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COLONIZATION

The intelligent Editor of the "Pittsburg Christian Herald and Western Missionary Reporter,”' in his paper of May 17, has the following remarks concerning the Colonization Society:

“We have thought it strange indeed, in those who call themselves Abolitionists, and assume to themselves the reputation of being the exclusive friends of the colored race, that their zeal is exhausted in vituperating slave-holders, the friends of colonization, and the Colonization Society.

"Ifour sentiments are worth any thing on such a subject, we would claim to be as strong abolitionists as any one, whose name graces the roll of the society. But the opposition to the Colonization Society—the misrepresentation of its sayings and doings, and the exultation which has been indulged when any thing appeared, in expectation or in fact, to its disadvantage, with the spirit manifested towards the people of the South, has hitherto held us at a distance from it.”

[From the Springfield (Mass.) Republican, May 17, 1834.] The March and April Nos, of the African Repository (published at Washington City under the direction of the American Colonization Society) have come to hand. They contain some articles of unusual interest to the friends of the Colonization cause. Among these are a review of Anti-Slavery publications and Defence of the Colonization Society, by Hon. T. FRELINGHUYSEN; a Report submitted to the Managers in February, by Hon. WALTER LOWRIE, from the Committee to whom was referred the subject of the Society's debt ($45,645) and the causes of it; encouraging letters from Gerrit Smith, Esq. Mr. Frelinghuysen and others, accompanied by liberal donations to wipe off the debt and continue the operations of the Society; a letter from Capt. Voorhees, of the U. S. Navy, giv- . ing a clear and on the whole encouraging view of the situation and wants of the Colony. There are also several other articles of an interesting character, neither of which our limits will admit of at this time. The exposition of the Managers in regard to the debt is evidently a frank and undisguised admission of facts. From them we discover no impurity of purpose any where, except it may be in the merchants of Liberia in charging exhorbitant profits upon stores furnished the colonists, and to an amount altogether beyond the expectations of the Managers. This cause, with the large shipments of colonists in 1832, when the Society was actually in debt, together with the want of business-like vigilance on the part of the Managers, has produced the debt. But these adverse circumstances have stimulated the Society to a complete system of retrenchment and reform.The evils of the past, will be guarded against in future. A number of wealthy and distinguish ed gentlemen in different parts of the country, came forward immediately to assist. in wiping off the debt, and in sustaining the Society in its work of philanthropy. We trust the friends of the Society in this country, will lose none of their former confidence or zeal in the institution and will in due time come forward in aid of its work.

A new weekly paper entitled the "Journal of Freedom,” has been commenced at New Haven, Conn. It is very neatly printed and promises to be ably conducted. We subjoin the following extracts as specimens of its principles and style:

THE COLONIZATION OF AFRICA. We do not enter the field of controversy, as the advocates of the American Colonization Society. This Journal is independent of that Society and all its branches. Yet we profess ourselves friends of African Colonization.The colonies which American benevolence is planting on the continent of Africa, are essential in our view, to give completeness and system to the efforts which are now made in some quarters for the renovation of the African race. We have therefore no alliance with those whose battle-cry is, “The destruction of the Colonization Society, the first step to the abolition of slavery." It is not our design however, as we have already intimated, to fill our columns with controversy on that subject. To collect and record the facts respecting the Society and its colonies, will be more agreeable to us, and more profitable to our readers. We shall not be dependent for these facts on the official publications of the Society. There are other sources of information, to which we have access. We design to maintain a correspondence with individuals in the colonies, expressly for the purpose of obtaining authentic and full accounts for this Journal.

The progress of discovery and improvement in the ConTINENT OF AFRICA, will be considered as one of our topics of inquiry and record. Science, Commerce, and Christian

zeal, aje looking eagerly to Africa, Traveller after traveller has perished in the attempt to penetrate its forests, and to trace its mysterious rivers. The gold, the ivory, the preci. ous woods, the spices and the gums of Africa are yet to reward the adventurous toil of commerce. And Ethiopia, on whose borders the missionary is here and there beginning to labor amid perils and deaths, is ere long to stretch forth her hands in praise.

WILBERFORCE ON COLONIZATION.

Encouragements to African Colonization, drawn from the success of the colony of Sierra Leone; an extract from a speech delivered by William Wilberforce, at the Sixteenth Anniversary Meeling of the British African Institution, May 10th, 1822.

