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The facts as here stated, (and a report of the Commissioners of Enquiry is referred to as one of his chief vouchers,) are of a character that again remind us most forcibly of the treatment of the Creek and Cherokee Indians, as detailed by Mr. Stuart in his late valuable work on the United States.* If correctly represented, they may well make us blush for the honor of our country. When did Europeans,' exclaims Mr. Rose, 'respect the rights of the savage!' But though past iniquities cannot be recalled, nor perhaps to any great extent redressed, surely our present Government will promptly adopt effective precautions to prevent the repetition of outrages not less disgraceful to the British name, than detrimental to the progress of civilization and Christianity among these interesting tribes. It is of vital importance,' says Mr. Kay, 'to the peace of the frontier, and the civilization of our neighbours, that such measures be adopted, as shall in future protect (their rights), and prevent all further encroachment upon them.As already shown, much good feeling has of late been manifested towards the tribes in many different ways: but we have not as yet by any means extended to them that protection which they reasonably demand at our hands, and which our increased intercourse renders absolutely necessary. Hence numbers are at this moment suffering most grievously from their rights being shamefully trampled under foot, and their clanish feuds materially promoted by lawless colonists, English as well as Dutch, who, when once beyond colonial precincts, seem to laugh both at law and legislators, scrupling not to commit acts of aggression and cruelty quite equal to those of former years. After relating a recent case of a very revolting description, in which a Cape trader (an Englishman) and a Caffer chief were parties, and where the terms 'civilized and savage,' appear to have changed sides, Mr. Kay emphatically remarks, that the astonishing supineness with which deeds of this horrid character are treated, would really seem to confirm a doctrine that has again and again been gravely argued, namely, that "crimes committed without the Colony are not cognizable within."'Pp. 498, 500. ...The unprotected state of the tribes on the northern frontier,' he adds,
is, if possible, still more distressing. There, numbers of Dutch Boors, despite both of right and remonstrance, are continually trespassing upon the lands of the Aborigines, and treating them in a manner the most oppressive.'--'It is an incontrovertible fact, that these tribes are molested, that they are seriously injured, and that in many different ways. The game upon which some of them (the Bushmen hordes) have entirely to depend for subsistence, is by these Nimrods destroyed, the scanty pasturage of their fields consumed, and their children often reduced to a state of complete vassalage.'--' Barrow records that the Boors used to obtain slaves from beyond the boundaries westward; and certain it is, that the evils of slavery are at this moment increasing on our porth-eastern borders, where it is pot sufficiently checked by the established authorities. The daily encroachments of Dutch farmers upon lands beyond these frontiers greatly facilitate the practice.'— 'Such,' in conclusion he observes, ‘are some of the evils under which, notwithstanding all our boasted benevolence and good feeling towards the long oppressed African, we are still leaving him to perish, and that on our very threshold. With wiser men we now leave the case, that they may devise a remedy. Devised some remedy must be, and that speedily, if we wish to maintain the honor of our character either as Britons or as Christians. In 1826 his Majesty's Commissioners of Inquiry declared, that they could only hope for a reduction of the heavy expense, now incur
red in maintaining the defence of the frontier, by the progressive extension of more amicable relations with the tribes;' adding, moreover, that it is at once consolatory and satisfactory to reflect, that any measures tending to preserve the tranquillity of the frontier on the side of Caffraria, will in the same degree contribute to the prosperity and commercial enterprize of the colony.'-Pp. 502, 504, 506.
