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äll respects as the citizens now there; and that so soon as said Society shall signify their acceptance of these conditions, the said slaves shall be formally transferred to them, together with the sum left for their transportation by the will of Dr. Hawes.
At a meeting of the Board of Managers of the American Colonization Society, held on the 1st day of August, 1834, a letter, dated July 25th, 1834, from Mr. Elliott Cresson, Corresponding Secretary of the Young Men's Colonization Society of Pennsylvania, to Mr. LOWRIE, a member of said Board, enclosing the following Report and Resolution adopted by the said Youny Men's Colonization Society, was, together with said Report and Resolution, read:
At a meeting of the Board of Managers of "the Young Men's Colonization Society of Pennsylvania, held July 22nd, 1834, the following Report and Resolution subunitted by the Executive Committee, were adopted, and the Secretary directed to forward a certified copy thereof to the Board of Managers of the “American Colonization Society” at Washington.
The Executive Committee to whoin was referred, by the Board of Managers, the subject of the kind of Auxiliary connexions and relations which the “Young Men's Colonization Society of Pennsylvania” should maintain with the American Colonization Society at Washington, and the conditions upon which the foriner agrees to receive froin the latter the manuinitted slaves of the late Dr. Hawes of Virginia, with a view to their being lo. cated in a new settlement on the coast of Africa, Report
That the known and admitted advantages of position of the Parent Board at Washington, and of the composition of the American Colonization Society, of which it is the executive branch, forbid the idea of independent action by Societies formed on the model of this one. The Young Men's Colonization Society of Pennsylvania, distinctly admits in its Constitution, its Auxiliary character; nor is it content with affirining a merely nominal connexion of this kind with the Parent Board. It has carefully abstained froin extending its spbere of action beyond the State of Pennsylvania, and within these limits it proposes to make the proceeds of its labours not merely subservient to the general objects or i olo. nization in Africa, but to dispose of them in such a manner as shall meet with the approbation of the Parent Board."
'This latter, by its location at the seat of Government, is enabled to unite the North and the South in the great cause of Colonization, and to procure joint action between portions of the country and their inhabitants which could not be done by a Society in any other section of the country. It is, moreover, requisite that there should be a central So. ciety or Board, to exercise a general superintendence over the settlemnts on the coasi of Africa, the better to preserve among these, the necessary harmonious intercourse and other relations. This Board is also best fitted to keep the whole United States apprised of the progress and wants of the whole of the African colonies, and thus to enable the former to transmit, with knowledge of all the circumsiances, the pecuniary and other as. sistance which they may propose from time to time to furnish to the latter.
It must, on the other hand be conceded, that an Auxiliary, such as that of the Young Men's Colonization Society of Pennsylvania, enjoys means and facilities for furthering the common cause, superior in some respects, to those possessei, by the Parent Board. Among these, may be mentioned the readiness of a direct appeal to a large and wealthy population for countenance and aid, -an appeal which, moreover, would be perhaps cold. ly responded to if inade by any Society whatever at a distance. Next in the list of pecilliar advantages, is the location of the Young Men's Society in a commercial city, by which greater economy and despatch in the transportation of emigrants and in the outfit of them and the colony in general, are insured. It is also an encouraging circumstance, that some of the members are themselves merchants and in of, business, practically conversant with the marketable value and price of goods, utensils, &c. fo: the colony. liview of these advantages, it can hardly be expected that the Auxiliary opiations of the Young Men's Society of Pennsylvania, should be restricted to a inere collection and distribution of funds to order for the Parent Society, without at the same time a direct participation in council and executive action with the latter. But as the excrcise of this right could only be salutary and efficient, after a full knowledge of all the circumstances connected with the condition of the colonies and the resources of the Parent Board, and as the information requisite for a due enlightenment on the subject, can hardly be in the possession of an Auxiliary Society, the latter inust either refrain from all joint counsel and legislation with the Parent Board, or take a particular line of action tending to a specific enii. This has been already done by some of the State Societies, with the consent of the Society at Washington, and it is now proposed to be carried out by this Society ani! its Board of Managers in Pennsylvania.' The scheme to which the cnergies of this Society are now to be directed is, the founding of a new settlernent on tiie coast of Arica, inuder the au. spices of the Parent Board, and yet with such modifications and reforms as would render it difficult for the latter, to assume at once the entire responsibility without an adıission of continued wrong done to other colonists and the settleinents now in existence. Just so far as these modifications and resoruns extend, would it be necessary to have diferent or amended local laws and regulations, it' not a different executive agency; as wlien it is proposed in the new colony that more attention shall be paid to agriculture, the importation, manufacture and sale of a.dent spirits prohibited, and an uniform plan adopted and acted on of supplying the public stores, and for the issue, by gift or sale, of their contents to the colonists and native inhabitants.
