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When speaking of the analysis of the word 'man,' in the beginning of Chapter II., it was shown that a syllable may be resolved into the ultimate sounds called elements. It is easy to perceive, while uttering the first sound in the table of elements (that represented by ā) that the aperture of the mouth takes a different shape in the opening from what it the explosion of the vowel sounds, and also to the production of final stress or distinctive force upon the final sound or the vanish of syllables.

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BEFORE entering upon the practice of exercises involving two or more syllables in such juxtaposition as to represent words, the attention of the pupil should be directed to certain properties in the nature of the consonant elements which show a relation between some of the sub-vowels and an equal number of the aspirates. If the position of the vocal organs be narrowly observed while sounding the element represented by B, it will be perceived that a similar position of the lips as well as a similar effort of the mouth will also produce the sound represented by P, thus establishing a certain relationship between these two sounds. Hence these sounds, and the signs also which represent them, have been called COGNATES. B and P then are cognates. The same examination will show a like correspondence to exist between D and T; or between the sounds which they represent; D and T then are cognates. The sound of hard G, the third subvowel element in the table, is cognate to the sound represented by K, the aspirate which stands opposite to it in the third column

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