Let us keep in mind the obstacles which have been surmounted in Eng. land, and thence infer the probable success which will ultimately crown our efforts in other countries. Let it be recollected, also, that but a few years ago the colony of Sierra Leone used to be pointed at exultingly by the enemies of Abolition, as proving how visionary was the attempt to raise in the scale of being; a race who were intended to be "hewers of wood and drawers of water," and who were unfit for any higher purposes than to be the slaves of civilized communities? But what is now the state of that colony? Does it not exhibit in a most surprising degree, considering the recent date of its establishment, the blessed effects, on the African character, of the communication of the principle of British liberty, and the Christian religion. Those who were discouraged during the early disasters of that colony, had overlooked the difficulties which never fail to attend colonization, even under the most favorable circumstances. If we look at the history of colonization on the other side of the Atlantic, we shall see. this in the case of Virginia; a colony set on foot, not by weak projectors, but undertaken by the greatest and wisest men,-suggested by Lord Bacon; and partly executed by Sir Walter Raleigh.' Three times had that colony failed, and been successively renewed under these auspices. Three times had it been entirely deserted. Another effort however, a final experiment was made. Providence blessed the effort, and it succeeded.

No one could have anticipated the success we have met with at Sierra Leone. When we first formed that settlement we naturally looked forward to an early Abolition of the Slave Trade; but the Slave Trade was unfortunately continued for sixteen years after the colony had been planted, and it had also to struggle with all the difficulties of a maritime war; and with other calamities : yet with all these drawbacks from our just expectations, what is the present state of Sierra Leone? A sensible and impartial observer lately told me, that he never witnessed stronger manifestations of the influence of true religion and sound morality, than appeared in the case of the poor, ignorant, unenlightened savages rescued from the holds of Slave ships, and now settled at Sierra Leone. Such are the words of an eye-witness. That gallant officer in the British navy, Commodore Sir George Collier, expressed himself quite overcome with the appearance of piety which caracterized these people. “I have attended," he said, “places of religious worship all over the world, but never any where have I seen a greater degree of religious feeling than I saw displayed at their devotion, in Sierra Leone, by these poor Africans.” In the great operations of nature, though her momentous impulse is unerring, still the progress is often slow. In like manner, in our great work, a rapid acceleration is hardly to be expected. But still we have made great advances: we have, it is true, our moments of discouragement: nevertheless, we have every reason to hope; none to despair. Let us proceed confident

ly and steadily to the attainment of the end of our labors. We are some. thing in the situation of travellers in the Andes, who, though they have continually to experience fresh obstructions, though they see "Alps on Alps rise,” yet still ascend, supported by the triumph of hourly conquering their difficulties. They have to climb mountain heights; but looking upwards towards the summit, their path is sometimes cheered by seeing it enlightened by the solar rays, thus beckoning them forward as it were with new hopes, and inspiring them with fresh courage, till at length they reach the termination of their toilsome march. Have we not a similar solace to cheer our steps? Do we not feel that we are ascending a great moral elevation? And do we not see, when we turn our eyes to the summit, that

“Eternal sunshine settles on its head?”

[From the Western Luminary, (Lexington Ky.) May 14.]

AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. · This Society is progressing with its plan of effecting a loan of fifty thousand dollars, in sums not less than one hundred dollars, for which scrip is to be issued, bearing interest at six per cent. per annum. The principal and interest are to be reimbursed in twelve years. And to insure this, the Managers have provided and pledged six thousand dollars annually, as a sinking fund. The plan appears to us entirely practicable. Notwithstanding the outcry raised against this benevolent institution from certain quarters, we cannot but believe its hold on the affections of the community is sufficiently strong, not only to insure the success of this plan for relieving it from its present pecuniary embarrassment, but also to insure its future permanent prosperity.

