office of State treasurer in the recess of the general assembly, either through omission of the general assembly to appoint, or by the death, removal out of the State, resignation, or inability of the State treasurer, or his failure to give security, the governor shall fill the vacancy by appointment, to continue until the next meeting of the general assembly. The State treasurer shall settle his accounts annually with the general assembly, or a committee thereof, which shall be appointed at every biennial session. No person who hath served in the office of State treasurer shall be eligible to a seat in either house of the general assembly until he shall have made a final settlement of his accounts as treasurer, and discharged the balance, if any, due thereon.

Sec. 17. No act of incorporation, except for the renewal of existing corporations, shall be hereafter enacted without the concurrence of two-thirds of each branch of the legislature, and with a reserved power of revocation by the legislature; and no act of incorporation which may be hereafter enacted shall continue in force for a longer period than twenty years, without the reënactment of the legislature, unless it be an incorporation for public improvement.

ARTICLE III. SECTION 1. The supreme executive powers of the State shall be vested in a governor. Sec. 2. The governor shall be chosen by the citizens of the State.

The returns of every election for governor shall be sealed up, and immediately delivered by the returning officers of the several counties to the speaker of the senate, or, in case of the vacancy of the office of the speaker of the senate, or his absence from the State, to the secretary of state, who shall keep the same until a speaker of the senate shall be appointed, to whom they shall be immediately delivered after his appointment, who shall open and publish the same in the presence of the members of both houses of the legislature. Duplicates of the said returns shall also be immediately lodged with the prothonotary of each county. The person having the highest number of votes shall be governor; but if two or more shall be equal in the highest number of votes, the members of the two houses shall, by joint ballot, choose one of them to be governor; and if, upon such ballot, two or more of them shall still be equal and highest in votes, the speaker of the senate shall have an additional casting vote.

Contested elections of a governor shall be determined by a joint committee, consisting of one-third of all the members of each branch of the legislature, to be selected by ballot of the house respectively; every person of the committee shall take an oath or affirmation that in determining the said election he will faithfully discharge the trust reposed in him ; and the committee shall always sit with open doors.

*Amended in 1875.

SEC. 3. The governor shall hold his office during four years from the third Tuesday in January next ensuing his election, and shall not be eligible a second time to said office.

Sec. 4. He shall be at least thirty years of age, and have been a citizen and inhabitant of the United States twelve years next before the first meeting of the legislature after his election, and the last six of that term an inhabitant of this State, unless he shall have been absent on the public business of the United States, or of this State.

Sec. 5. No member of Congress, nor person holding any office under the United States, or this State, shall exercise the office of governor.

SEC. 6. The governor shall, at stated times, receive for his services an adequate salary, to be fixed by law, which shall be neither increased nor diminished during the period for which he shall have been elected.

Sec. 7. He shall be commander-in-chief of the army and navy of the State, and of the militia, except when they shall be called into the service of the United States.

Sec. 8. He shall appoint all officers whose offices are established by this constitution, or shall be established by law, and whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided for; but no person shall be appointed to an office within a county, who shall not have a right to vote for representatives, and have been an inhabitant therein one year next before his appointment, nor hold the office longer than he continues to soside in the county. No member of Congress, nor any person holding or exercising any office under the United States, shall at the same time hold or exercise the office of judge, treasurer, attorney-general, secretary, prothonotary, register for the probate of wills and granting letters of administration, recorder, sheriff, or any office under this State, with a salary by law annexed to it, or any other office which the legislature shall declare incompatible with offices or appointments under the United States. No person shall hold more than one of the following offices at the same time, to wit: treasurer, attorney-general, prothonotary, register, or sheriff. All commissions shall be in the name of the State, shall be sealed with the great seal, and be signed and tested by the governor.

SEC. 9. He shall have power to remit fines and forfeitures, and to grant reprieves and pardons, except in cases of impeachment. He shall set forth in writing, fully, the grounds of all reprieves, pardons, and remissions, to be entered in the register of his official acts, and laid before the general assembly at their next session.

SEC. 10. He may require information in writing from the officers in the executive department, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices.

SEC. 11. He shall, from time to time, give to the general assembly information of affairs concerning the State, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he shall judge expedient.

