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244. 43. Nova Zembla. A Russian arctic pos
session, consisting of two large islands. 45. The author of Hudibras. Samuel Butler (1612–1680), whose Hudibras, published 1663, is a brilliant satire on the
Puritans. 246. 132. The strappado. A brutal form of
corporal punishment, formerly practiced
210. Tuer le temps. To kill time.
THE SPECTATOR: MR. SPECTATOR
247. 96. Will's, Child's, etc. All well known
coffee or cocoa-houses.
quented especially by stock brokers. 248. 202. Little Britain. A street in London.
20. Soho Square. In Addison's day the
most fashionable quarter of London. 249. 26. Rochester. A notorious rake of
Charles II's court. Etherege. The first
a member of the Bench."
Lane Theatre. 260. 206. Humorists. Men with a particular
bent or disposition.
WESTMINSTER ABBEY 262. 51. Prebendaries. Officers of a cathedral
or collegiate church who held an ecclesias-
depended upon social standing or in264. 43. Shoots flying. “ On the wing."
A COQUETTE'S HEART 260. 114. Rosamond's bower. The bower
which Henry II is said to have built for his favorite.
WINDSOR FOREST 261. 42. A Stuart reigns. Queen Anne, last of
the Stuarts to wear the English crown.
The sun is in the sign of Cancer, or the Crab; i. e, it is the period of the summer solstice.
AN ESSAY ON CRITICISM
262. 129. The Mantuan Muse. Virgil; the
Maro of 1. 130.
138. The Stagirite. Aristotle. 263. 16. The Pierian spring. The sacred well
of the Muses in Thessaly.
son's Every Man out of his Humor. 264. 137. Numbers. Metrical correctness.
145, 147. It will be noticed that in these
THE RAPE OF THE LOCK: CANTO I
The poem is founded on an actual occurrence. Lord Petre, the baron of the poem, clipped a lock of Miss Arabella Fermor's hair. John Caryll, a friend of both persons, suggested to Pope that a humorous poem on the subject might relieve the unpleasantness which the theft of the lock occasioned. Miss Fermor appears in the poem as Belinda. In form, the poem is a mock epic, or “heroicomical poem,” retaining many of the external characteristics of the epic, but enlivened throughout by Pope's mildly satirical view of the society he was repre
senting. 265. 18. The pressed watch. A “repeater,”
or watch that would strike the nearest
SIR ROGER AT THE ASSIZES
264. 35. He is just within the game-act. Until
1831 the right to kill game in England
AN ESSAY ON MAN
EPISTLE TO DR. ARBUTHNOT
266. 56. Ombre. A fashionable game of cards. 276. 138. Galileo's eyes. The telescope.
1. St. John. Henry St. John, afterwards
Lord Bolingbroke, was one of Pope's 267. 3. The rival of his beams. Belinda.
ways of God to men." (Paradise Lost, 269. 3. A structure of majestic frame. The i. 26.) royal palace of Hampton Court.
277. 42. Satellites. Pronounced with four 27. At ombre.
The description of this syllables, as in Latin. game, which occupies 11. 30-100, may well be passed over in reading. Much of the terminology, perfectly familiar to Pope's 278. This portrait of Addison (Atticus) repreaudience, is to-day unintelligible unless accompanied by elaborate illustration and
sents, as well as anything that could be explanation.
chosen, Pope's power of satire. 270. 106. The berries crackle, and the mill
279. 209. Like Cato, give his little senate
laws. turns round. Coffee berries were ground
Addison's drama Cato, though
to-day neglected, was remarkably sucon the table. 271. 165. Atalantis. The New Atalantis, a
cessful when first produced.
THE DESERTED VILLAGE
I Sweet Auburn. Goldsmith is picturper, a fit of the blues."
ing English country life and scenery, not 23. She. Spleen.
any one definite village. 272. 46. Angels in machines. An echo of the 283. 210. Gauge. Estimate the capacity of classical “ deus ex machina," the god
barrels and hogsheads. who appeared at the close of a play and
248. Mantling bliss. Foamy cups of ale. brought affairs to an end.
285. 344. Altama. A river in Georgia. 273. 117. Hyde Park Circus. See note on
286. 418. Torno's cliffs. The cliffs of the Canto İ, 1. 44.
Swedish Lake Tornea. Pambamarca. A 118. The sound of Bow. The least fash
mountain in Ecuador. ionable quarter of London lay within the 427-30. The last four lines of the poem sound of the bells of Bow church.
were written by Dr. Johnson. 121. Sir Plume. Sir George Brown, one of the members of the party.
