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fatal prospect before them, there have never The next enterprize was conducted by been wanting persons ready to embark in the Messrs. Ritchie and Lyon. The former died same undertaking. A more remarkable evi- at Fezzan, and the latter returned safe.dence cannot be found in history of the uncon- Major Laing and Captain Gray, had a little querable spirit of enterprize, than the eager- while before made short expeditions into the ness with which the places of the dead are interior, and returned without loss of life, filled up immediately by zealous competitors. The important expeditions of Denham and at the risk of martyrdom, in the cause of Clapperton accompanied by Dr. Oudney, knowledge.
and Mr. Toole, were next in point of time. Our own countryman, Ledyard, was the The journal of their first voyage is familiar first adventurer on this field, sent out after to most readers. Mr. Toole and Dr. Oudney the establishment of the British “African died on that journey. Clapperton's second Association.” He arrived at Cairo, in Au-| voyage was accompanied by Dr. Morrison, gust, 1788, and died there shortly after- and Captain Pearce. Their servant Richard wards.
Lander was the only survivor; the others The next was Mr. Lucas, who penetrated died successively from the effects of the clibut a little distance and returned to Tripoli, mate. abandoning the expedition.
1 Major Laing, the next victim, was assasThe third was Major Houghton, the British sinated in the Desert. Consulat Morocco, who undertook to The French traveller Caille was the immereach the Niger by the rout of the Gambia. diate predecessor of the Landers on their After being robbed by the Moors in the Great first and successful journey. He returned Desert he was abandoned, and perished of in 1828. Their first journey was terminated hunger and fatigue in 1791.
in 1831. The second has added the name The celebrated Mungo Park followed.- of Richard Lander to this long list of morThe story of his first voyage, which he com- tality. On looking over, and marking with menced in 1795, is well known. He return- how few exceptions the attempts of all traved safely to England after an absence of three ellers have been fatal to them; one cannot years. His second and fatal voyage com- but wonder at the pertinacious spirit with menced in 1805. The large expedition which the attempts are repeated.--Balt. which he carried with him, melted away be- | American. fore the pestilential influence of African climate. Of thirty-eight Europeans who start- Murder of Lander. There is reason to ed with him, five only were left, all sick and believe that the savages who murdered one deranged, when he embarked on board Richard Lander, were set on by the more of his canoe, in Nov. 1805, on his voyage savage slave-traders. These miscreants know down the Niger, after which he was no that the extension of civilization along the more heard of with certainty until the coast of Africa, will put a stop to their abovoyage of Clapperton and Denham ascer- | minable traffic, and therefore they evince tained the particulars of his murder.
the most deadly opposition to any and every The Association had in the mean time measure which may open the way to civilidespatched other travellers into Africa;— zation. They are very particularly hostile Horneman, who perished in 1810 by disease to the Colonization Society. Lander was at a town on the Niger, and Mr. Nichols, killed about 100 miles above the mouth of who proposed to start from the Gulph of the Niger, while on his way, in a long boat, Benin and died there of fever. A German, to join the iron steam-boat, which he had named Roentgen was despatched in 1808, sent up a few weeks before; she was to prounder the same auspices. He reached Mog. ceed about three hundred miles up to a small adore, but was robbed and murdered a few island which he had purchased from the miles from the place where he set out. King, and where he had a factory. "They
The narratives of Riley and Adams, both had proceeded about one hundred miles un, Americans, are next in order. They both the current being strong against them; they survived a slavery in Africa.
- were in good spirits, tracking along the shore The expeditions sent out by the British when they were fired on from the bush; three Government were not more fortunate than men were killed, and four wounded, Mr. those of the Association. A grand enter-Lander was one of the latter. They had a prise fitted out in 1816 was divided into two canoe of their own, and at the time they parties, one to descend the Niger, and one were fired on the boat was aground, and, to to ascend the Congo,—the last commanded save themselves, they were obliged to leap by Captain Tuckey, and the former by Major into the canoe, and make the best of their Peddie, with numerous attendants. Most way; they were immediately followed by of the officers of the Congo expedition five or six war canoes, full of men, keeping perished. The captain, the zoologist, the up a continual fire for five hours, until it got botanist, the geologist, who accompanied it dark, when they lost sight of them.”-Jour. fell successively. The other party fared no of Com. better. Major Peddie died early; his successor, in command, Col, Campbell, soon
SOUTHERN AFRICA. followed; the third in command Lieut. Stock- At the Anniversary of the Wesleyan Miss. oe survived them only a few days. The Soc. in London, the Rev., William Shaw, miserable remains of the party returned in late missionary in Southern Africa, gave a the fall of the year, 1817.
