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244. 43. Nova Zembla. A Russian arctic pos

session, consisting of two large islands. 45. The author of Hudibras. Samuel Butler (1612–1680), whose Hudibras, published 1663, is a brilliant satire on the

Puritans. 246. 132. The strappado. A brutal form of

corporal punishment, formerly practiced
in the English army and navy.
137. Wapping. A portion of the London

246. 200. A kit. A small violin.

210. Tuer le temps. To kill time.


247. 96. Will's, Child's, etc. All well known

coffee or cocoa-houses.
101. The Postman. A London weekly
114. Jonathan's. A coffee-house fre-

quented especially by stock brokers. 248. 202. Little Britain. A street in London.


20. Soho Square. In Addison's day the

most fashionable quarter of London. 249. 26. Rochester. A notorious rake of

Charles II's court. Etherege. The first
of the Restoration dramatists.
28. Bully Dawson. A notorious sharper.
59. A justice of the quorum. The phrase

a member of the Bench."
67. The Inner Temple. One of the so-
called Inns of Court, where lawyers and
law-students had their offices and fre-
quently their places of residence.
75. Aristotle, etc. He knows the laws
of rhetoric, etc., as laid down by literary
critics, better than the principles of juris-
86. Demosthenes and Tully. Demos-
thenes and Cicero, the leading orators of
Greece and Rome, respectively.
109. The Rose. A tavern near Drury

Lane Theatre. 260. 206. Humorists. Men with a particular

bent or disposition.


WESTMINSTER ABBEY 262. 51. Prebendaries. Officers of a cathedral

or collegiate church who held an ecclesias-
tical living or prebend.
77. The present war. The war of the
Spanish Succession.
94. Sir Cloudesley Shovel. An English
admiral (1650-1707), commander-in-
chief of British fleets from 1704 to his
122. The repository of our English kings.
The eastern end of the Abbey contains
a large number of royal tombs.

depended upon social standing or in264. 43. Shoots flying. “ On the wing."


A COQUETTE'S HEART 260. 114. Rosamond's bower. The bower

which Henry II is said to have built for his favorite.


WINDSOR FOREST 261. 42. A Stuart reigns. Queen Anne, last of

the Stuarts to wear the English crown.
147. Now Cancer glows, etc.

The sun is in the sign of Cancer, or the Crab; i. e, it is the period of the summer solstice.


262. 129. The Mantuan Muse. Virgil; the

Maro of 1. 130.

138. The Stagirite. Aristotle. 263. 16. The Pierian spring. The sacred well

of the Muses in Thessaly.
89. Conceit. Fantastic expression.
128. Fungoso. A character in Ben Jon-

son's Every Man out of his Humor. 264. 137. Numbers. Metrical correctness.

145, 147. It will be noticed that in these
two lines, as in lines 157, 167-9, Pope is
illustrating in his own verses the exact
characteristics which he blames or praises.
161. Denham, Waller. Two of the first
17th century poets to popularize the
heroic couplet which Dryden and Pope
afterwards perfected.
174. Timotheus' varied lays. The refer-
ence is to Dryden's Alexander's Feast.


The poem is founded on an actual occurrence. Lord Petre, the baron of the poem, clipped a lock of Miss Arabella Fermor's hair. John Caryll, a friend of both persons, suggested to Pope that a humorous poem on the subject might relieve the unpleasantness which the theft of the lock occasioned. Miss Fermor appears in the poem as Belinda. In form, the poem is a mock epic, or “heroicomical poem,” retaining many of the external characteristics of the epic, but enlivened throughout by Pope's mildly satirical view of the society he was repre

senting. 265. 18. The pressed watch. A “repeater,”

or watch that would strike the nearest
32. The silver token. Fairies were sup-
posed to put silver coins in the slippers
of good house-maids.
44. The Ring. A circular drive in Hyde


264. 35. He is just within the game-act. Until

1831 the right to kill game in England





266. 56. Ombre. A fashionable game of cards. 276. 138. Galileo's eyes. The telescope.
266. 127. The inferior priestess. The waiting
maid, Betty (1. 148).

