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495. A mermaid was a favorite device for the

sign-board of an old English tavern. The “ Mermaid Tavern ” to which Keats refers was the gathering place of the most famous Elizabethan wits and dramatists.

As a


sped. Byron, and his English Bards and

Scotch Reviewers. 484. 264. The Pilgrim of Eternity. Byron.

Shelley is thinking of Childe Harold's
268, 9. Ierne sent the sweetest lyrist,
etc. Ireland sent Tom Moore.
matter of fact, neither Byron nor Moore
was particularly affected by the death of
271. One frail Form. Shelley himself.
276. Actæon-like.

Actæon, in punishment for having seen Diana in the bath, was turned into a stag and torn by his own dogs.

307. What softer voice. Leigh Hunt. 486. 325. Live thou! The author of an excep

tionally brutal attack on Keats in the
Quarterly Review. Compare Byron's
two stanzas beginning “ Who killed John
343. Peace, peace! he is not dead. With
the conception of immortality set forth
in the remaining stanzas one should

compare Lycidas, 11. 165-185. 486. 399. Chatterton. Cf. note to Words

worth's Resolution and Independence,
1. 43, p. 407.
401. Sidney. Died at the age of thirty-

A Latin poet, forced by
Nero to commit suicide at the age of

twenty-six. 487. 439. Slope of green access. The Protest

ant cemetery.

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404. Lucan.

496. The twenty-first of January is St. Agnes's

Day; the evening of the twentieth is “ the Eve of St. Agnes.” The superstition around which the poem centers is made

sufficiently clear in the course of the story. 498. 115. The holy loom, etc. On St. Agnes's

day, during the celebration of the mass, two lambs might be offered to the church (cf. l. 71). The nuns afterwards spun and

wove the wool. 499. 171. Since Merlin paid his Demon, etc.

Merlin, the famous wizard and prophet
of Arthurian romance, was the son of a
demon, and became himself the victim
of magic. See Tennyson's Merlin and
174. Tambour frame. An embroidery

frame shaped like a tambour, or drum. 500. 241. Clasped like a missal, etc. Clasped

probably modifies soul; in the two following lines her soul is likened to a rose that is shut. The line means, then, that her soul was clasped as tightly in sleep as a prayer-book would be by a Christian in a land of Pagans.


SLEEP AND POETRY 490. This poem appeared in Keats's 1817

volume. It is a somewhat formless collection of Keats's own ideas concerning poetry and its joys; the selection here reprinted shows Keats protesting against the formalism of the 18th century, and particularly against those critics who traced their ancestry back to Boileau.

ODE TO A NIGHTINGALE 492. 4. Lethe. One of the four rivers of Hades;

HYPERION 602. Keats planned to write an epic dealing ON FIRST LOOKING INTO CHAPMAN'S HOMER 607. George Chapman (15597-1634) published

whoever drank of its waters became ob-
livious of all the past.
7. Dryad. A tree nymph.
13. Flora. Goddess of the flowers.
14. Provençal song. The lyrics of Pro-


16. Hippocrene. The fountain of the
Muses on Mt. Helicon.
32. Bacchus and his pards. Leopards
are often represented as drawing the car
of Bacchus.

with the overthrow of Saturn by Jupiter.
When the poem was published in 1820,
however, only two books and a fragment

of a third had been written,
603. 23. There came one. Thea, sister of

30. Ixion's wheel. Ixion was chained for

all eternity to a revolving wheel.
504. 147. The rebel three. Jupiter, Neptune,

and Pluto.
166. Hyperion. When the action of the
poem commences, the victory of Jupiter

is incomplete. Hyperion is still god of the 606. 246. Tellus. Goddess of the earth.

307. Cælus. God of the heavens.



493. 7. Tempe, Arcady. Here used simply to

indicate places of beauty and carefree life. Tempe was a valley in Thessaly.

his translation of Homer in 1598 and
1609. Keats first read it in 1816.
II. Stout Cortez,

Historical accuracy would compel the substitution of Balboa for Cortez.


508. Usually known as Keats's “last sonnet,"

written while he was en route to Italy.



15. Blake. Oliver Cromwell's most successful admiral. He died at sea in 1657. Nelson. The victor of Trafalgar.

MOORE THE HARP THAT ONCE THROUGH TARA'S HALLS 509. Tara was formerly an Irish capital city.