| most interesting account of the Caffer tribes among whom he had laboured, which, we dying for want of water, said that the souni! regret, want of space prevents our giving in of the chapel bell drove the rain away.-detail. Among the effects Mr. S. stated to After a special prayer meeting for rain by have been produced in the district of Albany the Caffer Christians, it fell in great abunby the diffusion of religious feeling, was the dance. The females were very cruelly annihilation of caste, for now, English, treated, until Mr. S. obtained some laws to Dutch and Caffers assemble round the be passed in their favor, on which, out of Lord's table without distinction of color and gratitude, they gave him the name Kaka lacondition. Speaking of the religious opin- bafars; “The Shield of Women.” At Graions of the Caffers, Mr. S. said that they ham’s' Town, Mr. Shaw said, a school for imagined that God lived in a cave on the the instruction of native schoolmasters had eastern side of the earth, out of which cave been established, called “Watson's Instituthe sun comes daily. They believed that tion,” for which he collected above £200 men, dogs, elephants, &c., came out of that in Leeds. The language of the Caffers had cave in the order mentioned at the creation. been reduced to writing, and part of the They exposed their aged relatives to death, Scriptures translated into it; and Mr. S. reand Mr. S. related an affecting anecdote of lated, very amusingly the plan he was obliga mother who was bound to a tree in a for-ed to adopt to teach the natives the use of est. by her own son after escaping twice, letters, which was to call each letter one of and allowed by him to perish, although he his oxen, and its sound or power the name could hear her cries for food and water. of that ox. Mr. S. concluded by stating They believed that one of their number that the best mode of making atonement to could cause rain; and Mr. S. was obliged to Africa, for the injury Europeans had inflictenter into a controversy on the subject with ed on her, was to send missionaries to teach the rain-maker, who, when hard pressed to civilization and Christianity to Africans.make rain at a time when the cattle were i London Patriot.
Gerrit Smith's First Plan of Subscription.
do Conn. in Rev. J. R. Crane's congregation,
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REVIEW.-DR. HODGKIN'S INQUIRY. An Inquiry into the merits of the American Colonization Society: and a reply to the charges brought against it. With an account of the British African Colonization Society. By Thomas Hodgkin, M. D. Svo. pp. 62: London, 1833.
The work bearing the above title, is the testimony of an acute and candid observer to the merits of the American Colonization Society. With laudable industry the author has availed himself of all the materials within his reach, capable of affording authentic information as to the objects of the Institution, and the history of the Colony established under its auspices. The result of Dr. HODGKIN's investigation is, as might have been expected under such circumstances from so enlightened an inquirer, a judgment highly favorable to the Society and to the great cause of African Colonization.
After some interesting references to the early history of Colonization, Dr. HODGKIN proceeds to refute two of the prominent objections taken against the Society:
The preceding facts clearly prove that the colonization of the people of colour is not to be regarded, as some have urged, as a slaveholder's scheme: it cannot even be admitted, without injustice, that the patronage which the Colonization Society receives from the inhabitants of slave States, and even from the owners of slaves, is any blot upon its character, or any proof of the erroneousness of its principle. Many of the citizens of these States are to be pitied, rather than blamed, for belonging to the class of slaveholders.-They very sensibly feel the evils of slavery; but are either prevented by law from manumitting their slaves, or are opposed by difficulties which amount to a prohibition. If they liberate their blacks, and send them to a State in which slavery has been abolished, they may be congratulated by their British friends that they have washed their hands of the guilt of slavery; but, comparatively, in few instances can they console themselves with the idea that they have improved the condition of their former slaves; for, on reaching the free State, to which, at a heavy expense, they may have been conveyed, they will find themselves belonging to a class of society generally occupied in the most menial and unproductive offices, and already sufficiently numerous to render even employment of this kind not always attainable. They are, therefore, not merely in a miserable condition themselves, but they contribute to increase the misery of the class to which they belong. This is an evil which we must not wholly attribute to the distinction of colour, and the prejudice which attends it. Something of the same kind may be seen and felteven in this country, when a large emigration from the sister island has glutted the labour market.