1. St. John. Henry St. John, afterwards

Lord Bolingbroke, was one of Pope's 267. 3. The rival of his beams. Belinda.

intimate friends.
16. Vindicate the ways of God to man.
An echo of Milton's line“ Justify the

ways of God to men." (Paradise Lost, 269. 3. A structure of majestic frame. The i. 26.) royal palace of Hampton Court.

277. 42. Satellites. Pronounced with four 27. At ombre.

The description of this syllables, as in Latin. game, which occupies 11. 30-100, may well be passed over in reading. Much of the terminology, perfectly familiar to Pope's 278. This portrait of Addison (Atticus) repreaudience, is to-day unintelligible unless accompanied by elaborate illustration and

sents, as well as anything that could be explanation.

chosen, Pope's power of satire. 270. 106. The berries crackle, and the mill

279. 209. Like Cato, give his little senate

laws. turns round. Coffee berries were ground

Addison's drama Cato, though

to-day neglected, was remarkably sucon the table. 271. 165. Atalantis. The New Atalantis, a

cessful when first produced.
romance of the day, by Mrs. Manley,


20. The dreaded east. The east wind
was supposed to cause spleen, or ill tem-

I Sweet Auburn. Goldsmith is picturper, a fit of the blues."

ing English country life and scenery, not 23. She. Spleen.

any one definite village. 272. 46. Angels in machines. An echo of the 283. 210. Gauge. Estimate the capacity of classical “ deus ex machina," the god

barrels and hogsheads. who appeared at the close of a play and

248. Mantling bliss. Foamy cups of ale. brought affairs to an end.

285. 344. Altama. A river in Georgia. 273. 117. Hyde Park Circus. See note on

286. 418. Torno's cliffs. The cliffs of the Canto İ, 1. 44.

Swedish Lake Tornea. Pambamarca. A 118. The sound of Bow. The least fash

mountain in Ecuador. ionable quarter of London lay within the 427-30. The last four lines of the poem sound of the bells of Bow church.

were written by Dr. Johnson. 121. Sir Plume. Sir George Brown, one of the members of the party.

156. Bohea. A China tea much prized
at the time.

The title is explained by the fact that
Goldsmith wrote the poem as a reply to
Garrick's famous epigram at Goldsmith's

expense: 274. 5, 6. The Trojan . . . Anna ... Dido. “Here lies Nolly Goldsmith, for shortness Æneas was commanded by Jupiter to

called Noll, leave Carthage, where he had fallen in Who wrote like an angel, but talked like love with Queen Dido. Anna was Dido's sister. (Æneid, iv. 416).

23. The good Dean. Thomas Barnard, 276. 53. Umbriel on sconce's height. Dean of Derry.

"Minerva, in like manner, during the 29. Edmund. Edmund Burke. battle of Ulysses with the suitors, perches 34. Tommy Townshend. A Whig memon a beam of the roof to behold it." ber of Parliament. (Pope.)

287. 93. David Garrick. The famous actor 276. 125. Rome's great founder. Romulus.

and wit. 129. Not Berenice's locks. Berenice was 115. Kenrick, Kelly, Woodfall. The first an Egyptian queen whose hair

two were playwrights; the third, the transformed into a constellation.

editor of the Morning Chronicle. 136. Rosamonda's lake. In St. James's 118. Be-Rosciused. Charles Churchill's Park, as was the Mall (1. 133).

poem The Rosciad was a satirical criticism 137. Partridge. “John Partridge was a of English actors. ridiculous star-gazer, who in his almanacks 124. Ben. Ben Jonson. every year never failed to predict the 137. Reynolds.

Sir Joshua Reynolds, downfall of the Pope and the King of the portrait painter (1723-1792). France, then at war with the English.” 145. Raphael, Correggio. Italian paint(Pope.)

ers of the early sixteenth century.


poor Poll.”