But as the Parent Board is entitled to reap its share of success and increased reputation to the cause of Colonication, even in measures not primarily of its own susgestion or originating, its counsel and guidance are invoked in the present enterprise by the Young Men's Society of Pennsylvania. The Auxiliary here invites the sanction of the princi: pal to the measures now in progress by the latter for the selection and purchase of land for a new colony, the appointment of a home Agent and a Governor, and the enactment of such laws as experienc: shall indicate in addition to, or in modification of those already in force in Liberia. Until the sanction by forical consent be given to these steps, as well as those which may be afterwards taken toward the attainment of the great objects in viewcolonizing and Christianizing Africa, the Young Men's Society will feel itself deprived of that countenance and support to which it looks with continued hope and affection. It is proposed, moreover, the better to secure joint action and to preserve to the Parent Board its right of general superintendence, that a special agent should be despatched from time to time, from Monrovia, to visit the new colony, and be instructed to give his aid and coun: sel towards maintaining a right understanding be:ween it and the other colonies on the coast. .. With these explanations (made in a spirit of perfect good will and fellowship) of their understanding of the Auxiliary connexion and relation which the Young Men's Coronization Society of Pennsylvania have with the Parent Board at Washington, the Executive Coinmittee subinit the following resolution:
Resolved, that the Board of Managers of the Young Men's Colonization Society of Pennsylvania, agree to the terms proposed in the second resolution of the Parent Board recently received, (and annexed hereto), respecting the transinission by the latter to the former, as from principal to auxiliary, of the manumitted slaves of the late Dr. Hawes of Virginia; and that they will proceed forthwith to complete the necessary arrangements for a new colony at or near Bassa Cove, the first settlers in which are to be the said liberated slaves. The above is a true copy:
JOHN BELL, Chairman. Topliff Johnson, Secretary of the Board of Munagers. Whereupon it was, on motion, unanimously
Resolved, That the said Report, adopted and transtnitted by the Managers of the Young Men's Colonization Society of Pennsylvania, meets the approbation of this Board, so far as the same is in accordance with the Report adopted by this Board on the 3rd day of July last, in which their views of the relations between Auxiliary Colonization Societies and the Parent Society, were distinctly set forth, and of which a copy was transmitted to the Young Men's Colonization Society of Pennsylvania.
Resolved, That the Resolution of the Managers of the said Young Men's Colonization Society, accompanying the aforesaid Report, adopted and transinitted by them, agreeing to the terins on which the Parent Board had consented to transfer to the said Young Men's Culonization Society the colonizing in Liberia of certain manumitted slaves of the late Dr. Hawes of Virginia, is entirely satisfactory to this Board; and that this Board will place said manumitted slaves under the care of said Young Men's Colonization Society for the purpose aforesaid, and will atïord to thein every facility in the use of the receptacles, and in the countenance, aid and assistance of the Agents of the Parent Society, at the colony, that may be wanted to promote the comfortable settlement of said manumitted slaves at their proposed residence within the Liberian territory.
Rezolred, That a copy oftese resolutions be transmitted to the Young Men's Colonization Soci, ty of Pennsylvania.
Published by order of the Board. Attest:
JAS. LAURIE, President. P. R. FENDALL Recorder.
Kay's TRAVELS IN CAFFRARIA.-CONCLUDED FROM p. 173.
[From the Edinburgh Review, January 1834.]
Travels and Reseurches in Caffraria: describing the character, Customs, and Moral Condition, of the Tribes inhabiting that portion of Southern Africa: With historical and topographical Remarks, illustrative of the State und Prospects of the British Seillement on its Borders, the introduclion of Christianity, and the Progress of Civilization. By STEPHEN Kay, Corresponding Member of the South African Institution. 12mo. London: 15:33.