The title is explained by the fact that
expense: 274. 5, 6. The Trojan . . . Anna ... Dido. “Here lies Nolly Goldsmith, for shortness Æneas was commanded by Jupiter to
called Noll, leave Carthage, where he had fallen in Who wrote like an angel, but talked like love with Queen Dido. Anna was Dido's sister. (Æneid, iv. 416).
23. The good Dean. Thomas Barnard, 276. 53. Umbriel on sconce's height. Dean of Derry.
"Minerva, in like manner, during the 29. Edmund. Edmund Burke. battle of Ulysses with the suitors, perches 34. Tommy Townshend. A Whig memon a beam of the roof to behold it." ber of Parliament. (Pope.)
287. 93. David Garrick. The famous actor 276. 125. Rome's great founder. Romulus.
and wit. 129. Not Berenice's locks. Berenice was 115. Kenrick, Kelly, Woodfall. The first an Egyptian queen whose hair
two were playwrights; the third, the transformed into a constellation.
editor of the Morning Chronicle. 136. Rosamonda's lake. In St. James's 118. Be-Rosciused. Charles Churchill's Park, as was the Mall (1. 133).
poem The Rosciad was a satirical criticism 137. Partridge. “John Partridge was a of English actors. ridiculous star-gazer, who in his almanacks 124. Ben. Ben Jonson. every year never failed to predict the 137. Reynolds.
Sir Joshua Reynolds, downfall of the Pope and the King of the portrait painter (1723-1792). France, then at war with the English.” 145. Raphael, Correggio. Italian paint(Pope.)
ers of the early sixteenth century.
THE CITIZEN OF THE WORLD
297. 48. Tuned the numbers. Made the metre
287. The essays in this collection appeared
first in John Newberry's Public Ledger, between January 24, 1760, and August 14, 1761.
They were published as " Letters from a Chinese Philosopher, Residing in London, to his Friends in the East”; whence the generally used name, “ The Chinese Letters." Beau Tibbs al Home is supposed to be " From Lien Chi Altangi, to Fum Hoam, first President of the Ceremonial Academy at Pekin, in China "; the second of the two here reprinted bears the same superscription. The first collected edition appeared May 1, 1762.
298. 30. Arbiter elegantiarum. Petronius, ac
cording to Tacitus, was arbiter elegantiæ at the court of Nero.
292. 118. The great Mantuan poet. Virgil.
130. When Ulysses visited the infernal
the shades. Æneid, VI. 450 f. 293. 249. The character of Hector. See
Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida,
300. 24. O Diva, etc. O goddess, thou who
rulest Antium pleasing in thy sight. The
LETTER TO THE EARL OF CHESTERFIELD
Johnson, in 1747, addressed the Plan of his dictionary to Chesterfield, a noted patron of arts and letters. Chesterfield paid no attention to Johnson until the work was nearing completion, when he wrote the two papers referred to in Johnson's first sentence, hoping to have the dedication of the Dictionary. 15. Le vainqueur, etc. The conqueror of the conqueror of the world. 39. The shepherd in Virgil
. See the Bucolics, viii. 42 ff. Love is to be found not in dalliance, but in hard work. 50. Till I am solitary. An allusion to the death of his wife.
LETTER TO JAMES MACPHERSON 294. Johnson had attacked Macpherson's
Ossian as an imposture; Macpherson wrote a bitter and insulting letter in reply; Johnson's answer is here printed. 14. Your Homer. Macpherson published a translation of the Iliad in 1773.
THE LIFE OF JOHNSON 301. 22. Dictionary Johnson. As great men
of antiquity such as Scipio Africanus had
wright. 303. 224. Garrick. David Garrick (1717
1779), pupil and friend of Johnson; the
most popular actor of the time. 306. 556. Colley Cibber (1671-1757). Actor,
dramatist, and poet-laureate 1730-1757;
from Johnson's Life of Gray. 308. 776. He studied physic. Studied medi
32. Lion, etc. Sporting the lion
62. We drove afield. Lycidas, 1. 27 f. 296. 189. The Measure. See Milton's re
marks, prefixed to Book i of Paradise Lost.
317. 1755. Buchanan.
George Buchanan (1506-1582), a Scotch scholar, historian, and poet, practically all of whose work was
written in Latin. 318. 1759. Johnston. Arthur Johnston (1587
1641), a Scotch physician and author of a
name of) lovely Amaryllis. 322. 2233. One of the most luminous minds.
Burke. The quotation is from Goldsmith's Retaliation; see p. 286.