297. 48. Tuned the numbers. Made the metre

67. Every language. With the ideas in
this and the two following paragraphs,
should be compared Wordsworth's views,
expressed in the Preface to the Lyrical
Ballads, p. 389.

287. The essays in this collection appeared

first in John Newberry's Public Ledger, between January 24, 1760, and August 14, 1761.

They were published as " Letters from a Chinese Philosopher, Residing in London, to his Friends in the East”; whence the generally used name, “ The Chinese Letters." Beau Tibbs al Home is supposed to be " From Lien Chi Altangi, to Fum Hoam, first President of the Ceremonial Academy at Pekin, in China "; the second of the two here reprinted bears the same superscription. The first collected edition appeared May 1, 1762.


298. 30. Arbiter elegantiarum. Petronius, ac

cording to Tacitus, was arbiter elegantiæ at the court of Nero.




292. 118. The great Mantuan poet. Virgil.

130. When Ulysses visited the infernal
regions. Odyssey, XI. 543 f.
159. When Æneas is sent by Virgil to

the shades. Æneid, VI. 450 f. 293. 249. The character of Hector. See

Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida,
II. ii. 163 f.

300. 24. O Diva, etc. O goddess, thou who

rulest Antium pleasing in thy sight. The
first line of Ode xxxv in Bk. I of Horace's
32. Wonderful Wonder of Wonders.
stock phrase, taken from the showmen's
bills, etc., of the time.
33. The Two Sister Odes. The Progress
of Poesy and The Bard.
76. We are affected only as we believe.
It would be difficult to find a single sen-
tence more characteristic of the exalta-
tion of reason above the imagination, for
which Johnson and his contemporaries
are notable, than this.


Johnson, in 1747, addressed the Plan of his dictionary to Chesterfield, a noted patron of arts and letters. Chesterfield paid no attention to Johnson until the work was nearing completion, when he wrote the two papers referred to in Johnson's first sentence, hoping to have the dedication of the Dictionary. 15. Le vainqueur, etc. The conqueror of the conqueror of the world. 39. The shepherd in Virgil

. See the Bucolics, viii. 42 ff. Love is to be found not in dalliance, but in hard work. 50. Till I am solitary. An allusion to the death of his wife.

LETTER TO JAMES MACPHERSON 294. Johnson had attacked Macpherson's

Ossian as an imposture; Macpherson wrote a bitter and insulting letter in reply; Johnson's answer is here printed. 14. Your Homer. Macpherson published a translation of the Iliad in 1773.


THE LIFE OF JOHNSON 301. 22. Dictionary Johnson. As great men

of antiquity such as Scipio Africanus had
an epithet added to their names, in conse-
quence of some celebrated action, so my
illustrious friend was often called Dic-
TIONARY JOHNSON, from that wonderful
achievement of genius and labor, his
Dictionary of the English Language; the
merit of which I contemplate with more
and more admiration." (Boswell.)
37. Mr. Thomas Sheridan. (1719-1788)
Father of Richard Brinsley Sheridan;
himself an actor, manager, and play-

wright. 303. 224. Garrick. David Garrick (1717

1779), pupil and friend of Johnson; the

most popular actor of the time. 306. 556. Colley Cibber (1671-1757). Actor,

dramatist, and poet-laureate 1730-1757;
attacked by Pope in the Dunciad as the
prince of dunces.
577. Whitehead. Cibber's successor in the
589. Gray. Compare these remarks with
the opinions expressed in the selections

from Johnson's Life of Gray. 308. 776. He studied physic. Studied medi

789. An usher to an academy. A sub-
ordinate teacher in a private school.


32. Lion, etc. Sporting the lion
ramped, and in his paw Dandled the kid.”
Par. Lost, iv. 343.
45. Rough satyrs, etc. Lycidas, 1. 34.

62. We drove afield. Lycidas, 1. 27 f. 296. 189. The Measure. See Milton's re

marks, prefixed to Book i of Paradise Lost.

