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trade, nor permit any slaves to be sold in their territory."—Dr. Mechlin to the Board, 31at August, 1829. Repository, vol. 5, p. 280.
"Most of the petty kings around us would gladly place themselves under our protection. On the death of King Peter, his head man, assumed the name of King Long Peter, and placed himself and people under the protection of the colony. A deputation was sent down to inform me of the fact, and receive my orders respecting their future disposal.— They were informed that hereafter they would be subject to our laws, that they must consider themselves Americans, and entirely independent of the neighbouring tribes, who should not molest them.
"When this was made known to them, it was received with shouts of joy, and they could scarcely be restrained from coming down in a body to viBit us, though then late in the afternoon. The advantages to be derived from this arrangement, they are well aware of. They are at once freed from the oppressive customs and laws of the surrounding tribes, and know they cannot be sold into slavery, as they were before at any moment liable to be. They will be secured from the hostile incursions of other tribes, for such is the terror with which we have inspired them, that they will not molest any whom they consider as belonging to the colony.
"I find our colony is becoming more known in the interior, from the increased number of Mandingoes who resort to us. These people form the connecting link, or medium of communication, between the interior tribes and those inhabiting the sea coast."—Dr. Mechlin to the Board, 20th March, 1830. Repository, vol. 6, p. 53—53.
"The Thupoos, a warlike tribe who inhabit the country in the interior, at no great distance from Sierra Leone, have for several years waged a cruel and destructive war with their neighbours, murdering and enslaving all on whom they could lay their hands. In the progress of their victory, they reached the Sherbro Bullooms, (a tribe inhabiting the fine country directly southeast of Sierra Leone, and extending 120 miles along the coast,) and manifested a disposition to exterminate them by the sword, or reduce them to slavery. Under these circumstances the chiefs placed themselves under the protection of the British Government, and on the 24th of September last, entered into a formal treaty. In accordance with this treaty, Major General Turner, on the 4th of October, issued his proclamation, declaring the acquired territory an integral part of Sierra Leone. Thus is the slave trade forever abolished, in a country which has commonly yielded fifteen or twenty thousand victims annually."—London Missionary Register for December, 1825.
"In Freetown there are two government schools, on Bell's system, for the education of black children of every race, Maroons, Settlers and liberated Africans. In the male school, there are at present, 385 divided into ten classes. The boys are taught reading, writing and arithmetic only; the girls, besides these, are instructed in needle work. Every attention seems to be paid to their instruction; and, besides being remarkably clean, neatly dressed, and well behaved, the progress they have made in these branches of education, deserves the highest praise."—Surgeon Leonard's Records of a voyage to Africa, 1830-2, p. 59.
"There is no scarcity ofMethodist chapels and meeting-houses in the place; and almost all the villages possess some residents attached to the Church Missionary Society, who, by their strenuous exertions in the cause of morality and religion, have all along been extremely unpopular among the dissolute Europeans."—Page 60.
"During my visits to Kipey, I occasionally entered the church while the negro children were singing a diurnal song of praise, superintended by a black missionary assistant belonging to the village. As my visits were always accidental, the children were, of course, quite unprepared, and I cannot speak too highly of the progress they appeared to have made in reading and writing, and of thefr clean and neat appearance."—Page 70.
"The trade of the colony employs about 50,000 tons of shipping annually. Since the suppression of the slave trade in these rivers, the system of vassalage and enlistment, under the banner of a chief, which was so necessary for personal protection during its continuance, has ceased to exist; and the sun of freedom having poured his benignant beams on the desecrated soil, industry has been fostered and every description of work has made rapid progress among the native tribes in the vicinity."—Page 71.
"It is amongthe children of these people brought up in the colony, that their mental capacity is to be judged of; and the children in the government schools at Freetown, as well as in those of the villages, appeared to me to be equal in intelligence and acquirements to European children of the same age."-^-Page 91.
"Two things are worthy of remark among these poor Africans:—Great external respect is paid to the Sabbath. The blacks on that day are clean and neatly dressed, the religious meetings are well attended, and the busy clamour of the week is hushed into a solemn stillness, more impressive even than the calm serenity which pervades every thing on that hallowed day in our own free and happy land."—Page 94.