Connected with this painful topic is that of the lamentable deterioration of character, in the case both of the civilized man and the savage, which appears to have, in this quarter, resulted from their intercourse. It did not strike me,' says Lieut. Rose,' that the savage tribes are improved by their intercourse with us.? 'Gaika, the neighbouring chief, dressed with an old regimental jacket, was in the fort with his retinue of twenty-five wives; and it was not without interest that I looked on one of whom Barrow had prognosticated so highly. He was then nineteen, he is now fifty; and melancholy, has been the change that has taken place in the interval. The English have given him their protection, and with it their vices; and he is a sunk and degraded being — a wretched savage, despised and suspected by his tribe, continually intoxicated, and ever ready to sell his wives for brandy. -Such are the fruits of our protection ! such have ever been the effects on the savage, of the kindness of the civilized. If we find them simple and trusting, we leave them treacherous; if we find them temperate, we leave them drunkards; and in after-years, a plea for their destruction is founded on the very vices they have learned from us!' — (P. 94.) osts
This is one side of the picture: Mr. Kay gives us the other. He is speaking of some Europeans, partly Englishmen, who, owing to desperate fortunes, or impatience of the restraints of civilized life, have domiciled themselves among the native tribes. “In such a situation,' he remarks, 'men soon become deaf to the checks of better principles. Fancied insult arouses revengeful feelings; unrestrained passions speedily generate incredible licentiousness, whilst avarice and self-interest prompt to acts the most iniquitous. There is a significant phrase frequently used on the coast of Guinea, that such a man is "grown black.” It does not mean an alteration of temper, but of disposition. And, incredible as it may appear, there are now in Caffraria, also, Englishmen whose daily garb differs little from the beast-hide covering of their savage neighbours; whose proper color can scarcely be identified from the filth that covers them; and whose domestic circles, like those of the native Chieftains themselves, embrace from eight to ten black wives or concubines.' -- (P. 400.) i restoran Site
There are several other topies we could bave wished to notice, but we can only, at present, briefly advert to one or two of them. The author's ob servations upon the Bechuana and Zoolu (or Amazulu) tribes, do not require any particular remarks as he has added little to the information collected by Burchell and Thompson. There is, however, a valuable chapter on the frontier trade, of which we regret that we cannot give a summary. From his remarks on this topic, and on the British settlement of Albany generally, we are glad to find that this district, the distresses of whose new inhabitants, a dozen years ago, made an impression in England so unfavourable to the capabilities of South Africa, is now decidedly the most prosperous part of the whole Cape Colony. Of this improvement, the prohibition from employing slaves is generally acknowledged to have been the leading cause. This restriction was rendered effectual by a judicious clause in the grants of land to the British settlers.
A still more remarkable and unexpected proof of the advantages of freedom and free labor over servitude and coercion, was witnessed br Mr. Kay, on visiting a colony of emancipated Hottentots, who, in the year 1829, were planted in a wild valley on the new Caffer frontier, called the Kat River. Under the old system, this class of people were reduced to a more degraded and hopeless condition than even the negro slaves themselves.They were more despised and worse treated; and their indolence, improvidence, and drunkenness were proverbial. By the exertions, however, of a few friends of humanity, the British Government was prevajled upon to order the immediate total and unconditional emancipation of this race of men. The execution of this decree, by which 30,000 souls were in one day released from thraldom, was accompanied by a great clamour throughout the colony. The ruin of the community, and more especially of the Hottentots themselves, was predicted as the inevitable result. Five years have since elapsed; and every account tbat has been published, proves the effect of rational freedom in elevating the human character. The improvement of the Hottentot nation during these years has been surprising. But above all, surprising has been the effect of new and higher stimulants upon a portion of this race, from four to five thousand in number, who were placed by Captain Stockenstorm, (the intelligent officer who first suggested This measure,) in the valley of the Kat River, in 1829. We cannot make room for the full details; but must content ourselves with extracting the following interesting facts from Mr. Kay's account:- .
Their numbers in the settlement are about five thousand. They came from different parts of this immense Colony. No assistance was promised or given to them, except firearms for self-defence; no preparations were made for their reception; no rations, no implements, no sums of money. The Boors showed no kindness to them. But to these negatioñs I have to add that there have been no strifes, divisions, or discontents among them; no peculiar sufferings. No case of crime has come from the Kat River before the Circuit Court. T'heir success has been equal to their industry and good conduct, and neither have ever been surpassed. By patient and judicious labour, with manly inoderation and Christian temperance, they have converted the desert into a fruitful field. “Hitherto,” says the Graham's Town Journal (a paper generally unfriendly to the native race,) “great activity has been displayed, and the incipient marks of civilization are observable in every direction. During the last season, 1831, were produced on the settlement 450 muids of wheat, 1500 muids of barley, and 400 muids of Indian corn, besides large quantities of caffer corn, potatoes, pumpkins, sweet cane, and many other provisions. Independently of the labour required in the cultivation of the soil, instances of uncommon exertion are manifested in the construction of canals which convey water to irrigate their fields and gardens. In some places these have been carried through the solid rock, in others it has been necessary to cut to the depth of twelve feet to preserve the level; while their entire length throughout all the locations is upwards of 20,000 yards.”—(Graham's Town Journal. June, 1832.) The Hottentot, escaped from bonds, stood erect in his new territory; and the feeling of being restored to the level of humanity and the simple rights of nature, softened and enlarged his heart, and diffused vigour through every limb. He is no longer the timid wretch, submitting to the violence, and yielding to the injustice of the proud with apparent insensibility. – P. 490.