« Не

317. 1755. Buchanan.

George Buchanan (1506-1582), a Scotch scholar, historian, and poet, practically all of whose work was

written in Latin. 318. 1759. Johnston. Arthur Johnston (1587

1641), a Scotch physician and author of a
large amount of Latin verse, including a
metrical version of the Psalms and the
complimentary epigrams to which Bos-
well alludes.
1769. Formosam resonare, etc. Thou
teachest the forest to resound (with the

name of) lovely Amaryllis. 322. 2233. One of the most luminous minds.

Burke. The quotation is from Goldsmith's Retaliation; see p. 286.


309. 810. Nihil quod tetegit, etc. Slightly

misquoted from Johnson's epitaph on Goldsmith, in Westminster Abbey. touched nothing that he did not adorn.' 817. The fragrant parterre. The fragrant

garden. 828. Un étourdi. A fellow who talks explosively. 883. Mrs. Piozzi. Hester Lynch Piozzi (1741-1821). Mrs. Thrale, 'later Mrs. Piozzi, was one of the few women whom Johnson knew intimately. Sir John Hawkins (1719-1789). A close friend of Johnson's, and one of his executors. Boswell

was jealous of him. 310. 975. Churchill. Charles Churchill (1731

1764); a satirist, and an ardent supporter

TO THE ELECTORS OF BRISTOL 23. I was put in nomination after the poll was opened. The election lasted

for nearly a month. 323. 40. The candidate. Four persons were

candidates, the two Whigs, Burke and
Cruger, being elected. The defeated
Tory, Brickdale, is the person here re-
ferred to. Brickdale tried unsuccessfully
to have Burke's election annulled by the
98. I stood on the hustings. “Hustings"
meant both the actual platform from
which nominations were made, and the
entire election proceedings. “ On the
hustings" is not very different from the

American idiom“ on the stump.” 324. 184. The former part. Brickdale had

formerly urged the qualifications of the
electors whom, after his defeat, he sought
to have disfranchised.
237. My colleague. Cruger had told the
electors that he would at all times vote
in accordance with their desires and in-
structions. Burke's statement of his
position on this question makes this ad-
dress to the electors one of the significant
documents in his history.

THE IMPEACHMENT OF HASTINGS 326. Warren Hastings (1732-1818) was the

of John Wilkes and his faction. 312. 1208. Bayle's Dictionary. The Dic

tionaire Historique et Critique of Pierre Bayle (1647-1706), a French philosopher

and man of letters. 313. 1233. Prospects. “Views,” scenery.

1319. Canada is taken. Wolfe's victory over Montcalm, on the Plains of Abra

ham, had taken place in 1759.
314. 1369. His present Majesty. Johnson's

pension came from George III, against
whom the Pretender, James Stuart, son
of the exiled James II, had in 1745. or-
ganized an armed rebellion of High-
landers and English Jacobites. Johnson
had been for a time a favorer of the
Stuarts, a sort of sentimental Jacobite,
though he had always been loyal to the
existing government.
1399. Victory at Culloden, etc. Charles
Stuart, son of the pretender James, was
his father's personal representative in
England and Scotland during the second
Jacobite rebellion, “The Forty-five,”
which ended in 1746 at Culloden, where
the Duke of Cumberland overwhelmed

the Stuart forces.
316. 1455. A negation of all principle.

used to tell, with great humor, from my
relation to him, the following little story
of my early years, which was literally
true: Boswell, in the year 1745, was a
fine boy, wore a white cockade, and
prayed for King James, till one of his
uncles (General Cochran) gave him a
shilling on condition that he should pray
for King George, which he accordingly
did. So you see (says Boswell) that
Whigs of all ages are made the same
way. (Boswell.)
1483. Hume. David Hume (1711-1776),
philosopher, historian, and, according to
the judgment of his contemporaries, a

317. 1720. Those called Methodists.

The name was first applied contemptuously to Wesley and his friends, when, as students at Oxford, they met together for prayer and worship. By 1763 the sect had become numerous.