OH, BREATHE NOT HIS NAME The famous Irish rebel was executed in 1803 because of treasonable correspondence with Napoleon, and armed rebellion against the crown.

614. 240. He ate strange flesh. See Antony

and Cleopatra, I. iv. 67. 616. 316. A hypochondriac lad. True of Lamb

353. Auto da fe.

The name given to
executions, usually by burning, under the
Spanish Inquisition; literally, “ act of

Watchet weeds.” Blue uniform. 616. 378. Ultima Supplicia. Last punish

395. San Benito. A special robe worn by
the condemned at the auto da fe.
419. An accidence. A primer containing
thé rudiments of grammar.
446. Insolent Greece, etc. From Ben
Jonson's lines to Shakespeare.
461. Rousseau. Both Rousseau and
Locke believed in letting a child follow

his own natural impulses. 617. 487. Helot ... Spartans. Spartan par

ents were accustomed to teach their
children sobriety by calling their atten-
tion to drunken Helots, who were slaves.
496. The Samite. The Greek philosopher
Pythagoras, whose pupils were obliged
to listen in silence to his lectures for five
years before they could ask questions.
497. Goshen. That rich and fertile part
of Egypt inhabited by the Israelites be-
fore the captivity.
503. Gideon's miracle. The method by
which Gideon tested God's promise to
deliver the Midianites into his hand: a
fleece left on the ground over night was
drenched by the dew, while the ground
about it was dry. See Judges, vi.
518. Ululantes. The howlers; e. g., in
Tartarus, hell.
523. Scrannel pipes. Quoted from Lyc-
idas, 1. 124.
525. Flaccus's quibble. A pun in one of
Horace's satires (I. vii) on rex as king, and
526. Tristis severitas in vultu. Gloomy
sternness in his face; applied to a rascal
in Terence's Andria..
527. Inspicere in patinas. Look into
your saucepans; the advice of a slave to
scullions, parodying some serious counsel
given by a father to his son, in Terence's
535. Caxon. Slang term for wig.

559. Rabidus furor. Rabid rage. 618. 585. Literary life. Coleridge's Biographia

588. The Country Spectator. A magazine
edited by T. F. Middleton in 1792-3;
see below, l. 629.
600. Grecian. The two best scholars
among the senior boys of Christ's Hospi-
tal were called Grecians, and received
scholarships at Cambridge University.
617. Fasces. Bundles of rods, with axes
in their centers, symbolic of the authority
of Roman magistrates; here, the birch

WOLFE THE BURIAL OF SIR JOHN MOORE Sir John Moore, an English general in charge of an army in the Peninsular War, was shot at Corunna, Spain, in January, 1809. At his own request he was buried within the ramparts of the town.

as a surname.


CHRIST'S HOSPITAL 612. The essay purports to be written by a

student of Christ's Hospital who feels
that Lamb's earlier essay, Recollections,
etc., is too flattering an account of life
at the institution.
37. Banyan ... days. Days on which
no meat was served.
39. Double-refined. Sugar.

44. Caro equina. Horseflesh. 613. 54. Griskin. Lean loin of pork.

62. The Tishbite. Elijah.
73. I was a poor friendless boy. True of
Coleridge, for whom Lamb is speaking in
the two paragraphs beginning here.
94. Sweet Calne in Wiltshire. Cole-
ridge's house was really at Ottery St.

Mary, Devonshire. 614. 187. Upon the leads. On the lead-covered

191. Caligula's minion. A horse which
Caligula named first consul.


618. 636. Regni novitas. The newness of the

639. Jewel or Hooker. English bishops
and writers of the sixteenth century;
Hooker was author of the Laws of Eccle-
siastical Polity.
664. Mirandula. Pico della Mirandola,
Italian philosopher of the fifteenth cen-
tury, one of the leading scholars of the
666. Jamblichus, Plotinus. Neo-Pla-
tonic philosophers of the fourth and third
centuries A. D.
674. Fuller. Thomas Fuller, author of
The Worthies of England, 1662. Lamb
adapts Fuller's description of the trials
of wit between Shakespeare and Ben
Jonson, substituting Coleridge for Jonson,

and C. V. Leg. for Shakespeare. 619. 695. Nireus formosus. Handsome Nireus;

Homer called Nireus the handsomest of
all the Greek host before Troy.
709. Sizars.

