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With the abolitionist, it seems impossible, practically, to sympathize. The difficulty, indeed, is not in the principle of abstract right. Here all are agreed. But as a matter of fact, can the black man, in this land, ever occupy the elevated ground of the white man? No, never. Is the aboli. tionist himself actually prepared for family amalgamation! No. And yet, short of this, the son of Africa can never enjoy an equality with bis fellow citizen, of European origin. Could the millions of our African race, at this day, obtain an absolute and unqualified emancipation how little would the most favoured of them have gained? This little, however, at present is impossible to be had. Shall we, then, listen to the abolitionist and do nothing, because every thing cannot be done at once? Shall we refuse to make thousands truly free and bappy, because millions cannot be nominally so? Must the emancipated black man be continued in debasement of condition, because others of his race are in bondage? The truth is but imperfectly felt, tbat emancipation would do little,-may it not be said, nothing, worse than nothing for the unfortunate negro, if he must remain in the land of white men.
But, no: Liberia opens to him a country he can call his own, and there he may be free indeed. In Liberia the American patriot sees the black man's home. There he sees, with pleasure, an avenue opening by which light may travel, and spread its benign influence, over benighted Africa.Benevolence, with joy, contemplates at no great distance, the melioration of man's condition in that much injured land. Christianity marks, with exultation, a commanding station for her missionary heralds; and beneficent calculation finds, in the present acquisitions of Liberia, more, far more, than an adequate compensation for all that has been expended upon it by American liberality. That liberality has but commenced its donations. When . it is once known to our country at large, that the American Colonization Society, beyond any other one of the age, einbraces a combination of the interests of humanity, benevolence, patriotism, justice, and Christianity, funds will not be refused for the accomplishment of objects so dear to the hearts of good men.
FROM LIB ERIA.
The Rev. J. B. PINNEY, temporary Colonial Agent, to the Rev. R. R. GUR
LEY, Secretary of the Colonization Society.
LIBERIA, MARCH 7, 1834. VERY DEAR SIR:- I have the pleasure, by return of the Jupiter, to announce our safe arrival in Liberia, on the last day of '33. With the usual exception of sea-sickness, there was an almost perfect exemption from disease during the passage. My own health, which was somewhat feeble, when I had the pleasure of seeing you last, mended rapidly, and I landed here in almost perfect health. With very slight exceptions, it has continued good up to this date. The voyage, which was protracted by contrary winds to 56 days, was nevertheless deprived of much tedium, by the pleas.. antness of the company, all of whom were in excellent spirits up to the time of our arrival. In praise of our accommodations, however, little can be said. The ship's deck was lumbered from stem to stern, which added greatly to the natural unpleasantness of being extremely crowded. Neither passengers nor emigrants had reason to be satisfied; the latter especially, 54 in number, were literally stowed together. Nothing but the smiles of
Providence, in continuing almost uninterrupted smooth weather, and thus enabling many to remain on deck all night, could have prevented disease, arising from their crowded state.
Peculiar care, I would advise, should ever be taken to guard against such occurrences. The fault at present cannot be charged upon Mr. McPhail, who, as I can testity, used every exertion to prevent it, by calling a survey. The number which he intended to embark, was but 50; though soon after the vessel set sail, it was ascertained there were 54. For this number, I have given Mr. Bogart a receipt, but do most thoroughly believe it would be perfectly just to refuse payment for the extra four, whose presence only helped to increase the discomfort of the others.
The emigrants were, with a few exceptions, sent to Caldwell for the first week, until, by the most strenuous exertions, one of the receptacles sent out two years since, was erected at Monrovia, when all were placed in it: and I rejoice to say, have, under Dr. Todsen's management, all passed through the first attack of the fever, excepting one very aged female, who refused to take medicine, and two small children, who died soon after our arrival. The attacks of fever have been very light in almost every case. Indeed, so slight were they, and so long delayed in the case of the mission families, that our hopes for several weeks, were sanguine, that a:l would escape. But I lament to add, that in two cases we have been mournfully disappointed. Mrs. Wrigbt, after attending upon her husband nearly three weeks, with unremitting attention, was attacked with the fever, just as he had become convalescent. Her case did not present any alarming symptoms for several days, until unfortunately, some medicine was, by imprudence in the nurse, administered in too great quantities, which caused her speedy and sudden dissolution. Mr. Savage, a young gentleman from the western part of New York, followed her in one or two days, worn 10.a. mere skeleton by the wasting fever which had preyed upon him for nearly six months, before the physician's arrival. They were both lovely, and neither could fail, even upon a short acquaintance, to awaken an uncommon interest. We mourn our loss, not theirs. The other members of the missions are all recovering, and able to walk out occasionally. I may add, that the general health in the Colony is at present very good—the deaths very few.
