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the measure, and constitute its first member. The second member must in this case be represented by a rest, to indicate a suspension of voice immediately after the short heavy syllable.
Let 1 stand for a heavy accented syllable, and ... for a light or unaccented one. A will then represent the first member of a measure, and one or more of these .... the second member. Let this mark y represent a suspension of voice, or a rest. And let it be substituted for the wanting member of any measure : thus, where the first member is wanting, the measure will commence with 7, and when the last or second member is wanting the ~, will appear in its place. As in the line
When 17 in the course of human e- | vents.
1 ........ ' ^ .. ' 1.. :.' ^ In this example the syllable when' is made to occupy the whole time of a measure; the voice is then suspended for a very slight pause, after which the unaccented syllables in the are pronounced wholly without accent, and the remainder of the sentence follows immediately, without any further interruption. Each measure is to occupy the same space of time as nearly as may be; and the time is to be measured by beating with the hand once down and up, in each measure. The hand is to move constantly while reading by measure ; but the voice is to cease during the time of a rest or 7, whether it occur on the first member or on the second member of a measure. If the rest occur upon the first member of a measure, the hand falls during silence; as is the case in the second
measure of the above example. If the rest represent the second member, the hand rises during silence.
Now, owing to the difficulty which every beginner (particularly when unacquainted with reading music) will find in breaking the association between the two actions, viz., that of the hand and that of the voice, I recommend that the action of both be continued for awhile, the voice pronouncing the word “ down' for every rest which occurs in the first member of a measure, and the word “up' wherever a appears in the second member. By this practice the pupil will soon find it easy to read by measure, and may afterwards observe silence in the places of rests, discontinuing the words down' and 'up.'
In the commencement of this practice the student will find no difficulty where the rests are but few, or where they occur only on the second member of a measure, for there they cause no interruption to the movement of the voice, and merely denote that no. sound need be made while the hand is rising; but when a rest occurs at the beginning of a measure, it checks and forbids the positive effort for an accented syllable, and to beat with the hand and repress the voice in such place is at first not easily done. Thus,
“4 The hum of either | army / stilly | sounds,"
1. '1 .... ... is easily read, because there is no interruption either to the hand or voice. They both keep moving. Again
“ High on a | throne of royal state."
::.' 1 ::' ::'^ i. This reads perfectly easy, and without breaking. So in the line
Where the movement is regular, and no rest occurs upon the heavy or accented member of a measure, no one will find difficulty in reading and beating. Now, if we replace these rests by the unaccented syllable and,' the measure will be unaltered, and it will read with the same ease. As,
Rocks and caves and lakes and | fens and bogs and |
1 .. . 1 i 1 i . . . . . î i. dens and shades of death. / ^ .
. .. The unaccented syllable and occupying no more time than was allowed for the rest in each measure. But it will not be found so easy to read the following lines, because the first member is wanting to several measures.
The syllables wise,' day,'mad,'«fer,' being those which require accent, they are placed each at the beginning of a measure; the syllables which precede them, then, are unaccented, and therefore constitute second members of measures. There being no syllable preceding · Be' (which is unaccented) we use a 7 to represent the wanting member; and, having
commenced beating in silence, we pronounce the syllable · Be’ very lightly while raising the hand, to fall on the syllable
wise. The hand rises and falls on day,' then falls in silence and rises on “'tis, falls on 'mad' and rises on "ness,' &c. At the end of the first line we pause long enough for the hand to rise and fall once, that is, the time of a measure. And where there are several successive measures filled with rests, we continue to beat in silence, saying, “ Down, up, down, up, down, up," until the empty bars are exhausted.
OBJECTIONS TO THE PRACTICE OF READING SCORED EXER
DIRECTIONS FOR ACQUIRING THE ART OF READING
SCORED EXERCISES — HOW THE SENSE IS AFFECTED BY NEGLECT OF THE
PRINCIPLES OF MEASURE.
If any one should object to the mode of scoring here indicated, on account of the stiff and mechanical effect produced in the reading of a beginner, we have this answer for him :
That the dividing lines and rests are not intended to break up the natural and proper flow of language, and do not necessarily cause the uniformity complained of, or impose shackles upon the accomplished reader. They are marks made to show where the accented syllables come, and to indicate the reading which will be adopted by a correct reader; and such a scoring as the above, or a scoring similar to it in the essentials, will be authorized by the reading of any one sufficiently correct or elegant in his utterance to warrant any nice or philosophical criticism at all. It is not expected of any beginner in the art of reading, that he will be able to observe the rules of this