This noble institution has accomplished and is still accomplishing too much in the great cause in which it is enlisted, to permit the idea to be for à moment entertained, that its services can be dispensed with. If some of its former friends think they can operate more efficiently in meliorating the condition of our colored population, and promoting the best interests of the country with reference to that class, by other means, why let them do so. We have no quarrel with such for not thinking with us. We ourselves belong to the Gradual Emancipation Society formed in this state a few months since; but we never dreamed that becoming a member of that Society was to be regarded as an acknowledgment that we had become hostile to the American Colonization Society. Our view was then, and still is, that they are kindred institutions, aiming at the promotion of the same grand object. Why should they not harmonize? Why should they not act in concert. Admit the fact contended for by some, that the American Colonization Society is inadequate to remove the deadly evils under which the country is groaning in consequence of slavery? Does that furnish a rational argument in favor of hostility to that Society, or even a withdrawal from its support? We have no idea that the American Board of Commissioners or the Western Foreign Missionary Society can, separately or com. bined, ever supply the demands from the heathen world for missionaries, yet what man in his senses would make that a ground of loss of confidence in these noble institutions, and withdrawal of support from them?

True, the American Colonization Society may never remove all our colored population. But has it not removed a number, and elevated them

from a state of almost hopeless degradation to the immunities and enjoy. ments of freemen? Has it not proved a noble pioneer in this sublime enterprise? And above all, is it not exerting a regenerating influence on abused and deeply injured, benighted Africa, the value of which the records of eternity are alone adequate to unfold, and which entitle it to the affectionate regards and good wishes of every benevolent heart? Let those then who are permitting their affections to be alienated from this great and comprehensive scheme of benevolence, because the financial concerns of the Society have been negligently managed, or because they suppose it inadequate to do all that is desirable with regard to our colored population, act not hastily or from a superficial view of the subject.

FROM LIBERIA.

The subjoined letter is from Beverley Wilson, formerly of Norfolk. The Editors of the Norfolk Herald state that the writer is well known to many citizens in Norfolk, as a man of correct moral deportment, and industrious habits. "Though comfortably situated here, and partaking of the prejudice which so unaccountably prevails among the coloured population against the Colony, he nevertheless had the good sense to discern that a lasting home, and a foundation of future peace and independence for his family were only to be obtained on the shores of Liberia; and with a view of satisfying himself respecting the actual condition and circumstances of the country, of which he had heard so many contradictory accounts, he determined to visit it, and judge for himself; intending, if he liked it, to move his family thither. His report, therefore, may be received as the testimony of an honest and impartial witness.

The letter is dated Monrovia, March 4. The emigrants that went out in the Jupiter had all had the fever, of which four had died, viz: one woman of 75, two children under 12, and the wife of the Rev. Mr. Wright. The rest were all convalescent.

"I am not prepared (says the writer,) to tell you much about the distant parts of Africa at this time; as far as I have seen, I am well pleased. Monrovia is improving very fast; the town contains two hundred and twenty dwelling houses, besides stores and other buildings; there are about ten warehouses built of stone, and a number of their dwellings have stone basement stories, and are whitewashed inside and out; some are neatly finished.

“There are many vessels on the coast, which are going out and coming in almost every day. We have also many foreign vessels here. The harbor has not been clear since I arrived.

“We have fruit in abundance, and the varieties too numerous for me to mention at this time.

“We have also, horses, cattle, hogs, sheep, goats, jacks, and all kinds of poultry that we have at home.

“The fish are very fine; I have seen them weigh 186 pounds. Porgeys, mullets, and sunfish are very plenty.

“I have been told by some who are acquainted with farming, that the land is as good as ary in America.

“We have two Sabbath Schools in Monrovia, and an every day school for male and fe. male pupils. I have seen at the Methodist Sabbath School, about one hundred children. We have also Sabbath Schools at Grand Bassa, about one hundred miles from Monrovia, at Millsburg and Caldwell; and have established three others among the natives.

Since I arrived, we have purchased land'on Junk river, which is good for farming, and the water abounding with excellent fish and oysters

“We have a number of the different tribes to visit us from the interior; I have seen them from as far as Arabia. I have also seen the Mahomedan priests in the Colony; they read and write, and are anxious to converse on the Scriptures. They ask many interesting questions.

"I believe this bids fair for a good country. We only want means for the people who are sent here unprepared for farming or any thing else. I have seen the sugar cane and! coffee tree, both very thriving."