309. 810. Nihil quod tetegit, etc. Slightly
misquoted from Johnson's epitaph on Goldsmith, in Westminster Abbey. touched nothing that he did not adorn.' 817. The fragrant parterre. The fragrant
garden. 828. Un étourdi. A fellow who talks explosively. 883. Mrs. Piozzi. Hester Lynch Piozzi (1741-1821). Mrs. Thrale, 'later Mrs. Piozzi, was one of the few women whom Johnson knew intimately. Sir John Hawkins (1719-1789). A close friend of Johnson's, and one of his executors. Boswell
was jealous of him. 310. 975. Churchill. Charles Churchill (1731
1764); a satirist, and an ardent supporter
TO THE ELECTORS OF BRISTOL 23. I was put in nomination after the poll was opened. The election lasted
for nearly a month. 323. 40. The candidate. Four persons were
candidates, the two Whigs, Burke and
American idiom“ on the stump.” 324. 184. The former part. Brickdale had
formerly urged the qualifications of the
THE IMPEACHMENT OF HASTINGS 326. Warren Hastings (1732-1818) was the
of John Wilkes and his faction. 312. 1208. Bayle's Dictionary. The Dic
tionaire Historique et Critique of Pierre Bayle (1647-1706), a French philosopher
and man of letters. 313. 1233. Prospects. “Views,” scenery.
1319. Canada is taken. Wolfe's victory over Montcalm, on the Plains of Abra
ham, had taken place in 1759.
pension came from George III, against
the Stuart forces.
used to tell, with great humor, from my
The name was first applied contemptuously to Wesley and his friends, when, as students at Oxford, they met together for prayer and worship. By 1763 the sect had become numerous.
first governor-general of India, being appointed in 1773 under the newly passed Regulating Act, and holding office till 1785. He was impeached by the House of Commons in 1786; his trial before the Lords began in 1788, and dragged on till 1795, when he was acquitted. Burke was charged with the prosecution, and although the verdict went against him, the ultimate result was a victory for Burke; for as a result of the disclosures made at the trial came a new and more equitable governmental policy for India.
15. Their Dewan. Financial agent. 328. 4. Our long, long labors. Burke con
cluded his charge on 19 February, 1788; 93. For thee. For the poet, Gray himself. 346. 119. Fair Science frowned not. “ The
SONG FROM CYMBELINE
the peroration did not follow until 16 June, 1794. Burke had been interested in Indian affairs for fifteen years before
the trial began. 328. 53. Moral earthquake. The French
Revolution. At the time he was speaking,
the Reign of Terror was at its height. 329. 106. The Parliament of Paris. The chief
court of the old French monarchy, abolished by the Revolution.
339. See Cymbeline, IV. Shakespeare's
spelling of the proper name is Guiderius.
ODE WRITTEN . . . IN THE YEAR 1746 The year 1745 saw the death of many English soldiers in battle, both in the war of the Austrian Succession, and in Scotland, during the second Jacobite rising.
REFLECTIONS ON THE REVOLUTION IN FRANCE
ODE TO EVENING
1. If aught of oaten stop. If anything
played upon the shepherd's oat, or pipe. 340. 21. Folding-star. The star which marked
the time for putting sheep into the fold.
The French Revolution, during the period 1789-1792, found many supporters in England. Wordsworth and Coleridge, Charles James Fox, and liberal clergymen among whom Priestly and Price were the most prominent, openly gloried in the deeds that were being done in the name of Liberty. From these enthusiasts Burke was separated by a wide gulf. He did not comprehend the need for change in the French social and economic systems; he saw only the overthrow of an established civilization by hungry peasants and doctrinaire philosophers, and with impassioned earnestness he protested. The Reflections appeared in
November, 1790. 330. 43. The civil social man. As distin
guished from man in his aboriginal “ state
of nature,” before the existence of society. 332. 233. Liceat perire poetis. Poets have
the right to die.
341. 75. Oak-crowned sisters. Wood nymphs.
Chaste-eyed queen. Diana.
ON A DISTANT PROSPECT OF ETON COLLEGE
342. The poem is characteristic of Gray's
early work; conventional, and full of
poetic diction.” 3, 4. Grateful Science still adores, etc. King Henry VI was the founder of Eton College. 5. And ye, etc. The towers of Windsor Castle.
334. 311. In vain for him, etc. Gray seems to
have had the following three lines in
THE CASTLE OF INDOLENCE
336. 35. A coil the grasshopper did keep.
“To keep a coil ” is an Elizabethan expression meaning to make a noise.
ELEGY, WRITTEN IN A COUNTRY CHURCHYARD 344. 57. Some village Hampden, etc. Profes
sor Phelps points out, in his Athenæum
line means that Knowledge looked favorably upon him at his birth (a quasiastrological figure). ” (Phelps.)
337. It was in part, at least, from this poem
that Bryant drew the inspiration for his
Thanatopsis. 338. 34. Night's foul bird. The owl.