The accounts which Mr. Kay gives of the system of Military Reprisals, which has long been maintained by the colonial authorities, in their relations with the frontier tribes, affords a humiliating picture of European policy and humanity. This is not a novel topic: from the time of Sparrman to the present, almost every writer ou the Cape has denounced the revolting injustice and barbarous impolicy of what is locally teriged the ‘Communio System. Mr. Barrow exposen its iniquity and cruelty in the strongest terms, as exercised, at the period of his visit, more especially against the miserable race of Bushmen. Many details of its atrocilies on the northern frontier were published by Mr. Thompson in 1827.* Dr. Philip has given the rise and progress of this systein from the earliest records of the colony down to 1528, when his valuable work appear. ed;t and several subsequent writers on South Africa-Bannister,# Rose, $ Pringle, &c., not to mention the printed reports of His Majesty's Comimissioners of Enquiroll-have furnished lamentable and unanswerable er. idence, that the same shortsighted and barbarous policy is still continued with but a very slight and inefficient modification. I do not consider,' says Lieutenant Rose, the Caffers a cruel or indictive people. The policy adopted towards them has been serere: for when did Europeans respect the rights of the savage? By the Dutch Border-farmeis, over whom their government had little control, they are said to have been slaughtered without mercy to have been destroyed as they destroyed the wolf. At no period, I believe, since the English have been in possession, has wanton cruelty been committed; but the watives. have at different times been duiven back from boundary to boundary, and military posts have been established in the country from which we have expelled them. Orders, too, have been issued that all Caffers appearing within the proclaimed line should be shot.'--'In 1810, the Great Fish River was proclaimed the eastern limit of the Colony. In 1820, Gaika, a powerful chief whom we had aided in his wars, was obliged to evacuate a rich extent of land lying between that river and the Kirskamma. On this occasion he is said to have remarked, "that though indebted to the English for his existence as a Chief, yet, when he looked upon the fine country taken from him, he could not but think his benefactors oppressive.”'-It is not strange that the savages should be unable to see the justice of all this; that they should be troublesome neighbours to the settlers in a country of which they had been dispossessed. They were so: such instances were exaggerated, and a Commando (an inroad of military and boors) was the frequent consequence. The crimes were individual, but the punishment was general; the duty of the Commando was to destroy, to hurn the habitations, and to seize the cattle, and they did their duty.'-'l hate the policy that tırns the English soldier into the cold-blooded butcher of the unresisting native; I hate it even when, by the calculator, it might be considered expedient; but here it is as stupid as it is cruel.' Rose's Four Years in South Africa, p. 74-6.
* Travels and Adventures in Southern Africa. Second Edition. Vol. i, p. 392–7.
† Researches in South Africa; illustrating the Civil, Moral, and Religious Condition of the Native Tribes. By the Rev. J. Philip, D.D.
| Humane policy: or Justice to the Aborigines of New Settlements essential to a due expenditure of British Money, and to the best Interests of the Setilers. With sugyestions how to civilize the Natives by an improved administration of existing means. By 8. Bannister, late Attorney-General in New Sonth Wales. London, 1830.-This work, which has not received attention at all adequate to the importance of its contents, contain:s soine valuable details respecting the Cape frontier system, well deserving the ser rious consideration of the Colonial Department.
§ Tour Years in Southern Africa By Cowper Rose, Royal Engineers. London, 1829.-See p. 74-77, 94...
|! Reports of the Commissioners of Enquiry upon the Adininistration of the Government at the Cape of Good Hope. Dated 6th Sept. 1926. Ordered by the House of Com. won tu bu printed; 1. May, 197, Seo r. 2).
Such is the account of our Caffer frontier policy, given by an officer for some time stationed on the Caffer frontier, and officially cognizant of the transactions he thus characterises. Let us now turn to Mr. Kay. In no. ticing (p. 88) the extreme alarm spread among the natives by the rumour of a Commando having entered their country from the colony, he remarks, that the barbarously indiscriminate manner in which military expeditions have sometimes rushed upon the tribes, spreading dessolation and death on account of robberies committed by individuals unknown, has naturally rendered the very sound of such expeditions dreadful throughout the land.'An entire chapter (pp. 241-266) is occupied with the history of the treatinent experienced by the Amakosa clans from the Colonial Governments, Dutch and English, from an early period down to 1820. We cannot find room for any of the details; but many of them are such as to excite reflections of the most painful character. The authenticity of the principal facts cannot, we lear, be questioned: they rest not only on the testimony of travellers, but on official documents, and on the statements of the local gove ernment in its official Gazette. Some of these alrocities rival any thing we have read of the conduct of certain States of North America towards the native Indians.