[From Zion's Herald.] The following letter, from our former associate in conducting the affairs of the Herald, cannot fail of being read with feelings of solemn interest:

MONROVIA, WEST AFRICA, FEB. 14, 1834. VERY DEAR BROTHER:—Were it not that I feel my heart most tenderly attached to you from a long and intimate acquaintance, and from having been a sharer in the same arduous toils that now engage your constant attention, I should not be induced to resist the lassitude and excessive weakness I feel, and resolve upon writing you a letter. But I believe you will rejoice to hear from me, even if I can furnish you but a scrawl.

Our passage here, though extended to fifty-four days, was exceedingly pleasant; and nothing could exceed the attentions of Capt Knapp, who endeared himself to us all. We first heard the welcome cry of “Land, ho!" on the morning of Dec. 30th, which proved to be Grand Cape Mount, about fifty miles north of Cape Mesurado. A calm prevented our reaching Monrovia until the next day, when at 3 o'clock we dropped anchor in Monrovia harbor. By reason of a bar at the entrance of the river upon which the town is situated, vessels are obliged to lie off at some distance: therefore we did not land until the next day. So I spent the "watch-nightin rather a different way than usual, for want of an opportunity to spend it otherwise-I set upon deck, as it was a lovely evening, until midnight gazing upon the surrounding scenery, and listening to the loud dashing of the sea against the rocks which compose Cape Mesurado, and to the song of the natives upon the adjacent beach. Indiscribable were my emotions that evening, and the next morning, as we first stepped upon the soil of Africa. We stood now in a land which engaged our thoughts, feelings, prayers, our alla land for which the prayers of thousands were going up to the throne of God-a land where death seemed to have taken his stand, saying to the mis. sionary, “I have met thee, and thou art mine,”-and knowing not what was before us, a thousand conflicting sensations awoke and died away in our bosoms.

Our first business was to prepare for our future residence; and a few days only passed away before we were located in the “mission house," purchased by Br. Cox, and the same in which his spirit took its upward flight. The room in which he died, remained as he left it. We proceeded immediately to look after the affairs of the church, &c.-attended conference, and transacted other important business, connected with the interests of the mission. I had been on shore but two weeks when I was seized with the fever—the first of the family-sister Farrington the next day—Mrs. Wright, sister Spaulding, and B. Spaulding, successively-Br. S. has been confined to his bed six days at this date, and seems doing well. I was confined to my bed twenty days, unable to rise without assistance, and then I almost invariably fainted away. But, alas! my dear companion has been taken from me!-yes, Phebe is no more! O my brother-O my brother-father-friend -what a stroke is this! what a cup for me to drink in my sickness. I cannot-I am unable to recount here the closing scene of her life, I must refer you to my letter to the Secretary of the Missionary Society. Prostrated with the fever, I could not so much as follow her remains to the tomb I could only take one lingering, tearful look at the slow and silent procession, as it moved to the resting place of the dead. But she rests with God.

I find myself recovering now, and am able to walk at a distance of four or five rods in the cool of the day, Sister S. and sister F. are doing well. Nothing can exceed the faithfulness and attention of Dr. Todsen during our sickness.

I cannot describe the fever. It is a singular disease, attacking different individuals with very different degrees of severity-some are confined but a few days--others are sick only every other day, while again some are at once prostrated for weeks; and others experience occasionally attacks for months. In severe attacks, the pain in the head and back, (always the premonitory syınptoms, and the attendants of the fever,) beggars description. The patient is generally better every other day; and is left at last with but the strength of an infant. My attack was a severe one; and the fever is bad enough, but does not seem to me so horrid as has been represented. But three of the emigrants who came out in the Jupiter have died; one an old woman of 80 or upwards-one, a little girl, of the feverand a child of the lock-jaw.

But, by this time, you are ready to say, tell me something about the colony. This I should be glad to do, much more fully than I am able. With the location of Monrovia, I am pleased, save that but little can ever be done in agriculture, as the whole Cape seems to be a rock. Yet much more can be done in respect to cultivation than has been accomplished. If the individuals residing here had the enterprize of a Yankee farmer, many a now barren spot, would become a blooming garden. To secure the prosperity of the colony, there is evidently too great a rage for trade--which occasions a neglect of education, a want of public spirit in relation to improvements, &c., with many other evils. There has unquestionably harm resulted to the Colony heretofore, from sending out improper materials. Too many have been sent here, who have no other idea of freedom, than that it is a release from all necessity of labor. Hence they remain indolent and poor. There

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