There is no man now living who knows better what is the condition of Africa, and what are her wants, than the Rev. Dr. Philip. No man knows better what are the proper means to be employed, to raise her from the dust, to put a stop to the slave trade, to bestow upon |)er thericli blessings of the gospel, of free institutions and the knowledge and arts of civilK' ed life. His situation enables him to state facts; the strength and clearness of his mind, and the soundness of his judgment, jjive a value to every thing he says; and his pure Christian principles and the entire devotion of his whole life for the good of Africa, is a pledge for the truth of his remarks, not to be questioned. From the latest writings of this distinguished man, I shall make a few extracts, to which I call the serious attention of your readers.
"The gospel never can have a permanent footing in a barbarous country, unless education and civilization go hand in hand with our religious instructions. On any other principle, we may labor for centuries without getting a step nearer our object—the conversion of the world to God—than that which may have been attained in the first ten or twelve years of our missions."—Dr. Philip to the Society for Enquiry on Missions. Princeton. London Missionary Register, Jan. 1834, p. 9.
"Missionaries have two difficulties to encounter in this country—the demoralized state of the people, and the zeal of the Mahommedans among them. There is something in the doctrines of the Koran, exceedingly favorable to the dominion of its votaries, in such a country as Africa: they raise the savage to the condition of the barbarian; but there is nothing in them to raise them above a semi-barbarous state of society, and there is something in them to prevent a higher rise in the scale of civilization. A Christian community in the centre of Africa, would soon gain the ascendency in that quarter. Could you plant another colony, like that of Liberia, on the banks of the Niger, it might be the means of rolling baek the tide of Mahommedanism which appears to have set in with so strong a current from the North, and of establishing a Christian state in the centre of Africa. A solitary individual may do much among a reading people, and who hold many principles in common with himself, to which he can appealin his addresses to their understanding and their hearts; but in such a country as Africa, we must concentrate our strength; and keep firm possession of every inch which we have gained; and make use of the resources which we may be able to raise on it, for the further extension of our conquests."—Same letter, Foreign Miss. Reg., page 12.
On the facts here related, and the testimony of so many competent and enlightened witnesses, I submit the subject to the sober judgment of your readers. My object has been to reach their understanding, to convince their judgment, not to carry their imagination.
Although I have divided the subject of the slave trade into three numbers, it is but one subject, and would have appeared better in a single number, embracing, as I have attempted to elucidate it; first, the effort made by the Christian world to arrest this bloody and murderous traffic; second, the inefficiency of those efforts; and lastly, that the Colonization cause, is the only agency able to arrest its progress, and finally blot from existence this deepest stain on the annals of the human race. Z.
NEW ORGANIZATION OF THE SOCIETY.
The unanimity of the proceedings which were adopted at the last Annual Meeting of the Colonization Society, for its reorganization, however gratifying to its friends, has not, it would seem, entirely silenced the cavils of its opponents. Some misrepresentations, to which it must be regretted that so respectable a print as the New-York Evangelist should have given currency, have led to the following conclusive publication, by a distinguished friend of Colonization, in the New-Haven Religious Intelligencer:—
The very respectable standing of the New York Evangelist as a religious newspaper, makes it necessary for me to correct, in this public manner, an erroneous statement respecting the late meeting of the American Colonization Society, to which the proprietors of that paper seeni to be giving the most extensive circulation in their power. The statement to which I refer, is found in the last sentence of the Editor's report of the proceedings at that meeting, published in the Evangelist of the 1st instant. The Editor asserts, that 'the attempted reform' was ended, 'leaving all things in regard to the management, See. as they were from the beginning.' This assertion is entirely untrue. If it were necessary, I think I could explain now the respected Editor came to make such a statement.— I doubt not that he made it with a good conscience.
I went to Washington at the appointment of the Managers of the Connecticut Colonization Society, and at the urgent solicitation of intelligent and benevolent men, in this State and out of it, with a view to aid in effecting a reform in the organization and management of the American Colonization Society. The reform which I, and those in.wbose. behalf I acted, desired, has been effected. The Society consists now, of hfe-meiabers and delegates from auxiliaries. The President and Vice Presidents are no longer ex-offi,cio Managers. The direction of the Institution, instead of being left in the hands of an indefinite and imperfectly responsible body, is now committed to the executive officers and nine other individuals, who will annually render a strict account to their constituents. I feel no hesitation in saying for my colleagues as well as for myself, that we have full confidence in the ability, fidelity and benevolent views of the new Board as it is actually constituted. And what is of no inferior consequence, while these reforms were discussed with much freedom, and while on particular points of discussion there was no little difference of opinion, the reformed constitution was finally agreed to, and the reformed Board of Managers was elected with entire unanimity.