University students who received free board; formerly they performed certain menial duties in return for the financial assistance.

famous Lady Mary Wortley Montagu,
who twice ran away from school, once
turning chimney sweep.
232. Defiliations. Instances of parents
being deprived of their children.
242. Ascanius. Son of Æneas; in the
first book of the Æneid (1. 695 ff.) we are
told how on one occasion Venus lulled

him to sleep.
624. 283. Incunabula. Cradle.

290. Jem White. A schoolfellow of
Lamb's at Christ's Hospital.
299. The fair of St. Bartholomew. Held
in Smithfield, one of the poorer districts
of London, originally on St. Bartholo-
mew's Day, August 24; later, when the
calendar was revised, on September 3. It
became the occasion of great disorder and
scandal, and was abolished in 1855. Ben
Jonson wrote a comedy of this title, deal-
ing with the humors of the Fair, and
severely satirizing the Puritans.
312. Quoited. Thrown, as a quoit would
335. Rochester. The Earl of Rochester
(1647-1680), one of the courtiers of
Charles II, noted for his riotous excesses.
341. Old dame Ursula. Lamb so names
the woman after one of the characters in
Jonson's Bartholomew Fair, mentioned
above, a fat pig-woman,-i. e., woman
who sold roast pig, -indescribably coarse
of behavior.
345. Whereat the universal host .
brightness. A paraphrase of Paradise
Lost, I. 541-543; see p. 161.
360. Kissing-crust. The soft part of the
crust of a loaf where it has touched an-

other in baking. 626. 388. Golden lads, etc. From Cymbeline,

IV. ii.



621. 221. John L. Lamb's brother John, who

died shortly before this essay was written.


THE PRAISE OF CHIMNEY SWEEPERS 5. Nigritude. Blackness. 9. Professional notes. Their call of

Sweep! Sweep!” 19. Sport their cloth. Wear a garb of black, like a clergyman.

28. Fauces Averni. The jaws of hell. 622. 53. Kibed. Chilblained.

56. Tester. Sixpence.
59. 'Yclept. Called.
71. The only Salopian house. The only
shop devoted to the sale of saloop, or
sassafras tea.
88. Fuliginous. Sooty.
137. Covent Garden. The fruit and

vegetable market of London. 623. 165. Westward. I. e., homeward from

work, for Lamb lived in the Temple,
west from Cheapside.
181. Hogarth. William Hogarth (1697-
1764), the famous eighteenth century
painter of London life. The March to
Finchley, one of his most animated pieces
of work, depicts a company of soldiers
marching through a crowd in the utmost
confusion; one of the figures in the fore-
ground is that of a sweep, with just
such a grin as Lamb describes, except
that he is grinning not at the pie-man,
but at a soldier who is stealing milk from
a milkmaid.
208. A sable cloud, etc. Adapted from
Comus, l. 221 f.
229. The young Montagu. Edward Wort-
ley Montagu (1713-1776), son of the

The Chinese manuscript, and the volume ascribed to Confucius, are inventions of Lamb, who, however, obtained the suggestion for the essay from his friend Thomas Manning, who had travelled in

China. 627. 188. Locke. John Locke (1632-1704), au

thor of the Essay concerning Human Un-
209. Mundus edibilis. World of edibles.
211. Princeps obsoniorum. Chief of
217. Amor immunditiæ. Love of filth.
253. Radiant jellies shooting stars.
There was a popular superstition that if a
shooting star could be found fallen on the
ground it would turn out to be nothing but
a mass of jelly.
262. Conversation. Behavior,
264. Ere sin, etc. One of Lamb's most
exquisite touches of humor; the quota-
tion is from Coleridge's Epitaph on an
273. Sapors. Flavors.

628. 312. Villatic. Of the village; the quota

tion is from Samson Agonistes.
378. Intenerating and dulcifying. Making
tender and sweet. The use of such long,
highsounding words of Latin derivation,
with reference to a subject so common-
place, has much to do with the flavor of the
387. St. Omer's. A French Jesuit col-
lege, where, of course, Lamb never at-

tended school.
629. 404. Shalot. A kind of onion.


my condition overwhelmed me.