While such has been the treatment of neighbouring tribes, and of recog. pised allies (as in the above case of Gaika,) more distant hordes have, it appears, been occasionally assaulted with even less ceremony. Mr. Kay gives us the following example (p. 330); In June, 18:28 rumours reached the colony that the warlike Zoolu Chief, Chaka, had invaded the Amaponda territory, and as this Chief had lately sent two of his priucipal captains on a friendly embassy to the Colonial Goveroment, an officer was very properly despatched with an armed escort of about forty men, with the view of obtaining an amicable conference with this African Cæsar, and mediating a peace. On reaching the Amaponda territory, however, the party found that the Zoolu invaders had retreated, but being solicited by an Amatembu Chief to assist him with their fire-arms in an attack upon another horde, they altered the direction and object of their expedition. This was the Amanwana or Ficani, a tribe who had been driven from their own territory by the devastating career of the Zoolus; and who were now pressing upon the Amatembu territory from the north. The F'o, 'ish party, unhappily, so far forgot their character of mediators as to become parties in these intes. tine broils. They made a charge on this Amanwana borde, and captured
20,000 head of cattle, which were given to their new ally the Amatembu King. This was rather an unfortunate close to amicable designs. It might, however, possibly have arisen from sudden impulse or misapprehension; but what shall we say for the sequel? We give, without comment, Mr. Kay's statement: - 'About a month after the above-mentioned skirmish, a strong military force, together with several hundred armed colonists, were hurried into the interior, to the distance of nearly three hundred miles from the colonial boundary, where they were immediately joined by an immense host of Kaffers, who proved themselves to be Kaffers indeed! Flushed with the hope of conquest and abundant spoil, having got an ally so powerful in their van, the natives hastened onward to the combat, pointing out exactly the site whereon was erected the temporary huts of the Amanwana. On the Sunday evening, the troops arrived within a few hours' march of the spot; and, after halting an hour or two, again proceeded, with a view of taking them by surprise ere dawn of day the following morning. In this they succeeded; so that while the greater part of the people were still fast asleep, the rushing of horses, the clashing of spears, and the horrid roar of musketry, poured in upon them * on every side. Who can conceive of a situation more awful? The thought makes one's very blood run cold. If we had not heard the details of this sanguinary affair confirmed by more than fifty eyewitnesses, we could not possibly have given credence to it; so strange was the plan, and so barbarous its results! A respectable British officer, whom duty required to be on the spot, candidly declared to the author, that it was "one of the most disgraceful and cold blooded acts to which the English soldier had ever been rendered accessory."
The moment our troops arrived on the summit of the eminence that overlooked the vale in which the Matuwana and his men were lying, orders were given for all to gallop down amongst the houses. Their affrighted occupants then poured out in droves, and a dreadfully destructive fire was forth with opened upon them. Very few seconds elapsed ere every hut was vacated, and thousands seen scampering off in every direction. Numbers, gaunt and emaciated by hunger and age, crawled out of their miserable sheds, but with pitiable apathy sat or laid down again, as if heedless of their fate. Many of the females cast away their little ones, the more readily to effect their own escape; whilst others actually plunged into the deepest parts of the river with infants upon their backs. In this situation some were drowned, others spared, and many stoned to death by the savage throng; insomuch that the water was at length literally dyed with blood. 9 This is an appalling statement; and brought forward as it is by a respectable man, then resident in the Caffer territory, and who appeals to the authority of British officers, and 'the unanimous testimony of numbers who were present during the whole affray;' it will not fail, we trust, to attract due attention in the proper quarter, and lead forth with to that thorough investigation which appears to be imperatively required for the purposes of justice, as well as for the vindication of the national character. - In the concluding chapter Mr. Kay gives a statement of the circumstances attending the seizure (or cession, as it is termed) of a tract of country extending to eighteen hundred square miles, eastward of the old Colonial boundary, and the forcible expulsion from it of the Caffer inhabitants. 1990 09
It has indeed been said, that a parley was attempted; and for the honor of our coun. trymen, we cannot but wish that this could have been proved. Unhappily, however, the unanimous testimony of numbers who were personally present during the whole affray, is altogether against this assertion, showing too clearly, that time was not allowed for any thing of the kind.