The Mind Possessed: The Cognition of Spirit Possession in an Afro-Brazilian Religious Tradition
Oxford University Press, 9 de ago de 2007 - 256 páginas
The cognitive science of religion has made a persuasive case for the view that a number of different psychological systems are involved in the construction and transmission of notions of extranatural agency such as deities and spirits. Until now this work has been based largely on findings in experimental psychology, illustrated mainly with hypothetical or anecdotal examples. In The Mind Possessed, Emma Cohen considers how the psychological systems undergirding spirit concepts are activated in real-world settings. Spirit possession practices have long had a magnetizing effect on academic researchers but there have been few, if any, satisfactory theoretical treatments of spirit possession that attempt to account for its emergence and spread globally. Drawing on ethnographic data collected during eighteen months of fieldwork in Belém, northern Brazil, Cohen combines fine-grained descriptions and analyses of mediumistic activities in an Afro-Brazilian cult house with a scientifically-grounded explanation for the emergence and spread of ideas about spirits, possession and healing. Cohen shows why spirit possession and its associated activities are inherently attention-grabbing. Making a radical departure from traditional anthropological, medicalist and sociological analyses, she argues that a cognitive approach offers more precise and testable hypotheses concerning the spread and appeal of spirit concepts and possession activities. This timely book presents new lines of enquiry for the cognitive science of religion (a rapidly growing field of interdisciplinary scholarship) and challenges the theoretical frameworks within which spirit possession practices have traditionally been understood.
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Historical and Ethnographic Setting
The Research Community
Describing Interpreting and Explaining Spirit Possession
Medicalist Physiological and Sociological Explanations
Spirits as Concepts
The Social Relevance of Spirits
Explaining Distributions of Spirit Concepts and Spirit Possession
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activities African AfroBrazilian agency Anaiza anthropological anthropologists appear assumptions attributable BaronCohen Barrett Batuque behavior Belém Belenense beliefs body Brazil Brazilian caboclo Candomblé casa causal ceremonies chapter claims clients cognitive cognitive science conscious context correlations crosscultural culto afro cultural described entidades ethnographic everyday example explanation explanatory factors filhos fundamental gods healing host’s human hypotheses ibid Iemanjá incidence individual inferences initiation intentions interaction interpretation intuitive investigation Justin Barrett knowledge Lambek Leacock Lewis’s mechanisms medium mediumship mental tools mind misfortune notions observer one’s Orixa orixás Pai’s paidesanto participants particular Pascal Boyer people’s perceived perception person possession episodes possession trance potentially practices predictions present processes psychological reflection relevant religion religious representations ritual shamans significant situations social societies sociological sorcery spirit concepts spirit entities spirit phenomena spirit possession suggest supernatural supernatural agents terreiro theories traditions transmission Tupinambá Umbanda variable voduns widespread women Xango