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He spoke to (tủ,) them of it before (bŭfore).
The creation (creash'n) and preservation (preservash’n) of life.
The testimony of the second witness corroborated (currob’rated) that of the first (fust).
The benevolent (b'nev’lunt) Howard.
The fruit was delicious (d'licious); the prospect was delightful (d'lightful).
The stranger was remarkably polite (p’lite) to them. The dignity of human ('uman) nature (natshů).
When (wen) will what (wat) he whispered (wispered) transpire ?
Where (were) wheeled (weeled) and whirled (wirled) the floundering (flound'rin) whale (wale).
Behold (bůhold) he is before (bŭfore) you.
His opinion (ůpinion) was that we ought to obey (übey).
They committed (cůmmitted) the whole piece to memory (mem'ry).
The communications of the competitors, were compared. (cůmmunications, &c.)
You concurred in condemning the confederates (cuncurred, &c.)
The building which was constructed of wood, and contained a vast quantity of combustible materials, was, in a short time, consumed (as above).
She studies history (hist’ry) and rhetoric (rhetric).
He had no disposition (dispusish'n) to employ himself in composition (compusish'n).
His eloquence (elŭquence) set the colonies (colūnies) in a flame.
Nature (natshů) and society (súcietty) are not always in unison (unis'n).
Fair (fai') Greece, sad relic of departed (depa’ted) worth (wo’th).
Immortal (immo'tal) though no more (mo').
Easing their steps over (ove') the burning (bu’ning) marl (ma'l).
The vessel (vess'l) was built as a model (mod’l).
We travelled (trav'lled) on a level (lev'l) road of gravel (grav’l).
His musical (music'l) tone had a comical (comic'l) effect.
A specimen of the metal (met'l) was sent to the capital (capit’l).
In a moment of imprudent confidence, he declared himself independent of their assistance (momunt, &c.)
Looking (lookin') out of the window on the willows in the meadow (windů, &c.)
Dancing, drawing, and singing, being only graceful accomplishments, are much less important than the useful ones of reading and writing (dancin', &c.)
And the smooth stream in smoother (smoothe') numbers (numbě’s) flows.
Rarely does poverty overtake the diligent (as above).
Faults of local usage exemplified. Inadvertent compliance with negligent and erroneous custom, is a great source of the defective articulation which prevails in reading. The extent to which faults of this class are sometimes carried, even in circumstances otherwise favourable to good education, may be inferred from the following specimen of the actual style of articulation, current in many schools, which are certainly well taught in other respects. Exercises similar to the following, should be occasionally performed by the student, for his own use, with a view to the detection of current errors, which might otherwise escape his notice, and influence his own articulation.
16 The young
The following extract is printed, it will be observed, with a notation of the incorrect articulation, throughout. The design of this arrangement is to arrest the attention, and produce, if possible, an adequate impression of the consequences of hasty and careless utterance. Extract.
Incorrect articulation. of all animals appear to re- The young of all animuls ceive pleasure, simply from (anim'ls or animal's) apthe exercise of their limbs pear to receive playzhů, and bodily faculties, with- simply from the exe'cise out reference to any end to of their limbs an' bod'ly be attained, or any use to fac'lties, without ref'rence be answered by the exer- to any end tủ be attained, tion: A child, without
or any use tū be answered knowing anything of the by the exŭ'sh'n. A child, use of language, is in a
without knowin' anything high degree delighted with ŭ th’ use of language, is being able to speak. Its in a high d'gree d’lighted incessant repetition of a with bein' able từ speak. few articulate sounds, or Its incess'nt rep'tishn of a perhaps of a single word, few artic'late sounds, or which it has learned to pro- p’r’aps of a single word, nounce, proves this point which it has lunn'd tủ průclearly. "Nor is it less nounce, proves this point pleased with its first suc- clea’ly. Nor is it less cessful endeavours to walk, pleased with its füst sucor rather to run, which pre- cessful endeavủs tủ walk, cedes walking, although or rather tŭ run, which entirely ignorant of the průcedes (or pre-cedes) importance of the attain- walkin', although entirely ment to its future life, and ignŭrúnt ŭ th' impo'tence even without applying it ŭ th' attainmũnt to its to any present purpose. futử' (or futshú) life, and A child is delighted with even without applyin' it speaking, without having to any pres'nt pu’pose. anything to say, and with A child is d’lighted with walking, without knowing speakin' without havin’ whither to go. And pre- anything tủ say, and with viously to both these, it is walkin', without knowin' reasonable to believe, that whither tŭ go. the waking hours of in- viously tủ both these, it is
fancy, are agreeably taken reasonabúl tủ b'lieve, that up with the exercise of the wakin' hours of invision, or perhaps, more funcy, are agree'bly taken properly speaking, with up with the exe'cise of learning to see.” * vizhn, or p'r'aps, more
prope’ly speakin', with
Tunnin' tŭ see. Errors of the above description, vary, of course, with 'the places, and even the schools, in which they exist; and the above, or any similar example, must be considered as thus limited, and not as meant to be of universal application. It should farther be observed, that, in exhibiting a specimen of prevailing faults, it becomes necessary to the usefulness of the exercise, to include in the notation of a passage, all the errors usually made by a class, although the number might be much smaller for an individual.
Every person who fails of articulating distinctly, has an habitual fault, in the pronunciation of one or more classes of words or syllables, and sometimes, perhaps, of letters. These should be selected and thrown into the form of sentential exercises, for daily practice, in the manner exemplified in this lesson.
Natural impediments,' or,-as they should rather be called,-faults of early habit, must be removed by means adapted to particular cases. But there are few students who do not need, in one form or other, the full benefit of careful practice in this department of elocution. The very general neglect of this branch of elementary instruction, leaves much to be done, in the way of correction and reformation, at later stages. The faults acquired through early negligence, and confirmed into habit by subsequent practice, need rigorous and thorough measures of cure; and the student who is desirous of cultivating a classical accuracy of taste, in the enunciation of his native language, must be willing to go back to the careful study and practice of its elementary sounds, and discipline his organs upon these in all their various combinations, till an accurate and easy articulation is perfectly acquired. The exercises in articulation and pronunciation,' are arranged with a view to this object.
* The above extract should be read aloud, from the incorrect articulation ; the errors being rectified, when necessary, by reference to the extract as correctly given.
This department of elocution is sometimes termed orthoepy (correct speech.). It is properly but an extension and application of the subject of the preceding lesson. Articulation regards the functions of the organs of speech; and pronunciation, the sound produced by these functions, as conforming to, or deviating from, the modes of good usage. Speech being merely a collection of arbitrary sounds, used as signs of thought or feeling, it is indispensable to intelligible communication, that there be a general agreement about the signification assigned to given sounds; as otherwise there could be no common language. It is equally important that there be a common consent and established custom, to regulate and fix the sounds used in speech, that these may have a definite character and signification, and become the current expression of thought. Hence the necessity that individuals conform, in their habits of speech, to the rules prescribed by general usage, -or, more properly speaking, to the custom of the educated and intellectual classes of society, which is, by courtesy, generally acknowledged as the law of pronunciation. Individual opinion, when it is at variance with this important and useful principle of accommodation, gives rise to eccentricities, which neither the authority of profound learning, nor that of strict accuracy and system, can redeem from the charge of pedantry.
It is a matter of great importance, to recognise the rule of authorized custom, and neither yield to the influence of those errors which, through inadvertency,