It was like passing from life into eternity. Every year to be as long as three, i. e., to have three times as much real time-time that is my own, in it! I wandered about thinking I was happy, but feeling I was not. But that tumultuousness is passing off, and I begin to understand the nature of the gift. Holidays, even the annual month, were always uneasy joys; their conscious fugitiveness; the craving after making the most of them. Now, when all is holiday, there are no holidays. I can sit at home, in rain or shine, without a restless impulse for walkings. I am daily steadying, and shall soon find it as natural to me to be my own master, as it has been irksome to have had a master. I eat, drink, and sleep sound as ever. I lay no anxious schemes for going hither and thither, but take things as they occur. Yesterday I excursioned twenty miles; to-day I write a few letters. Pleasuring was for fugitive playdays; mine are fugitive only in the sense that life is fugitive. Freedom and life coexistent!”



One of the most autobiographically exact
of Lamb's essays. Lamb was a clerk in
the service of the East India Company
for thirty-three years, resigning his post
in March, 1825, on a pension of two-
thirds his regular salary.
Sera tamen, etc. Quoted from Virgil's first
eclogue: Liberty, though late, yet looked

or visited, me. 630. 162. Boldero ... Lacy. Fictitious

names under which Lamb conceals the directors of the East India Company.

164. Esto perpetua. Be thou eternal. 631. 241. A Tragedy by Sir Robert Howard.

The Vestal Virgin, or the Roman Ladies;
Howard was brother-in-law of Dryden,
and did some dramatic work in collabora-
tion with him.
286. Gresham. Sir Thomas Gresham
(d. 1579), a wealthy London merchant
who founded the Royal Exchange and
became Lord Mayor. Whittington. Sir
Richard, better known as Dick, Whitting-
ton, whose rise from poverty to the Lord
Mayorship is familiar from nursery
298. Aquinas. St. Thomas Aquinas,
Italian philosopher of the thirteenth
century; his writings filled seventeen

volumes. 632. 310. Carthusian. The Carthusian order

of monks was founded by St. Bruno
c. 1084, at La Grande Chartreuse (Latin
Carthusia); the Carthusian rule was strict.
333. Elgin marbles. Parts of the pedi-
ments and frieze of the Parthenon,
brought to England by Lord Elgin and
placed in the British Museum.
361. Cantle. Slice.
392. Cum dignitate. From Cicero's
phrase, otium cum dignitate-ease with
397. Opus operatum est. The work has
been done.
On the sixth of April, 1825, Lamb wrote
to his friend Wordsworth, “Here I am
then, after thirty-three years' slavery,
sitting in my own room at eleven o'clock
this finest of all April mornings, a freed
man, with 441£ a year for the remainder
of my life.
“I came home FOREVER on Tuesday in
last week. The incomprehensibleness of

ix: 20:

533. 24. The Fancy. Sportsmen, especially

78. Alter idem. A second self.
89. Lines from Spenser. From Muio-

polmos, l. 209 ff. 634. 104. One of the mails. One of the mail

180. The Brentford Jehu. See 2 Kings,

* The driving is like the driving of Jehu the son of Nimshi; for he driveth

furiously." 636. 268. Follows so the ever-running sun.

“ Follows so the ever-running year, With profitable labor." Henry V, IV. i.

293. 636. 348. The vein of Gilpin. See Cowper's

John Gil pin's Ride.
359. Frank us. Send us down on a pass.
388. A lusty man. Canterbury Tales,
Prologue, l. 167; P. 3.
405. Standing like gray-hounds.
* I see you stand like gray-hounds in the

Straining upon the start.” Henry V,

III. i. 31. 411. Oaken towel. Staff or club. 415. A firebrand like Bardolph's. Bardolph is one of the characters in Henry IV whom Falstaff is forever twitting about his red nose; e. g.: “O thou art a perpetual triumph, an everlasting bonfirelight. Thou hast' saved me a thousand marks in links and torches, walking in the night betwixt tavern and tavern." (III. ü.)

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637. 437. Hogarth. See note on The Praise of

Chimney Sweepers, p. 523, I. 181.
443. Cobbett.