In conclusion we thank Mr. Kay for his Researches,' and hope many of his brother Missionaries will follow the example that has been set in the present work, and in the publications of Dr. Philip and Mr. Ellis, in communicating information respecting the tribes among whom they have been resident. We cannot, however, place Mr. Kay's Book on a level with the two we have just mentioned. It contains a good deal of valuable informa. tion, but it is ill-digested and confusedly arranged. A large portion of the work is inere repetition. Whole chapters consist almost entirely of extracts from recent and well known publications on the Cape, and what is more reprehensible, many of the quotations are not duly acknowledged. Should a second edition be required, the author ought to revise the whole work carefully, to introduce a stricter uniformity and correctness in proper Dames and to retrench and condense what he has borrowed from others.
of the Committee to whom was referred the subject of the Religious Instruction of the Color.
ed population, of the Synod of South Carolina and Georgia, at its late Session in Columbia, • s. 0.--Published by order of Synod.
(CONTINUED FROM p. 177.)
The benefits which will flow from the religious instruction of the negroes, clearly show that it will be to our interest. * 1. There will be a better understanding of the relation of Masters and servants, and of their reciprocal duties..
There are but few masters who have given themselves the trouble of solemn, prayerful inquiry into the number and nature of those duties, which they owe to their servants, and are in reason and conscience bound to perform, and but few servants who have been instructed as to the number and nature of their duties to masters. Great ignorance and indifference exist both on the one hand and on the other. Conscience sleeps. And al. though the reciprocal duties of master and servant are so important, and are so particular. ly defined in the Scriptures, we do not recollect to have heard a sermon from the pulpit concerning them. The reason for thiş neglect on the part of the Ministry, we cannot assign, unless it be, that they have partaken of the spirit of silence and forgetfulness, prevalent in our country on the general subject. It is a glaring and culpable neglect of duty, and we take occasion here to urge upon ourselves, and upon every ininister connected with this Synod, repentance and reformation.
The principle which regulates duty in slavery, on the part of the master, has been thus defined: "Get all you can, and give back as little as you can;" and on the part of the servants the reverse:-"Give as little as you can, and get back all you can." "When we remember what human nature is, and when we observe the conduct of masters and servants, we fear that there is too much truth as to the existence of this principle.
Wherever such a principle prevails, even in a slight degree, there remains little rooin for an inquiry into and discharge of duty on Gospel principles. We feel that something is needed to unfold the reciprocal duties of master and servant, and to effect a change so that they may stand upon some common ground, and not act so entirely by contraries.
That something, is, the introduction of Religion. Religion will tell the master, that his servants are his fellow-creatures, and he has a Master in Heaven to whom he shall account for his treatment of them. Religion will tell the servant, "to be obedient to mas. ters according to the flesh, with fear and trembling, in singleness of heart as unto Christ. Knowing that whatsoever good thing any man doeth, the same shall he receive of the Lord, whether he be bond or free.”
The master will be led to inquiries of this sort:--In what kind of houses do I permit them to live; what clothes do I give them to wear? What food, to eat? What privileges to enjoy? In what temper and manner, and proportion to their crimes, are they punished? What am I doing for their souls' salvation: In fine, what does God require me to do to, and for them and their children, in view of their happiness here and hereafter? Light will insensibly break into his mind. Conscience will be quickened, and before he is aware, his servants will be greatly elevated in his regards, and he is compelled to do more for them. The government of the plantation will not be so purely selfish as formerly. His interest will not be the sole object of pursuit, and offences against that visited with sorer punishment, than offences against God himself. He will have an eye to the comfort, the interest of his people, and endeavor actually to identify their interest with his, and also to make them see and feel it to be so. It will be a delight to him, to see them enjoy the blessings of the Providence and grace of God.
Such attempts at a discharge of duty, will produce favourable influences upon the feelings and conduct of servants. Their duties will be understood, and better and more cheerfully performed.
2. The pecuniary interests of masters will be advanced as a necessary consequence; and in many particulars, increased attention to their temporal comforts, will contribute to the improvement of health; and the expense of lost labor by sickness, and of physicians' bills, will be saved. Their wants being more liberally supplied, and sharing more largely in the fruit of their labors, many temptations to which they are now exposed, will be removed; they will become more industrious and saving, and less addicted to crime. Their work will be more faithfully done; their obedience more universal, and more cheerfully rendered.
Religious instruction we view as the strongest auxiliary to governments of all kinds, even where it fails to transform characters; and its genuine effects upon servants will be, 'with good will doing service as to the Lord, and not unto men.”