My confidence in the success of the colony of Liberia, is not impaired, but strengthened. The want of management here and in Africa, by which the cause has been so much embarrassed, is at an end. The only constitutional objection of the Society, namely, the voluntary colonization of people of colour, now free or to be freed hereafter, will be pursued, I doubt not, vigorously, wisely and with singleness of purpose. With the discussion of the ethics of slavery, or the principles and process of its abolition, the Society has nothing to do; nor will the present Board be disposed to meddle with that subject. On the other hand, I am equally confident that the Society, as now organized, will not sufter itself to become auxiliary to any scheme for the compulsory removal or the increased oppression of the colored people.
The Editors of papers friendly to the cause of African Improvement, are respectfully requested to give this communication a place in their columns.
New-Haven, 13th of Feb. 1834.
TO THE FRIENDS OF COLONIZATION.
The Board of Managers of the American Colonization Society, deem it their duty to call upon all who, with them, have this great object at heart, to recollect that the season is coining around, (our National Jubilee) when benevolent Clergymen of every denomination throughout the United States, have heretofore called the attention of their congregations to the claims of this Society; which calls, have afforded to it great support in carrying on their important work; and it is confidently expected that the call for the present year, will be equally successful.
The appeal now made, is prompted by considerations of the most pressing character. Much of the aid which, under ordinary circumstances, would have been given towards carrying on the operations of the Society, has been, and will probably continue to be afforded in the form of subscriptions to the loan of fifty thousand dollars proposed to be made by the Board for the purpose of extinguishing the debt of the Institution. The efforts to dispose of this stock loan have been attended with partial success; and the Board are encouraged to hope, that patience and perseverance will secure the full accomplishment of the scheme. But the avails of the lean being of course designed for the special object of paying the debt, the Managers must look to other sources for means to prosecute general objects. Among these are several important plans for the religious, moral and agricultural improvement of the Colony, which if realized cannot fail, they confidently believe, to render Liberia a residence powerfully attracting every free man of colour, who desires to elevate himself in the scale of social being. They trust that the Reverend Clergy throughout the Union, sympathizing with them in zeal for this purpose, will give to "it the strong aid of their influence and eloquence on the approaching Fourth Of July.
It is to contributions arising from their exertions on that occasion; to the Auxiliary Societies; and to the public spirited individuals who have, from time to time set on foot, and carried into effect voluntary subscriptions, that the Parent Society looks for support in establishing a well-organized, civilized and religious Society of free coloured people on the barbarous shores of Africa.
The Society has occasionally employed special Agents for the purpose of spreading information on this subject in different parts of the Union, and of collecting funds; but though in some instances this course has been successful, in others, a great portion of the money collected has been expended in compensating the Agents and in payingtheir travelling expenses.
It is apprehended that many of the Auxiliary Societies have become inactive. When first organized, some of them, it is believed, proposed to raise a certain amount within a limited time, and after this was effected, the exertions of the Society ceased. It is earnestly hoped, that in all such cases, the Societies will be revived, and that each member will agree to make a moderate annual payment; as, unless the Parent Society receives a regular support from its Auxiliaries, it cannot effect the great objects of its Institution.
The Board of Managers have already stated that the Rev. John B. PinNey has been appointed temporary Agent of the Colony; and from the ac- ♦ live, persevering industry which he has exhibited in the short time he has been in the country, and especially from the exertions which he is making to promote the agricultural interests of the Colony, which must prove the means of greatly increasing its prosperity and happiness, they hope the Board of Directors of the Western Foreign Missionary Society, in whose service he went to the Colony, may consent that he may continue to occupy that important station. May, 1834.