William Cobbett (1766-
1835), an English radical journalist, editor
of Cobbett's Weekly Political Register,
whose attacks on the government resulted
from time to time in his being imprisoned
and fined.
520. Alas! the Bristol man, etc. See
Cowper's The Task, II. 322:

“Alas, Leviathan is not so tamed." 638. 551. The Game Chicken. The nom de

guerre of Henry Pearce, a well-known
English pugilist.
585. Stone. An English weight, legally

fourteen pounds. 640. 826. Sir Fopling Flutter. A fashionable

fop in Etherege's comedy, The Man of

Mode, or Sir Fopling Flutter. 641. 889. Procul este profani. Æneid, VI.

258. Stay far off, unholy ones.
906. New Eloise. La Nouvelle Héloïse,
by. Rousseau; a sentimental romance
published in 1760.

IV. ii. 32.

in 1519.

649. 112. Cum grano salis. With a grain of

176. Mr. Cobbett.

See note on Tke Fight, 1. 443. 660. 247. A well of native English undefiled.

Adapted from Spenser's "Dan Chaucer,
well of English undefyled," Faerie Queene,
251. Erasmus's Colloquies. The Col-
loquia of Erasmus (1466-1536), appeared
261. What do you read? etc. See Ham-
let, II. ii.
272. Florilegium. Anthology; here rather
a collection of big words. Tulippomania.
Craze for tulips.
289. Sermo humi obrepens. Talk that

creeps on the ground.
661. 314. Fantoccini beings. Puppets.

315. That strut and fret, etc. Macbeth,
V. v.
320. And on their pens, etc. Adapted
from Paradise Lost, IV. 988-9:

"And on his crest

Sat Horror plumed." 395. Cowper's description. The Task, V. 173.f.

ON GOING A JOURNEY 642. 30. May plume her feathers, etc. Comus,

378 ff.
36. A Tilbury. A two wheeled gig without

a cover. 643. 97. Sterne. The Rev. Laurence Sterne

(1713-1768), author of A Sentimental

Journey and Tristram Shandy. 644. 170. All-Foxden. Near Nether-Stowey,

Somersetshire, where Hazlitt visited his
“old friend C (Samuel Taylor Cole-
ridge) in 1798. "L-,"1. 204, is
Charles Lamb, a friend of both Hazlitt
and Coleridge.
176. Here be woods as green, etc.
Fletcher's Faithful Shepherdess, I. iii.
238. Sancho. Sancho Panza, Don
Quixote's esquire and servant in Cer-
vantes' burlesque romance Don Quixote.
244. Procul este profani. See The Fight,

note on l. 889. 646. 312. Gribelin's engravings. Simon Gri

belin (1661-1733), an engraver of some
ability, published in 1707 seven plates
of the cartoons of Raphael.
325. Paul and Virginia, ... Camilla.
The former a pastoral novel by Bernadin
de St. Pierre, published 1788; the latter,
a novel by Madame D'Arblay (Fanny
Burney), published 1796, much inferior
to her masterpiece Evelina.
331. New Eloise. See The Fight, note

on l. 906. 646. 381. Where is he now? In 1822, when

this essay was first published, Coleridge's creative power was in eclipse, and his whole constitution broken by ill health

and the use of laudanum. 647. 472. Stonehenge. A prehistoric monu

ment in the shape of a roughly circular group of huge monoliths, on Salisbury Plain, Wiltshire.

DE QUINCEY CONFESSIONS OF AN OPIUM-EATER The text here used is the briefer and better known version which appeared in the London Magazine in 1821, and was reprinted in the first edition of 1822; an expanded version was published in Selec

tions Grave and Gay, 1856. 662. 108. Archididascalus. Head master. 653. 180, I came to leave The Man

chester Grammar School.
216, Towers of

Manchester Cathedral. 654. 293. Lustrum. Period of five years.

315. νυχθήμερον. . A day of twenty-
four hours.
320. That moveth altogether, etc. From
Wordsworth's Resolution and Independ-

ence, l. 77. 666. 414. Anastasius. A novel, published

1819, the hero of which was an opium-
eating Greek.
416. Mithridates. The title of a dic-
tionary of all languages, published by
Johann Christoph Adelung in 1806.
Mithridates was renowned as a linguist;

hence the title. 667. 582. The Scriptures speak of. Revela

lion, xx: 12. 568. 646. A certain day in August. The Civil

War may be said to have begun when
Charles I raised the royal standard at
Nottingham, August. 22, 1642.

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