By some oversight, a commission was given me, unaccompanied with a line of instruction from the Board, in relation to their views, or even a bint to guide my conduct; and by an equally surprising casualty, two vessels from the United States have arrived without bringing any despatches. I regret this the more, as, notwithstanding I had anticipated many difficulties, I have found them vastly exceed my imaginings, which I shall, in no small degree, attribute to this very destitution of intelligence from Washington. You will perceive I am preparing a screen for any mistakes which may be developed in the subjoined account of my proceedings.
The military companies of Monrovia met me at the wharf of the Rev. C. M. Waring, and politely escorted me to the Agency House, where I received the Colonial seals from the Vice-Agent, G. R. McGill, and entered at once on the duties of my temporary office. The fact that it was temporary, did not lessen in any degree the sense of responsibility and the desire to do all in my power to advance the interests of the Colony.. Wherein I have failed, it must be attributed to any other cause than intentional negject. You are doubtless aware that affairs were very much deranged, and that very many things needed immediate attention; but the reality in either respect you cannot know, for you have not seen. Almost every public building needed repairs and expense. Unsettled bills for coffins, nurses, rented stores and houses, mechanics, &c. in addition to floating accept
ances and orders by my predecessor, to the amount of two or three thousand dollars, and the current expenses of the Colonial officers and school teachers, after his departure, came in upon me like a flood. Many of these accounts, from the situation of the claimants, and all of them on account of their long standing, could not, with justice, be left any longer unsettled. To satisfy them, and even to meet the current expenses of the Agency House; I could resort only to orders and drafts. This I have done; and though the amount may appear very great, I am convinced that justice to claimants, and the best interests of the Society required such a course; and I confidently believe the proceeding will meet the approbation of the Board.
The public Store, if well supplied with goods, would have greatly lightened the expenses and drafts: but so far from helping, the necessity of having some supply of goods, of which it could afford none, has compelled me to purchase from vessels to the amount of twelve or thirteen hundred dollars, for which I have also drafted. The utter paucity of available property on my arrival, will clearly appear to you on examining the paper (1), wherein is an inventory of public property lest by Dr. Mechlin, a part of which had been expended. (No. 1) A list of acceptances and orders, also left by him, with a written permission for Mr. Rysswurm to draft for them two months after his departure. (No. 2) The salaries due to officers up to the date of my arrival. (No. 3) It will be seen by the schedule of agency property, how completely the house was destitute of necessary articles for daily consumption: To supply this deficit, I had recourse to merchants and captains for sugar, tea, hams, &c. &c.; and also for $100 in cash, to purchase fresh provisions, as they were needed. This, I obtained from Capt. Peters, and included in his draft. The same document will make apparent the destitute state of the store. The provisions on hand, from which more than fifty infirm persons and widows were drawing, consisted only of 4 barrels of beef, 300 kroos of rice, and some damaged meal. In order as much as possible to supply their necessities, and supply the labourers with provisions, all the beef which could be obtained at a reasonable price from vessels touching here, was procured; but the supply was wholly inadequate to the demand; and we are now under the necessity of issuing only rice and meal to the iufirmary list.
The necessity of having sume goods on hand to pay off labourers, and supply the schooner with a cargo for trade, has compelled me also to make some purchases; the expectation of receiving a supply from America, has induced me to proceed.no farther than the urgent wants of our situation demanded. The inadequacy of the supplies, notwithstanding the purchases mentioned, has been a constant obstacle to the progress of the current business, and in order to accomplish the works mentioned below, I have been compelled to give many orders, at a double expense of time, trouble, and funds; one half of which might have been saved by a well supplied store. Allow me, while on this subject, to add a few words as to the importance, nay, the absolute necessity of a well supplied store. The Society will ever be obliged to employ agents and labourers. These must be paid. A public store, with a well selected assortment of goods, would meet their wants, and secure to the Society 75 per cent. profit on their investments.
Take a case: For repairing the public boat, the bill is $20. The debt can be liquidated1. By Cash or Draft,
- $20 00 2. « Order, which becomes Draft, .
- 20 00 3. “ purchasing goods on the Coast, .
15 00 4. “ supply of goods sent from the United States, - 10 00 The result in favour of the store well supplied, is one hundred per cent.; or in other words, $100, expended in America, in the purchase of suitable goods, will procure the same amount of labour as $200 sent out in silver, or paid by draft. Moreover, setting aside its pecuniary advantage, its convenience in furnishing a constaut supply of necessary articles to the colonists, its tendency to prevent the monopoly which would otherwise often exist; its regulating the market, and thus securing to the poor, a defence against extortion, and finally its necessity in the procuriog of rice, &c.—are sufficient to make it an object of the first importance. Add to all this, the fact that the Society would be at no additional expense, it paying at present a store-keeper and book-keeper, who could transact ten times the business now performed, and prevent the apparent waste in paying salaries without exacting corresponding labor. In this way, and this alone, according to my judgment, can the Society erer make the public schooner support itself. The balance against her last year was over one thousand, eight hundred dollars; being the amount of her expenses over her receipts. To be profitable, she must be in constant employ; and not make a short trip, and then to lie by a month. In order to secure constant employment, the public store must be well supplied, and one or two factories, for the purchase of various articles, be kept on the coast. Her time might, when not engaged in other necessary employment, be divided between trading on the coast, and carrying goods to, and bringing away the purchased articles from, the factories. Without some such plan, she will always prove a burden and expense.