Sec. 12. He may, on extraordinary occasions, convene the general assembly; and, in case of disagreement between the two houses with respect to the time of adjournment, adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper, not exceeding three months.

SEC. 13. He shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed.

SEC. 14. Upon any vacancy happening in the office of governor by his death, removal, resignation, or inability, the speaker of the Senate shall exercise the office until a governor elected by the people shall be duly qualified. If there be no speaker of the senate, or upon a further vacancy happening in the office by his death, removal, resignation, or inability, the speaker of the house of representatives shall exercise the office until a governor elected by the people shall be duly qualified. If the person elected governor shall die, or become disqualified, before the commencement of his term of office, or shall refuse to take the same, the person holding the office shall continue to exercise it until a governor shall be elected and duly qualified. If upon a vacancy happening in the office of governor there be no other person who can exercise said office within the provisions of the constitution, the secretary of state shall exercise the same until the next meeting of the general assembly, who shall immediately proceed to elect, by joint ballot of both houses, a person to exercise the office until a governor, elected by the people, shall be duly qualified. If a vacancy occur in the office of governor, or if the governor-elect die, or become disqualified, before the commencement of his term, or refuse to take the office, an election for governor

shall be held at the next general election, unless the vacancy happen within six days next preceding the election, exclusive of the day of the happening of the vacancy and the day of the election; in that case, if an election for governor would not have been, held at said election, without the happening of such vacancy, no election for governor shall be held at said election in consequence of such vacancy. If the trial of a contested election shall continue longer than until the third Tuesday of January next ensuing the election of a governor, the governor of the last year, or the speaker of the senate, or of the house of representatives, who may then be in the exercise of the executive authority, shall continue therein until a determination of such contested election. The governor shall not be removed from his office for inability but with the concurrence of two-thirds of all the members of each branch of the legislature.

SEC. 15. A secretary shall be appointed and commissioned during the governor's continuance in office, if he shall so long behave himself well. He shall keep a fair register of all the official acts and proceedings of the governor, and shall, when required by either branch of the legislature, lay the same, and all papers, minutes, and vouchers relative thereto, before them, and shall perform such other duties as shall be enjoined him by law. He shall have a compensation for his services, to be fixed by law.

ARTICLE IV.

SECTION 1. All elections for governor, senators, representatives, sheriffs, and coroners shall be held on the second Tuesday* of November, and be by ballot; and in such elections every free white male citizen of the age of twenty-two years or upwards, having resided in the State one year next before the election, and the last month thereof in the county where he offers to vote, and having within two years next before the election paid a county tax, which shall have been assessed at least six months before the election, shall enjoy the right of an elector; and every free white | male citizen of the age of twenty-one years, and under the age of twenty-two years, having resided as aforesaid, shall be entitled to vote without payment of any tax : Provided, That no person in the military, naval, or marine service of the United States shall be considered as acquiring a residence in this State, by being stationed in any garrison, barrack, or military or naval place or station within this state; and no idiot, or insane person, or pauper, or person convicted of a crime deemed by law felony, shall enjoy the right of an elector; and that the legislature may impose the forfeiture of the right of suffrage as a punishment for crime.

Sec. 2. Electors shall in all cases, except treason, felony, or breach of the peace, be privileged from an arrest during their attendance at elections, and in going to and returning from them.

ARTICLE V.. SECTION 1. The house of representatives shall have the sole power of impeaching; but two-thirds of all the members must concur in an impeachment. All impeachments shall be tried by the senate; and when sitting for that purpose the senators shall be upon oath or affirmation to do justice according to the evidence. No person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of all the senators.

Sec. 2. The governor, and all other civil officers under this State, shall be liable to impeachment for treason, bribery, or any high crime or misdemeanor in office. Judgment in such cases shall not extend further than to removal from office, and disqualification to hold any office of honor, trust, or profit under this State; but the party convicted shall nevertheless be subject to indictment, trial, judgment, and punishment according to law.

SEC. 3. Treason against this State shall consist only in levying war against it, or in adhering to the enemies of the Government, giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason, unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court.

* Amended in 1855.

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