The philanthropic citizens of the South, who either feel or witness the difficulties in the way of manumission, may be very reasonably expected to become conspicuous as supporters of a plan calculated not only to roonerate with their own benevolence, but to re
lieve themselves: they are not, however, the sole supporters, any more than they were the sole inventors of the colonization system. This is shown by the number of auxiliary societies existing in the free States, and by the sums of money which these societies, and individuals in the same States, have contributed to the support of African colonization.Some of those individuals, whose personal exertions have been among the most important elements of the Society's success, have been citizens of these States.
It has been objected by the enemies of the Colonization Society, that it has been exhibited to the friends of humanity in this country under a false character, very different from that which it possesses in America;—that whilst it is advocated, on this side the Atlantic, as the means of benefiting the blacks, and promoting the ultimate extinction of slavery, no such idea is expressed in its fundamental principle; but that, on the contrary, it advocates an opposite doctrine.
In support of the first assertion, they quote, from the minutes of the formation of the Society, the declaration, that "its single object is the colonization of the free people of colour, with their consent, in Africa, or such other place as Congress may deem most expedient.” I conceive that the founders of the Society are entitled to praise, rather than censure, for having given so brief, and, at the same time, so comprehensive a definition of their object. It sets forth explicitly abundant work for any Society to undertake, without advancing any thing which can come in collision with the expressed or even secret opinions of any parties or individuals, unless it be of those who believe that the well-being of the blacks will be promoted in proportion to the increase of their numbers within the States-a doctrine which appears to have originated since the formation of the Colonization Society. The fundamental principle of the Colonization Society may be compared with that of the Bible Society, when it avows its object to be the diffusion of the pure text of the Old and New Testaments, without note or comment-an object to which none could be opposed who were not hostile to the Bible. It cannot, however, be supposed that the supporters of the Bible Society merely contemplated the scattering of Bibles and Testaments, from which no other effect was to proceed than the mere occupation of space: they looked forward to their becoming the powerful agents of an enlightening and moralizing influence. But if we interrogate the members of that Society individually, we shall probably find, that, besides the one object in which they all cordially unite, there are other inducements, differing in each, and which could not be brought forward without their again becoming, as they already too often have done, the subjects of schismatic convulsion and violent dispute. If, however, we wish to gain information respecting the results which the Colonization Society is supposed to regard as rendering its avowed object desirable, we cannot look to a better quarter for information than to the publications of the Society itself. In fact, we have our opponents' example in support of this measure; since, although they admit no good which cannot be found distinctly indicated in the brief declaration of its object which I have before quoted, they have been very industrious in selecting causes of complaint founded on detached portions of addresses and speeches, some of which must be admitted as blemishes; while others lose their apparent deformity, when viewed in conjunction with the parts to which they belong. I shall therefore cite some passages which indicate the feelings and objects either of the Colonization Society collectively, or of individuals of acknowledged weight and influence in it.
Their principal motive appears to have been to benefit the coloured population; and more especially that portion of it, which, though not literally loaded with servile chains, is nevertheless suffering from the pains of slavery, and, with but few exceptions, reduced to a miserable and degraded rank in society, and for whose assistance many comparatively unsuccessful efforts had previously been made. At the same time, the founders of the Society were fully sensible that the baneful influence of slavery was by no means limited to these objects of their care, but that it was also generally felt by the great mass of the white population. There was, therefore, a combined motive of benevolence and self-interest: but I think we must do the projectors of the Colonization Society the justice to admit, that benevolence was their primary and principal motive; whilst the latter was rather prospective, and urged in support of their claims on the co-operation of their fellow-citizens in carrying their objects into effect.-p. 5-7.
The views presented in the foregoing extracts, are sustained by a series of citations made from the publications of the Society, and showing that the objects avowed by it, at its origin, have been adhered to at every stage of its progress. By a similar process our author shows the zeal, consistency and efficiency of the Society, in its endeavours to prostrate that curse of humanity—the African slave trade. He then examines an objection to the Society, on which great stress has been laid by its opponents, in both this country and Great Britain:
It has been represented in this country, that the American Colonization Society aims at nothing less than the banishment of the free people of colour from the United States; although this is disclaimed and disproved, as I shall hereafter make evident. The Socie