I will proceed now to particularise the various sources of expense, since my arrival; and as I have said much already concerning the schooner, I will commence with it.
The Schooner. We arrived in January, and, as you are doubtless aware, missed the barvest of rice, which can be procured abundantly in October and November, and with difficulty at any other period. Unfortunately, after her return from Goree, and the departure of Dr. Mechlin, she was allowed to remain unemployed, and thus neglected to improve the-inost favourable season of the year. This was, in a measure, unavoidable, both on account of her situation, and the utter impossibility of obtaining a cargo from the public store. There being but little rice in the Colony, and a probability that much would be needed, I determined at once to make an effort to obtain some, by sending her to leeward. With all my efforts, she was only able to sail on the 26th of February. This great delay was rendered necessary by the time occupied in making repairs. These were very extensive.On the first attempt to heave her out, she sunk on account of the openness of her seams; and when, after a thorough caulking, we succeeded in throwing her down to examine her bottom, I was almost disheartened. The copper was worn quite through in very many places, and very thin in all. On the keel, it was much torn up, and four sheets off, occasioned by her having struck on the bar at the commencement of her voyage to Goree. In these places, the planks very much resembled a honey comb, so completely had the worms bored them. We were under the necessity of making a little lead, given us by the Captain of a British Brig of War, and a large supply of pitch, the substitutes for copper, and have rendered her fit for one trip at least. Captain Cooper and his mate made an entire set of new sails, from materials kindly left us by the Commander of the U. S. Ship John Adams, before my arrival, whose liberality also supplied us with his own six-oared barge, provided with awnings, &c. &c. &c. The schooner has received a new coat of paint, and with the new sails makes a beautiful appearance. The expense of these repairs amounted to' nearly three hundred dollars. To this, I have added a cargo of nearly fourteen hundred dollars, and sent her down the coast. The season is very unsa
vourable; but notwithstanding this, I have sent no ardent spirits, which is considered indispensable to successful trade at any season. I shall await her return with deep interest. I cannot be too urgent, if you desire to preserve the vessel, that no time be lost in sending out entire new copper and nails; cordage for rigging; cloth for a suit of sails, and for mending old ones. No time should be lost. Two anchors, of from 270 10 350 pounds are also needed. Both masts are badly injured by the dry rot, and can be supplied cheaper and better from the United States, than we can obiain them here.
The Huspitals. Had no other reason existed, we might bave accommodated all the emigrants who came with us in the buildings already erected at Caldwell. But believing that the interests of the Colony and of Africa, connected with the preservation of the lives of the missionaries, who could not obtain convenient houses at Caldwell, and would have been too far from medical altendance, had Dr. Todsen been sent up with the emigrants, I determined to permit them all to remain on the Cape, and proceed at once to erect the two hospitals. In less than three weeks, nearly all the emigrants were located in one of them, which makes a most beautiful appearance from the harbour. The other is placed at right angles with it, on the same lot; and but for the want of timber, would have been completed ere this. I trust it will be ready to receive any emigrants who may come in the next expedirionHad no other reason moved me to this speedy erection, the importance of saving the timber would have been ample. Already much of the tiniber and shingles, even the cypress ones sent from America, have been considerably injured by exposure; certainly far more than they could have been on a building. The one finished has been whitewashed, as have also those at Caldwell; a very cheap mode of giving them a neat appearаnсе.
The Agency House and Yard. Notwithstanding the expensive bill of Mr. Ruffin, amounting to more than $600, most of which I have drafted for, the house I found in a state hardly tenantable. The floor of the upper piazza was torn up behind, and parlially at the two ends. The bannisters and railing for the same part were all down. The lower piazza floor and frame were entirely torn up, and the boards lost, having access to the house on either side only by plank. The sills and studs were decayed all around, from the united attacks of ants and weather; so that the house hd sunk, and nothing prevented its falling but the piazza. The doors were unbinged, and the plastering off more or less. I have endeavoured 10 put it in repair, and have made considerable progress. New sills have been put in all around; the weatherboarding, which was torn ott, replaced with new. The deep hole under the lower flvor of the piazza has been filled up with rocks and sand, and a mason is now employed in laying a brick pavement instead of a floor, trusting that neither anis por rain will injure it. The house has received a coat of paint, and the carpenter is now busily engaged in repairing the floor of the upper pia azza. The lot attached to the house has been enclosed with a secure paila ing; and I intend that pine-apples, limes, &c. &c. shall replace the rank growth of weeds wbich have been cut down and burnt. Your Society will, without doubt, need a new building in one or two years, for the A gent: and though I shall not be here, I would unhesitatingly advise, that its wa!ls be of stone.
The Flag Staff. Just before my departure for America last year, the flag staff was taken down for repairs. By the neglect of those who raised it, its foundation was