Letter from the Rev. Matthew Laird, addressed to the Stated Clerk of the Presbytery of Northumberland, dated Monrovia, Feb. 25, 1834. Friends and Brethren, greatly beloved:
The idea of conversing with you all once more, though it be through the instrumentality of the pen, and from this distant land, fills me with athousand tender recollections. The endeared family altars, around which many of us have oftentimes bowed—the social meetings in which we oftentimes plead for each other, and a dying world—the sacred sanctuary, where under faithful truth, our hearts mutually bled for the impenitent, sympathized with the convicted, and rejoiced with those anticipating the joys of heaven —and more than all, that solemn hour when your trembling and unworthy servant was set apart to the responsible duties of the minister, and missionary of the cross—all these scenes rush again into my memory, and fill me with emotions of mingled sorrow and joy—joy that the recollection of all the past hours spent among you, does not rend me with bitterest selfcondemnation—sorrow from the strong probability, that a recurrence of similar seasons shall never again be our mutual happiness.
But be that as it may, the will of the Lord shall be done, and what more should we desire? It were needless almost to state, that our departure from you was attended with deep conflict. Had no firmer cords bound us to you than those created by the strongly marked affection manifested the few last weeks of our stay among you, our long farewell must have been like the cutting off of a right hand; but the numerous additional considerations which united us to you and our native land, we need not mention.— But after leaving you, the kindness of those hitherto strangers supplied the place of dear relatives and beloved acquaintances, to a degree we had not anticipated.
Our voyage across the deep, commencing on the 6th of November, was to us unexpectedly pleasant. Very trifling seasickness, which was so distressing to many of our company, fell to our lot. During a period of eight weeks, (one or two more than are generally required to reach Africa,y scarce any thing except goodness and mercy from the Lord was experienced. Captain Knapp and his crew treated us with the greatest respect and kindness, and though not pious, the Captain cheerfully granted us the privilege of morning and evening worship on deck, one evening each week for social prayer, and the opportunity of the public worship twice on the Sabbath. These things, together with the kind Providence which threw into company with us a family so interesting and agreeable as were our Methodist brethren and sisters, could not but make us feel and sing like David, "The Lord is my Shepherd, I shall not want." During these seasons, nothing was more natural or pleasing than for our imaginations to carry us in all the bonds of Christian affection into your social meetings, there to experience more strongly than ever, that
"Blest is the tie that binds
Our hearts in Christian love." Free from storm or tempest, we were borne on safely until the last day of December; when the sight of land once more relieved our eyes from tha monotonous scenery of the wide spread ocean. As the distant cape of Monrovia hove in sight, the idea of renewed aud increasing responsibilities, added to the trials and dangers we must soon encounter, cast a momentary gloom over the mind, but our nearer approach to the most beautiful seenery of spring, dispersed the clouds, cheered our hearts, and made us anxious to land and wear out our lives in efforts to bring the withered and sun-blighted morality of this land to harmonize with its natural loveliness.
We need scarcely inform you, that the citizens of Monrovia received and treated us with the greatest kindness, and until we could get a house rented and fitted so as to be comfortable, provided us with every accommodation our circumstances required. In the mean time, to a degree even surprising to ourselves, our former prejudices concerning eating, drinking,, and living with colored people, all seemed to vanish.
Our first interview with the natives was a considerable time before welanded. Several of their canoes came to us to find out who we were; and. to bring us the news respecting the colony. The sight of these children of nature unmodified in appearance by any thing save a handkerchief around the loins, shocked our feelings considerably, especially those of our female' friends; but it is astonishing, how soon all became reconciled, and were cheerfully disposed to labor among them where duty might call.
In consequence of indispensable business for some time after our arrival and sickness since, we have not been able to visit any of the prospective mission stations, therefore our personal knowledge of the natives ismostly limited to those who trade among us, and labor for us. The country surrounding the colony belongs to, the Deys, but it is supposed there are quite as many natives here, especially boys, from the neighbouring country, Bassa, as there are of the Deys. Both- of these people frequently call upon us with rice, coffee, vegetables, and fruits, which they wish to trade for cloth, handkerchiefs, penknives, beads-, &c. Though they seem very ignorant, they know enough about self-interest, whenever a good opportunity offers, to take the advantage of the "new men," (the name they give us.) Tbe natives of whom we gained the most knowledge, however, belong to a tribe called the Kroomen. Their country lies about ISO miles south-east of this, but they are found.in small groups of huts, all along this coast above us, north-west, as far. as Sierra Leone. Tbeir principal.