And who can tell what the pleasurable feelings of a humane master will be in view of a moral reformation of his servants? He will thank God that he is, if not wholly, yet measurably relieved from perpetual watching, from fault-finding and threatening and hei eta sickening severity, and that he can govern to some good extent by the law of love..
RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION OF THE NEGROES. [September,
3. The religious instruction of the negroes, will contribute to safety.
Many affect, or in reality despise all fears from our colored population, and the universal habit is, never to think of the subject, or to dismiss it as soon as it may be suggested. We cannot believe this to be the part of sound wisdom. What has happened may happen again; and such means should be set in operation, as may promise deliverance from danger. It is very true, that we are differently situated, in many respects, from any other slave-holding country, and that at the present time, so far as we can see, the hope of success on the part of the negroes, is forlorn. But no enemy should be despised, however weak, and no danger unprovided for, however apparently remote. Though success may not now crown any attempt, yet incalculable sufferings may ensue both to the one party and the other. What means, therefore, will secure the country against danger such as we have intimated ?
Passing by the different means that have been suggested, we unhesitatingly affirm, that no means will compete with that of religious instruction.
The tendency of the preaching of the Gospel, even where its transforming influence on character is not realized, is to soften down and curb the passions of the man, to make him more solicitous of his favor: and to enhance infinitely in his estimation the value of human life. His conscience is enlightened, and his soul is awed. He knows, God reigns to execute judgment, and it will require great effort to excite him to unhallowed deeds.
But in those cases where character is transformed, we may repose confidence. The servant now recognizes a superintending Providence, who disposes of men and things according to his pleasure. He learns, that every man should abide in the same calling wherein he was called. That christianity comes not with reckless efforts to wrench apart human society; but to put into operation those principles of moral conduct, which will secure its happiness, and peaceably remove every kind of evil and injustice. To God therefore, he commits the ordering of his lot, and in his station renders to all their dues, obedience to whom obedience, and honor to whom honor. He dares not wrest from the hand of God his own case and protection. While he sees a preference in the various conditions of men, he remembers the words of the Apostle:-"Art thou called being a servant? Care not for it; but if thou mayest be free, use it rather. For he that is called in the Lord, being a servant, is the Lord's freeman: likewise, also he that is called being free, is Christ's servant. Ye are bought with a price, be not ye the servants of men. Brethren, let every man wherein he is called, therein abide with God.”
It is to the operations of these principles in the hearts of servants, that we look for safety; and we look with confidence no where else. We see nothing in the natural character of man upon which we can rest with satisfaction, nor can we rest with satisfaction in any measures that may be proposed to the exclusion of religious instruction. Include this means, yea make it a primary one.
We are aware that a large number, who have no knowledge of religion in their own experience, and who have not been careful to notice its genuine effects upon servants, will place little or no confidence at all in what we have now advanced. Men naturally walk by sight. They can place more reliance upon visible preventives of their own invention, than upon principles, wrought in the soul and maintained in supremacy by Divine power, whose nature they do not understand, and whose influence, however good, is invisible, and for that very reason cannot be trusted. They know practically no superintending Providence. They glory in their wisdom and in their riches and in their strength: Whatever may be the decision of such persons, Christians have no choice left them. Experience of what religion is, and what it can effect for man, obliges them to embrace it as the only safe ground of confidence. We shall never forget the remark of a venerable colored preacher, made during a period of some excitement. With his eyes filled with tears, and his whole manner indicating the deepest emotion, said he “Sir, it is the Gospel that we ignorant and wicked people need. If you will give us the Gospel, it will do more for the obedience of servants, and the peace of community, than all your guards and guns and bayonets.” One such man is of more value to the community, than a thousand stand of arms and men to bear them.
Besides the general and special influences of the Gospel now adverted to, safety will be connected with its dispensation in two particulars, which we may not omit.
The first is, that the constant presence of white men in their religious assemblies, and free intercourse with them, will draw out their kindly feelings to masters, exert a restraining influence upon any spirit of insubordination that may exist, and at the same time, give opportunity for its detection.
* And the second--that the negroes will be disabused of their superstition and ignorance, and thus be placed beyond the reach of designing men, wherever they may be. The most direct way to expose them to acts of insubordination, is to leave them in ignorance, and superstition, to the care of their own religion. Then may they be made the easy and willing instruments of avarice, of lust, of power or revenge.' "Keep them in ignorance” is the dreadful sentiment frequently uttered,' and not more dreadful than dangerous. Ignorance -religious ignorance, so far from being any safety, as many suppose, is the very marroro of our sin against this people, and the very rock of our danger. Religion and religious teachers, they will have; and if they are not furnished with the true, they will embrace the false.