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characteristic of true and graceful articulation, than the clear and appropriate sound of this letter.
Palatic and Sibilant Letter. X, as in Ver: Axe sex ox expel exile, six oxen Saxon waxedst sexton, axle excel fixture extract exhortation exorcise expect.
X, as in Examine: Example exemplary exact auxiliary exalt exhort, exhaust exhaustion exhale exhibit exordium.
ERRORS IN ARTICULATION.
The common hinderances to distinct enunciation may, as far as articulation is concerned, be classed as follows:
1st. Feebleness, arising from a want of full and forcible emission of voice, and of due energy in the action of the organs,-particularly the tongue, the teeth, and
2d. Omission, a fault occasioned by. undue rapidity or hurry, and sometimes by an inadvertent compliance with incorrect custom.,
3d. Obscurity, caused by the want of precision and accuracy in the funccions of the organs, and a consequent want of definiteness or correctness in the sounds of letters and syllables.
The rule of practice, therefore, in regard to the exercises of reading and speaking, should be, Always to articulate with such energy, deliberateness, and accuracy, that every sound of the voice may be fully and exactly formed, distinctly heard, and perfectly understood. A drawling slowness, however, and a pedantic or irregular prominence of unaccented syllables, should be carefully avoided. Faults arising from slovenliness, and those which seem to spring from misdirected study, are equally objectionable.
Errors in articulation may be conveniently classed according to the manner in which they affect the pronunciation of words and syllables.
Ist. Those which consist in omitting or obscuring words. Among these are the following:
In the pronunciation of the conjunction and, cutting off the final letter d, and obscuring or omitting the initial letter a. These errors take place frequently, and in various circumstances, but particularly when and occurs before a word beginning with a vowel. Thus the word and, in the phrase "air and exercise,' is not unfrequently pronounced in one of these three ways: 'air an' exercise,'—'air un exercise,'—'air 'n exercise.'
The phrase 'of the’ is also clipped of several letters, so as to be reduced, in some instances, to the bare sound of th. The following clause exemplifies the various degrees of this fault: The heat of the air was oppressive'-'the heat o' the air,' &c.—the heat oth' air,' &c.—' the heat th' air,' &c.
The preposition to is carelessly uttered as if with the sound of o in done, or of u in but, instead of that of o in move, shortened; thus, 'He went tŭ see the monument'-for 'to see,' &c.
2d. Errors in the articulation of initial syllables, by omitting or obscuring the sounds of letters. The errors of omission are, chiefly, such as the following: [The letter which is apt to be omitted, is italicised.)
* Belief believe benevolence benevolent delicious delight delightful delineate deliver denominate denominator calamity calamitous deny denial deliberate
These and all following classes of words which exemplify errors or rules, are intended to be read aloud, with great distinctness, and to be often repeated.
denote denounce polite political, human * when wheat why where what whirl whimper whale wharf wheel which whisper white.
The errors of careless articulation and obscure sound in initial syllables, are chiefly exemplified in the letters e and 0, which are incorrectly sounded like e in her and like o in come. The true sound of e and o in such syllables is that which is heard in the first syllable of the words rewrite, domain, costume.
Before behind behold beware event prepare precede.
0, as in Domain-Colossal, (incorrectly pronounced cullossul, &c.) Columbus proceed producing opinion domestic obey tobacco promote pronounce propose provide provoke position horizon.
O, as in Costume-Collect, (incorrectly pronounced cullect, &c.) collision command commemorate commence commit commission committee commodious communicate compactly companion compare competitor complete comply compose component comprise compress compute conceal concede conceit concern concession conclude concur condemn conduce condense condition conductor confederate confine confirm confute congeal conjecture connect consent consider consign console constrain construct consume consult contain content contemplate contend contribute control converge convey convince convulse correct correctly correctness corrupt corrode corroborate.
3d. The errors of articulation in middle syllables, are chiefly those which arise from the omission or obscuring of e, o, or u, unaccented, and the letter r before a liquid. These letters, although they should never be
* In words commencing with wh, the letters must be transposed in pronouncing; thus, Hwen, hweat, hwy, &c. Except who and its compounds, with a few other words, in which the sound of w is dropped; as, Whoever, whole, whoop..
rendered prominent, ought always to possess their true sound, according to the nature of the combination of letters in which they occur.
The faulty omission of e, takes place as follows: Several every severing tottering murderer fluttering utterance traveller gravelly deliverer deliberate desperate--pronounced erroneously sev'ral ev'ry, &c.
The omission of o: Corroborate history rhetoric melancholy memorable memory desolate-pronounced incorrectly corrob'rate hist’ry, &c.
The omission of the letter u: Articulate perpendicular accuracy masculine regular-mispronounced artic'late, &c.
The obscuring of the letter o, or changing its sound from that of o in domain to that of o in done: Composition compromise disposition melody custody colony eloquence advocate absolute opposite obsolete crocodile philosophy philology zoology-pronounced incorrectly compòsition melūdy elŭquence, &c.
The obscuring of the letter e, or giving the sound of e in her, for that of e in rewrite: Society sobriety variety contrariety satiety-erroneously pronounced sociŭty, or as if divided thus: societ-y, &c.
The omission of the letter r : Alarming disarming • returning discerning confirming worldling reforming
conformably remorsefully reverberate warrior-mispronounced ala’ming disa’ming, &c.
4th. The errors of articulation in final syllables are chiefly those of omitting or obscuring the sounds of vowels,-particularly that of the letter e. This letter, when it occurs in a final syllable unaccented, should have an obscure sound, which is intermediate between that of e in met and that of e in mete, resembling i short, and avoiding an exact or analytical style, bordering on either of these particular forms of the vowel.
Omission of e: Travel gravel vessel level hovel novel model chapel parcel sudden hyphen sloven mittens—mispronounced trav'l, &c.
Omission of a: Musical festival comical critical capital metal canonical pontifical numerical juridical ecclesiastical pharisaical paradisiacal fatal fantastical principal-mispronounced music'l met'l, &c.
Omission of i: Certain fountain uncertain-mispronounced cert'n, &c.
Omission of o: Horizon notion motion oraison diapason creation contusion explosion-mispronounced horiz'n, &c.
Obscuring the sound of e, so as to make it resemble that of e in her, or of u in but. Moment confidence equipment dependence dependent silent anthem providence independent prudent impudent confident parliament expedient-incorrectly pronounced momunt confidunce, &c. The e in these terminations should be that of the word met, without accented force.
Obscuring the sound of a, in a manner similar to that mentioned above: Ascendant descendant defendant perseverance jubilant expectant defiance affiance ordinance-mispronounced ascendunt defiunce, &c.
Obscuring the sounds of o and ow final into that of u in but: Potato tobacco motto fellow window widow meadow willow billow follow hallow—mispronounced potată fellů, &c.
Omitting the sound of g in the nasal diphthong ng: Waking morning running walking dancing eating drinking sleeping resting flying moving swimming writing being deserving drawing drowning fawning. These and many other words, are pronounced incorrectly thus, wakin' mornin' runnin,' &c.
Omitting the sound of r: War far star floor before flower more alarm return enforce recourse unhorse