" He

first governor-general of India, being appointed in 1773 under the newly passed Regulating Act, and holding office till 1785. He was impeached by the House of Commons in 1786; his trial before the Lords began in 1788, and dragged on till 1795, when he was acquitted. Burke was charged with the prosecution, and although the verdict went against him, the ultimate result was a victory for Burke; for as a result of the disclosures made at the trial came a new and more equitable governmental policy for India.

15. Their Dewan. Financial agent. 328. 4. Our long, long labors. Burke con

cluded his charge on 19 February, 1788; 93. For thee. For the poet, Gray himself. 346. 119. Fair Science frowned not. “ The



the peroration did not follow until 16 June, 1794. Burke had been interested in Indian affairs for fifteen years before

the trial began. 328. 53. Moral earthquake. The French

Revolution. At the time he was speaking,

the Reign of Terror was at its height. 329. 106. The Parliament of Paris. The chief

court of the old French monarchy, abolished by the Revolution.

339. See Cymbeline, IV. Shakespeare's

spelling of the proper name is Guiderius.

ODE WRITTEN . . . IN THE YEAR 1746 The year 1745 saw the death of many English soldiers in battle, both in the war of the Austrian Succession, and in Scotland, during the second Jacobite rising.



1. If aught of oaten stop. If anything

played upon the shepherd's oat, or pipe. 340. 21. Folding-star. The star which marked

the time for putting sheep into the fold.


The French Revolution, during the period 1789-1792, found many supporters in England. Wordsworth and Coleridge, Charles James Fox, and liberal clergymen among whom Priestly and Price were the most prominent, openly gloried in the deeds that were being done in the name of Liberty. From these enthusiasts Burke was separated by a wide gulf. He did not comprehend the need for change in the French social and economic systems; he saw only the overthrow of an established civilization by hungry peasants and doctrinaire philosophers, and with impassioned earnestness he protested. The Reflections appeared in

November, 1790. 330. 43. The civil social man. As distin

guished from man in his aboriginal “ state

of nature,” before the existence of society. 332. 233. Liceat perire poetis. Poets have

the right to die.
236. Ardentem frigidus, etc. In cold
blood he leaped into glowing Ætna.
Empedocles, a Sicilian philosopher, is
said to have died thus. A slipper, cast out
in an eruption, was proof of his act.

341. 75. Oak-crowned sisters. Wood nymphs.

Chaste-eyed queen. Diana.
86. Tempe's vale. A beautiful valley in
114. Cecilia's mingled world of sound.
St. Cecilia is always represented as the
inventress of the organ. See Dryden's
two odes.



342. The poem is characteristic of Gray's

early work; conventional, and full of

poetic diction.” 3, 4. Grateful Science still adores, etc. King Henry VI was the founder of Eton College. 5. And ye, etc. The towers of Windsor Castle.



334. 311. In vain for him, etc. Gray seems to

have had the following three lines in
mind when he composed the stanza of
the Elegy beginning
“For them no more the blazing hearth

shall burn."


336. 35. A coil the grasshopper did keep.

“To keep a coil ” is an Elizabethan expression meaning to make a noise.

ELEGY, WRITTEN IN A COUNTRY CHURCHYARD 344. 57. Some village Hampden, etc. Profes

sor Phelps points out, in his Athenæum
Press edition of Gray, p. xxv., that this
stanza originally ran as follows:
“Some Village Cato with dauntless

The little Tyrant of his Fields withstood;
Some mute inglorious Tully here may rest;
Some Cæsar, guiltless of his Country's

The changes are significant, in that they
witness Gray's transition from the pseudo-
classicism of his early poems, to the ro-
manticism of the later.

line means that Knowledge looked favorably upon him at his birth (a quasiastrological figure). ” (Phelps.)



337. It was in part, at least, from this poem

that Bryant drew the inspiration for his

Thanatopsis. 338. 34. Night's foul bird. The owl.

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